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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Isabella Peters and Wolfgang G. Stock

Many Web 2.0 services (including Library 2.0 catalogs) make use of folksonomies. The purpose of this paper is to cut off all tags in the long tail of a document‐specific…

Abstract

Purpose

Many Web 2.0 services (including Library 2.0 catalogs) make use of folksonomies. The purpose of this paper is to cut off all tags in the long tail of a document‐specific tag distribution. The remaining tags at the beginning of a tag distribution are considered power tags and form a new, additional search option in information retrieval systems.

Design/methodology/approach

In a theoretical approach the paper discusses document‐specific tag distributions (power law and inverse‐logistic shape), the development of such distributions (Yule‐Simon process and shuffling theory) and introduces search tags (besides the well‐known index tags) as a possibility for generating tag distributions.

Findings

Search tags are compatible with broad and narrow folksonomies and with all knowledge organization systems (e.g. classification systems and thesauri), while index tags are only applicable in broad folksonomies. Based on these findings, the paper presents a sketch of an algorithm for mining and processing power tags in information retrieval systems.

Research limitations/implications

This conceptual approach is in need of empirical evaluation in a concrete retrieval system.

Practical implications

Power tags are a new search option for retrieval systems to limit the amount of hits.

Originality/value

The paper introduces power tags as a means for enhancing the precision of search results in information retrieval systems that apply folksonomies, e.g. catalogs in Library 2.0 environments.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 August 2014

Yunseon Choi

This chapter aims to discuss the issues associated with social indexing as a solution to the challenges of current information organization systems by investigating the…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter aims to discuss the issues associated with social indexing as a solution to the challenges of current information organization systems by investigating the quality and efficacy of social indexing.

Design/methodology/approach

The chapter focuses on the study which compared indexing similarity between two professional groups and also compared social tagging and professional indexing. The study employed the method of the modified vector-based Indexing Consistency Density (ICD) with three different similarity measures: cosine similarity, dot product similarity, and Euclidean distance metric.

Findings

The investigation of social indexing in comparison of professional indexing demonstrates that social tags are more accurate descriptions of resources and reflection of more current terminology than controlled vocabulary. Through the characteristics of social tagging discussed in this chapter, we have a clearer understanding of the extent to which social indexing can be used to replace and improve upon professional indexing.

Research limitations/implications

As investment in professionally developed web directories diminishes, it becomes even more critical to understand the characteristics of social tagging and to obtain benefit from it. In future research, the examination of subjective tags needs to be conducted. A survey or user study on tagging behavior also would help to extend understanding of social indexing practices.

Details

New Directions in Information Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-559-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Tom Steele

This paper aims to examine the social phenomenon known as tagging and its use in libraries' online catalogs, discussing folksonomies, social bookmarking, and tagging web…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the social phenomenon known as tagging and its use in libraries' online catalogs, discussing folksonomies, social bookmarking, and tagging web sites. The paper also seeks to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a controlled vocabulary such as the Library of Congress Subject Headings, and how tagging can assist the LCSH in information retrieval. LibraryThing and the University of Pennsylvania's PennTags are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Review of recent literature in print and online, as well as browsing Library OPACs using tagging, was the basis for the paper.

Findings

The paper concludes that access to information is the main purpose of cataloging, and use of both traditional methods of cataloging as well as interactive methods such as tagging is a valid method for reaching library users of the future.

Originality/value

The paper lists many problems and concerns of which to be aware, if a library should choose to adopt tagging for their catalog. It looks at the options of using outside web sites to provide the tags as well as creating tagging systems on the library's web site itself. The focus of the paper is how libraries can use tagging, as opposed to the phenomenon of tagging itself, as well as a discussion of how tagging compares with controlled vocabularies.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Marija Petek

Images can be seen in a different way by different users. The purpose of this paper is to examine how users describe images and to ascertain whether differences exist…

Abstract

Purpose

Images can be seen in a different way by different users. The purpose of this paper is to examine how users describe images and to ascertain whether differences exist between users and librarians in creating metadata on images.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper compares metadata on digital images generated by users to metadata generated by librarians. A sample of images taken from Digital Library of Slovenia and Flickr is presented to students to assign tags. The tags are grouped into categories and classes of attributes and compared to keywords added by Slovene librarians and to tags created by Flickr visitors.

Findings

The number of assigned tags differs greatly among survey participants, librarians and Flickr users, the participants being the most productive. A majority of tags reflect perceptual attributes and tagging is mostly done for personal benefit. The matching rate for all images is 41.4 percent; matching is a little higher with the Flickr images.

Practical implications

Social tagging can be used to develop control vocabularies reflecting users' language and to provide access to digital images.

Originality/value

The paper presents quantitative data on image attributes used by users in describing images.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Emma Angus, Mike Thelwall and David Stuart

The purpose of this research is to investigate general patterns of tag usage and determines the usefulness of the tags used within university image groups to the wider…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate general patterns of tag usage and determines the usefulness of the tags used within university image groups to the wider Flickr community. There has been a significant rise in the use of Web 2.0 social network web sites and online applications in recent years. One of the most popular is Flickr, an online image management application.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a webometric data collection, classification and informetric analysis.

Findings

The results show that members of university image groups tend to tag in a manner that is of use to users of the system as a whole rather than merely for the tag creator.

Originality/value

This paper gives a valuable insight into the tagging practices of image groups in Flickr.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2018

Christopher Bruhn and Sue Yeon Syn

The purpose of this paper is to use ideas drawn from two founders of American pragmatism, William James and Charles Sanders Peirce, in order to propose a philosophical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use ideas drawn from two founders of American pragmatism, William James and Charles Sanders Peirce, in order to propose a philosophical foundation that supports the value of collaborative tagging and reinforces the structure and goals of the Semantic Web.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a close analysis of key literature by James and Peirce to answer recent calls for a philosophy of the Web and to respond to research in the LIS literature that has assessed the value and limitations of folksonomy. Moreover, pragmatic views are applied to illustrate the relationships among collaborative tagging, linked data, and the Semantic Web.

Findings

With a philosophical foundation in place, the study highlights the value of the minority tags that fall within the so-called “long tail” of the power law graph, and the importance of granting sufficient time for the full value of folksonomy to be revealed. The discussion goes further to explore how “collaborative tagging” could evolve into “collaborative knowledge” in the form of linked data. Specifically, Peirce’s triadic architectonic is shown to foster an understanding of the construction of linked data through the functional requirements for bibliographic records entity-relation model and resource description framework triples, and James’s image of the multiverse anticipates the goals Tim Berners-Lee has articulated for the Semantic Web.

Originality/value

This study is unique in using Jamesian and Peircean thinking to argue for the value of folksonomy and to suggest implications for the Semantic Web.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2020

Wei Yu and Junpeng Chen

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of enriching the library subject headings with folksonomy for enhancing the visibility and usability of the library…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of enriching the library subject headings with folksonomy for enhancing the visibility and usability of the library subject headings.

Design/methodology/approach

The WorldCat-million data set and SocialBM0311 are preprocessing and over 210,000 library catalog records and 124,482 non-repeating tags were adopted to construct the matrix to observe the semantic relation between library subject headings and folksonomy. The proposed system is compared with the state-of-the-art methods and the parameters are fixed to obtain effective performance.

Findings

The results demonstrate that by integrating different semantic relations from library subject headings and folksonomy, the system’s performance can be improved compared to the benchmark methods. The evaluation results also show that the folksonomy can enrich library subject headings through the semantic relationship.

Originality/value

The proposed method simultaneous weighted matrix factorization can integrate the semantic relation from the library subject headings and folksonomy into one semantic space. The observation of the semantic relation between library subject headings and social tags from folksonomy can help enriching the library subject headings and improving the visibility of the library subject headings.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Kathrin Knautz and Wolfgang G. Stock

The object of this empirical research study is emotion, as depicted and aroused in videos. This paper seeks to answer the questions: Are users able to index such emotions…

Abstract

Purpose

The object of this empirical research study is emotion, as depicted and aroused in videos. This paper seeks to answer the questions: Are users able to index such emotions consistently? Are the users' votes usable for emotional video retrieval?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors worked with a controlled vocabulary for nine basic emotions (love, happiness, fun, surprise, desire, sadness, anger, disgust and fear), a slide control for adjusting the emotions' intensity, and the approach of broad folksonomies. Different users tagged the same videos. The test persons had the task of indexing the emotions of 20 videos (reprocessed clips from YouTube). The authors distinguished between emotions which were depicted in the video and those that were evoked in the user. Data were received from 776 participants and a total of 279,360 slide control values were analyzed.

Findings

The consistency of the users' votes is very high; the tag distributions for the particular videos' emotions are stable. The final shape of the distributions will be reached by the tagging activities of only very few users (less than 100). By applying the approach of power tags it is possible to separate the pivotal emotions of every document – if indeed there is any feeling at all.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first steps in the new research area of emotional information retrieval (EmIR). To the authors' knowledge, it is the first research project into the collective indexing of emotions in videos.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2012

Marit Kristine Ådland and Marianne Lykke

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore whether and how social tagging can be useful in an information web site for cancer patients and their relatives.

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore whether and how social tagging can be useful in an information web site for cancer patients and their relatives.

Methodology/approach – Three studies have been carried out in order to investigate the research questions. First, we reviewed and analyzed literature about cancer patients’ information needs and seeking behavior, and about social tagging and patient terminology. Second, we analyzed tags applied to blog postings at Blogomkraeft.dk, a blog site at the Danish information web site Cancer.dk. The tags were compared with the formal browsing structure of Cancer.dk. Results from the two studies were used to develop a prototype for social tagging at Cancer.dk. Thus third, we evaluated the prototype in a usability study.

Findings – We found that tags have the potential to describe and provide access to web site content from the users’ perspective and language use. Social tags may be a means to bridge between scientific viewpoints and terminology and everyday problems and vocabulary. Tags at Blogomkraeft.dk are mainly factual, often detailed, and do not cover as many functions as tags in more general bookmarking systems. An important finding is that some tags seemed to add to and supplement the content instead of factually describing the content of a blog posting. The usability test showed that our test persons liked the tagging feature.

Social implications – Tagging features give the public an opportunity to apply their own terms to documents, reflecting their own model of the current topic. Tags may furthermore function as colloquial lead-in terms from users’ search formulations at search engines such as Google to the domain-specific, tailored cancer web site.

Originality/value – Unlike most research on social tagging so far, we investigate tagging in a domain-specific setting, how tags can improve the interaction and communication between layman users and domain experts in an information web site within health care.

Details

Social Information Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-833-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2013

Shawne Miksa

This is an attempt to introduce proactive changes when creating and providing intellectual access in order to convince catalogers to become more social catalogers then…

Abstract

Purpose

This is an attempt to introduce proactive changes when creating and providing intellectual access in order to convince catalogers to become more social catalogers then they have ever been in the past.

Approach

Through a brief review and analysis of relevant literature a definition of social cataloging and social cataloger is given.

Findings

User contributed content to library catalogs affords informational professionals the opportunity to see directly the users’ perceptions of the usefulness and about-ness of information resources. This is a form of social cataloging especially from the perspective of the information professional seeking to organize information to support knowledge discovery and access.

Implications

The user and the cataloger exercise their voice as to what the information resources are about, which in essence is interpreting the intentions of the creator of the resources, how the resource is related to other resources, and perhaps even how the resources can be, or have been, used. Depending on the type of library and information environment, the weight of the work may or may not fall equally on both user and cataloger.

Originality/value

New definitions of social cataloging and social cataloguing are offered and are linked back to Jesse Shera’s idea of social epistemology.

Details

New Directions in Information Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-559-3

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