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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1976

W.E. BATTEN

This review aims to present a speciality to the general documentationalist. It will contain too little chemistry for the chemist, and too little documentation for the…

Abstract

This review aims to present a speciality to the general documentationalist. It will contain too little chemistry for the chemist, and too little documentation for the documentalist. A reviewer cannot win!

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2011

Lucio Baccaro

Purpose – Ascertaining the extent to which the generalized decline in union density, as well as the erosion in centralized bargaining structures and developments in other…

Abstract

Purpose – Ascertaining the extent to which the generalized decline in union density, as well as the erosion in centralized bargaining structures and developments in other labor institutions, have contributed to rising within-country inequality.

Methodology – Econometric analysis of a newly developed dataset combining information on industrial relations and labor law, various dimensions of globalization, and controls for demand and supply of skilled labor for 51 Advanced, Central and Eastern European, Latin American, and Asian countries from the late 1980s to the early 2000s, followed by an analysis of 16 advanced countries over a longer time frame (from the late 1970s to the early 2000s).

Findings – In contrast to previous research, which finds labor institutions to be important determinants of more egalitarian wage or income distributions, the chapter finds that trade unionism and collective bargaining are no longer significantly associated with within-country inequality, except in the Central and Eastern European countries. These findings are interpreted as the result of trade unionism operating under more stringent structural constraints than in the past, partly as a result of globalization trends. In addition, despite much talk about welfare state crisis, welfare states, historically the result of labor's power and mobilization capacity, still play an important redistributive role, at least in advanced countries.

Practical implications – Union attempts at equalizing incomes by compressing market earnings seem ineffective and impractical in the current day and age. Unions should seek to increase the workers’ skill levels and promote an egalitarian transformation of the workplace. This type of “supply-side” egalitarianism is not a new strategy for unions, but is very much embedded in the unions’ DNA.

Details

Comparing European Workers Part B: Policies and Institutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-931-9

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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Xiao-Long Gan, Rui-Dong Chang, Craig Langston and Tao Wen

The purpose of this paper is to identify the interactions of factors impacting the widespread adoption of prefabricated building technologies and the intervention…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the interactions of factors impacting the widespread adoption of prefabricated building technologies and the intervention strategies to facilitate the development of prefabrication based on fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs).

Design/methodology/approach

Through in-depth interviews with six stakeholder groups, namely, the government, developers, designers, contractors, manufacturers and researchers, 13 critical factors were identified and used to construct stakeholder-grouped FCMs, which were further aggregated into a collective FCM. The complexity and density of the collective FCM and the centrality of factors in the FCM were examined. Subsequently, a series of “what-if” simulations of the collective FCM were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of different interventions in promoting prefabrication.

Findings

The results show that three factors including market demand, cost, and policies and regulations have been mentioned by all stakeholder groups. However, these factors were ranked differently by stakeholder groups, implying that different stakeholder groups perceive the barriers to prefabricated building technologies differently. FCM simulations show that strengthening policies and regulations yield the strongest overall effect stimulating prefabrication, alleviating the organizational and environmental barriers more than the technological barriers, while improving the knowledge and expertise alleviate the technological barriers more. These measures need to be accompanied by other approaches, such as reducing cost and improving quality.

Research limitations/implications

It is a tough task to promote prefabrication as it is affected by numerous barriers with complex interactions, which have been overlooked by previous studies. This study clearly shows which strategy could tackle which barriers to prefabrication through the FCM simulations. This provides valuable references for the enterprises’ decision making and the governments’ policy making to facilitate the diffusion of prefabricated building technologies.

Originality/value

Few studies aim to analyze the interactions among the barriers to prefabrication, while this study specifically investigates this issue by illustrating the complex interactions using FCMs. Few studies also aim to identify the intervention strategies promoting prefabrication based on a quantitative approach, while this study employs FCM simulations to directly simulate the effectiveness of different strategies to facilitate prefabrication in a quantitative manner.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2020

María Inés Stimolo and Marcela Porporato

Cost behaviour literature is expanding its reach beyond developed economies; however, there is limited knowledge about its causes in emerging economies. This is an…

Abstract

Purpose

Cost behaviour literature is expanding its reach beyond developed economies; however, there is limited knowledge about its causes in emerging economies. This is an exploratory study of sticky costs behaviour determinants in Argentina, a country with periodic political and economic turbulence. The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of GDP, asset intensity, industry and cost type in an inflationary context.

Design/methodology/approach

Anderson et al. (2003) empirical regression (ABJ model) is replicated in Argentina with 667 observations from 96 firms between the years 2004 and 2012. It uses panel data and variables are defined as change rates between two periods. The sample excludes financial and insurance firms. It tests if sticky cost behaviour changes in periods of macroeconomic deceleration, or in firms belonging to industries with different asset intensity levels, or among different cost types.

Findings

The analysis shows that costs are sticky in Argentina, where a superb economic outlook is required to delay cutting resources or increasing costs. Cost behaviour is affected by social and cultural factors, such as labour inflexibility driven by powerful unions and not by protective employment laws, asset intensity (industry) and macroeconomic environment. Results suggest that costs are sticky for aggregate samples, but not for all subsamples.

Practical implications

Administrative costs are sticky when GDP grows; but when growth declines, managers or firms do not delay cost cutting actions. Some subsamples are extreme cases of stickiness while others are anti-sticky, casting some doubt on the usefulness of sticky costs empirical tests applied to country-wide samples. Careful selection of observations for sticky costs studies in emerging economies is critical.

Originality/value

Evidence from previous studies show that on average costs are remarkably sticky in Argentina; this study shows that cost reduction activities occur faster but are not persistent enough to change the aggregated long-term results of cost stickiness in the presence of moderate to high inflation. The study contributes to the literature by suggesting that observations used in sticky costs studies from emerging economies might be mainly from positive macroeconomic environments, might have skewed results due to extreme cases of stickiness or might be distorted by inflation.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Kathrin Knautz and Wolfgang G. Stock

The object of this empirical research study is emotion, as depicted and aroused in videos. This paper seeks to answer the questions: Are users able to index such emotions…

Abstract

Purpose

The object of this empirical research study is emotion, as depicted and aroused in videos. This paper seeks to answer the questions: Are users able to index such emotions consistently? Are the users' votes usable for emotional video retrieval?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors worked with a controlled vocabulary for nine basic emotions (love, happiness, fun, surprise, desire, sadness, anger, disgust and fear), a slide control for adjusting the emotions' intensity, and the approach of broad folksonomies. Different users tagged the same videos. The test persons had the task of indexing the emotions of 20 videos (reprocessed clips from YouTube). The authors distinguished between emotions which were depicted in the video and those that were evoked in the user. Data were received from 776 participants and a total of 279,360 slide control values were analyzed.

Findings

The consistency of the users' votes is very high; the tag distributions for the particular videos' emotions are stable. The final shape of the distributions will be reached by the tagging activities of only very few users (less than 100). By applying the approach of power tags it is possible to separate the pivotal emotions of every document – if indeed there is any feeling at all.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first steps in the new research area of emotional information retrieval (EmIR). To the authors' knowledge, it is the first research project into the collective indexing of emotions in videos.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2007

Ranjan Ganguli, Beatrix Jehnert, Jens Wolfram and Peter Voersmann

To investigate the use of centre of gravity location on reducing cyclic pitch control for helicopter UAV's (unmanned air vehicles) and MAV's (micro air vehicles). Low…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the use of centre of gravity location on reducing cyclic pitch control for helicopter UAV's (unmanned air vehicles) and MAV's (micro air vehicles). Low cyclic pitch is a necessity to implement the swashplateless rotor concept using trailing edge flaps or active twist using current generation low authority piezoceramic actuators.

Design/methodology/approach

An aeroelastic analysis of the helicopter rotor with elastic blades is used to perform parametric and sensitivity studies of the effects of longitudinal and lateral center of gravity (cg) movements on the main rotor cyclic pitch. An optimization approach is then used to find cg locations which reduce the cyclic pitch at a given forward speed.

Findings

It is found that the longitudinal cyclic pitch and lateral cyclic pitch can be driven to zero at a given forward speed by shifting the cg forward and to the port side, respectively. There also exist pairs of numbers for the longitudinal and lateral cg locations which drive both the cyclic pitch components to zero at a given forward speed. Based on these results, a compromise optimal cg location is obtained such that the cyclic pitch is bounded within ±5° for a BO105 helicopter rotor.

Originality/value

The reduction in the cyclic pitch due to helicopter cg location is found to significantly reduce the maximum magnitudes of the control angles in flight, facilitating the swashplateless rotor concept. In addition, the existence of cg locations which drive the cyclic pitches to zero allows for the use of active cg movement as a way to replace the cyclic pitch control for helicopter MAV's.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1974

Richard R. Centing

There is not enough space in this introduction to present a definitive analysis of the word serial, or even of the qualification of the term for this column, reference…

Abstract

There is not enough space in this introduction to present a definitive analysis of the word serial, or even of the qualification of the term for this column, reference serial, and I would refer all such questions to the monographs treating the subject of serial bibliography. The purpose of this column simply is to review abstracting services, indexes, digests, serial bibliographies, loose‐leaf updating services, yearbooks, reviewing services, and annual guides and directories which are issued on a continuing basis for reference uses. Serials to be generally excluded from review in “Reference Serials” include monographic series, encyclopedic sets, proceedings, magazines and government publications, all of which are either treated elsewhere in RSR or other journals of the profession. There is no clear‐cut division that will define the coverage of this column since some series like annual reviews, which collect papers on a specific topic, deserve to be treated as reference serials, and some magazines are so highly specialized that they are in essence abstracts and indexes.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1978

Arthur Antony

The year 1977 was the first in the tenth collective period (1977‐1981) for Chemical Abstracts. Thus during that year the important and very voluminous Tenth Collective

Abstract

The year 1977 was the first in the tenth collective period (1977‐1981) for Chemical Abstracts. Thus during that year the important and very voluminous Tenth Collective Index began to appear on library shelves, but as this review is being written in 1978 there are still volumes of the formula and chemical substance indexes that have to be added. Librarians will have recently received two Index Guides: one as part of the Ninth Collective Index, and the other as the first Index Guide for the tenth collective period ‐ to be supplemented annually, and finally superseded by the Index Guide which appears as part of the Tenth Collective Index.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1977

Arthur Antony

The science of chemistry is almost unique among the sciences in being blessed with a single, thoroughly comprehensive key to the literature. That key, of course, is…

Abstract

The science of chemistry is almost unique among the sciences in being blessed with a single, thoroughly comprehensive key to the literature. That key, of course, is Chemical Abstracts. Hence, when there is a change in Chemical Abstracts format or indexing policy, or when Chemical Abstracts Service introduces a new product, science librarians who serve any part of the chemical community are professionally affected by these changes. This was evident when, in 1972, at the beginning of the ninth collective period for Chemical Abstracts, a number of new features were introduced. Perhaps the most obvious was the break‐up of the subject index into two parts — the general subject index and the chemical substance index. The over‐hauling of Chemical Abstracts nomenclature (particularly for organic compounds) at that same time was a more subtle, but probably also a more disorienting break with the past. The nomenclature changes were needed, however, and have been discussed and defended in an article by Donaldson and others.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1956

E.J. CRANE

Chemical Abstracts, about to enter its fiftieth year, is at a turning point. Heretofore this journal has been produced without the expectation that subscription income…

Abstract

Chemical Abstracts, about to enter its fiftieth year, is at a turning point. Heretofore this journal has been produced without the expectation that subscription income would always meet expenses. Many times this income has been insufficient. Subsidies have balanced budgets. Subscribers have received a bargain. That Chemical Abstracts should thoroughly report and record each year's new chemical information has always been recognized. With adherence to this purpose, Chemical Abstracts has not been curtailed for lack of self‐earned income.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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