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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Diana L. Summers and Emil W. Pływaczewski

The dynamics of drug use and trafficking in Poland have changed dramatically since the early 1990s. These changes include legal definitions of drug use, the actors…

Abstract

Purpose

The dynamics of drug use and trafficking in Poland have changed dramatically since the early 1990s. These changes include legal definitions of drug use, the actors involved in trafficking, and the types of drugs traversing the country. The Polish police force experienced two significant reforms in the 1990s and drug‐related legislation underwent significant reconstruction in 1997 and 2000, while drug trafficking operations continue to persist by organized criminal groups. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively investigate these police reforms and drug legislation developments since 1990, and empirically analyze the interaction effects of these reforms with drug trafficking arrests in Poland.

Design/methodology/approach

Officially reported annual data were tested using multivariate regression analyses.

Findings

The findings observed from this exploratory study suggest that both the police reforms and changes in drug‐related legislation positively affected the number of arrests for drug trafficking. Additionally, this study found support for an increase in efficiency of the policing model despite the recent decline in the strength of the police force. Interestingly, the number of police officers in the country had no effect on any of the variables.

Research limitations/implications

Quantitatively, the small number of observations poses limitations on the interpretation of the multivariate regression results. In addition, future research should include additional explanatory variables to achieve a greater comprehensive summary of the interaction effects of policing reforms and drug‐related legislation with drug trafficking arrests.

Practical implications

This paper illustrates the need for accurate and timely national‐level, systematically collected data on drug‐ and police‐related indicators that will allow for more inclusive and comprehensive analyses.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to empirically examine potential interaction effects of police reform and drug‐related legislation on drug trafficking arrests in Poland.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Lais Meneses Brasileiro Dourado and Benedikt Fischer

This paper aims to examine sentencing decisions for drug-trafficking offences in the criminal courts of the city of Recife to address a gap in quantitative research on drug

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine sentencing decisions for drug-trafficking offences in the criminal courts of the city of Recife to address a gap in quantitative research on drug sentencing and incarceration in Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

Using original data obtained from the Court of Justice for Pernambuco, the research used multivariate regression analysis to investigate the effect of case processing, offender, and offence characteristics on sentence length.

Findings

A key finding of the research is the influence of two legal factors on sentence length: admitting to a drug-trafficking offence and being categorized as “mitigated trafficking”. Results also indicate that first-time defendants were more likely to be categorized as mitigated trafficking, stressing the importance of criminal history on predicting sentencing outcomes. “Mitigated trafficking” is a distinct category of drug-trafficking created by the Drug Law nº. 11.343 (2006) to protect defendants considered novices in the illicit drug market from receiving longer imprisonment sentences.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that the policy strategy of having a legal distinction for a specific type of defendant appears to be effective in impacting sentence length for drug-trafficking convictions. Future research could explore how similar strategies could be adopted to influence sentencing for other vulnerable groups. However, focussing on a defendant records or prior convictions as an eligibility criterion could disproportionately impact defendants who are caught in a cycle of re-offending for socio-economic reasons or a need to finance a substance use disorder.

Originality/value

This research address a gap in quantitative sentencing research in Brazil and contributes to the broader literature by presenting results that are aligned with previous studies conducted in North America.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Peter Sproat

The article aims to describe the role of asset recovery in combating drug and people trafficking within the UK and the different means by which the proceeds of crime can…

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1054

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to describe the role of asset recovery in combating drug and people trafficking within the UK and the different means by which the proceeds of crime can be taken away from such organised criminals.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses official data on asset recovery to critically analyse both the policing of drug trafficking in the UK and the official discourse on the extent, value and costs to the country of the trafficking of women for sex by organised crime.

Findings

The article raises important questions about the credibility of the official estimates of the scale of drug trafficking by organised crime and/or the management and funding of those tasked with policing it within the UK.

Originality/value

The work provides either a more accurate guide on the extent, value and costs to the country of the trafficking of women for sex or a much needed antithesis to the official discourse on the topic.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Ivelaw L. Griffith

There are four main narcotics operations in the Caribbean: drug production; the consumption and abuse of drugs; drug trafficking; and money laundering. These have numerous…

Abstract

There are four main narcotics operations in the Caribbean: drug production; the consumption and abuse of drugs; drug trafficking; and money laundering. These have numerous effects, including arms trafficking, corruption, crime, and an adverse impact on tourism, an economic mainstay of several Caribbean nations. These operations and effects have implications for several aspects of political, socio‐economic, and security conduct in the region, including the area of governance. This article examines some of the connections involving arms trafficking, corruption and governance.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2011

Jennifer Fleetwood and Nayeli Urquiza Haas

This paper seeks to analyse the content and implications of resolution 52/1 of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the United Nations (UN) titled “Promoting international…

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787

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyse the content and implications of resolution 52/1 of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the United Nations (UN) titled “Promoting international cooperation in addressing the involvement of women and girls in drug trafficking, especially as couriers”.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on socio‐legal analysis and an extensive search of UN databases, the resolution is contextualised and the findings of the resulting report which examines the scale of women's participation in the global drug trade is summarised.

Findings

The article demonstrates that the data produced are unreliable as a measure of women's participation in the international drug trade.

Practical implications

It is argued that this resolution is weakened by lack of clarity about how gender ought to be mainstreamed in global drug control.

Originality/value

As the first resolution on women and girls' participation in the international drug trade, Resolution 52/1 is a significant step towards raising awareness and systematically accounting for their participation.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2007

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Michael Hancock

This paper assesses the significance and impact of the Criminal Justice Act 1993 and the Money Laundering Regulations in the context of previous legislation and examines…

Abstract

This paper assesses the significance and impact of the Criminal Justice Act 1993 and the Money Laundering Regulations in the context of previous legislation and examines the extent to which the law has been strengthened by the new legislation. It also highlights the major international initiatives which have been responsible for exposing the extent of the money‐laundering phenomenon and which have helped shape the present legislative framework. The banking and financial system is finding itself in the front line of the war being waged internationally against money launderers. Traditional concepts of banking secrecy are being undermined as governments struggle to preserve the integrity of the banking system. The war is on a vast scale. The Financial Action Task Force (created in 1989 by the seven major industrial nations and the President of the European Commission) estimated that the amount of money being laundered through the financial system was US$85bn per year. The extent of the problem was recognised in the International Narcotics Control Strategy Report for 1993 which found that eight of the world's major money‐Iaundering states are located in Europe. Europe has responded to the growing crisis in the financial sector with the Money Laundering Directive which was due to be fully implemented across the Community by 1st January, 1993. The directive, which applies to credit institutions and financial institutions, including Community‐based branches of non‐Community institutions, reflects a number of key international initiatives and attempts to harmonise the anti‐laundering legislation of the Member States, though with varied success. This paper outlines the directive and its antecedents, before tracing the considerable developments within the UK since the Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986, which marked the beginning of the Government's campaign to deprive criminals of the fruits of their crime, culminating in the Criminal Justice Act 1993 (CJA 1993). The secondary legislation is also analysed, in the form of the Money Laundering Regulations (the ‘Regulations’), which came into effect on 1st April, 1994. The CJA 1993 introduces and defines the ambit of the new money‐laundering offences, whilst the Regulations clarify the procedures which must be adopted by anyone carrying on ‘relevant financial business’. For the sake of brevity the focus has been only on the position in England and Wales, since Scotland and Northern Ireland are governed by different statutes.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Domitilla Vanni

This paper aims to analyse the fundamental principles of the main international conventions against use of drug and to verify if it would be preferable to let European…

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180

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the fundamental principles of the main international conventions against use of drug and to verify if it would be preferable to let European Member States adopt specific measures according to own needs at a national level.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses a comparative approach by examining the different national legislations in respect of the discipline of the international conventions for finding analogies and differences between them.

Findings

The research has discovered a wide variation in the criteria for triggering a legislative response and in the penalties for non-compliance. Nevertheless, there seems to be a trend towards countries focusing on penalising supply rather than possession of these substances.

Research limitations/implications

To maintain a common international level in fighting against the use and commerce of drug to enforce the effectiveness of national regulations.

Practical implications

The achievement of a high level of health protection, well-being and social cohesion to prevent and reduce drug use, dependence and drug-related damage to health and society.

Social implications

To ensure a high level of security for the general public by taking action against drug production, cross-border trafficking in drugs and the diversion of chemical precursors used in drug production, as well as by intensifying preventive action against drug-related crime through effective cooperation, embedded in a joint approach.

Originality/value

This is a fast-moving area of law, which continues to evolve for the different new substances being introduced in international drug traffic, so different solutions to the problem can be found by national legislators who need to be coordinated at an international level.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Allan Metz

Historically, Panama has always been “a place of transit.” While technically the isthmus formed part of Colombia in the nineteenth century, it was linked geopolitically to…

Abstract

Historically, Panama has always been “a place of transit.” While technically the isthmus formed part of Colombia in the nineteenth century, it was linked geopolitically to the United States soon after the California gold rush, beginning in the late 1840s. The first attempt at building a canal ended in failure in 1893 when disease and poor management forced Ferdinand de Lesseps to abandon the project. The U.S. undertaking to build the canal could only begin after Panama declared itself free and broke away from Colombia in 1903, with the support of the United States.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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