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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 1 July 1980

Carol Smart

Everyone understands what is meant by the term ‘industrial relations’ in a generalized way, but it seems that there is no formal definition which can be said to be…

Abstract

Everyone understands what is meant by the term ‘industrial relations’ in a generalized way, but it seems that there is no formal definition which can be said to be universally agreed. Several alternative definitions are analyzed in A. I. March's Dictionary of industrial relations: Bain & Woolven in their Bibliography of British industrial relations say ‘the subject of industrial relations is defined as the study of all aspects of job regulation—the process of making and administering the rules which regulate or control employment relationships’. Perhaps a simpler definition which appears in an older work may be preferred: J. H. Richardson in his Introduction to the study of industrial relations says ‘it is concerned with relations between the parties in industry, particularly with the determination of working conditions. No advantage would be gained in attempting a more precise definition of the boundaries, as there are considerable areas of “no man's land” with other subjects’.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

Ruth Friedman

The study of birth defects has increased in importance in recent years because the rate of infant mortality due to other causes (such as infection and nutritional disease…

Abstract

The study of birth defects has increased in importance in recent years because the rate of infant mortality due to other causes (such as infection and nutritional disease) has decreased more quickly than has the rate of deaths due to birth defects. Today, abnormalities are detected in approximately 3 percent of newborn humans, and twice as many prenatally acquired defects are found in children after infancy as are discovered at birth. In addition, many of the more than 500,000 miscarriages and stillbirths that occur each year in the United States are due to abnormal fetal development.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 22 July 2022

Ying Tao Chai and Ting-Kwei Wang

Defects in concrete surfaces are inevitably recurring during construction, which needs to be checked and accepted during construction and completion. Traditional manual…

Abstract

Purpose

Defects in concrete surfaces are inevitably recurring during construction, which needs to be checked and accepted during construction and completion. Traditional manual inspection of surface defects requires inspectors to judge, evaluate and make decisions, which requires sufficient experience and is time-consuming and labor-intensive, and the expertise cannot be effectively preserved and transferred. In addition, the evaluation standards of different inspectors are not identical, which may lead to cause discrepancies in inspection results. Although computer vision can achieve defect recognition, there is a gap between the low-level semantics acquired by computer vision and the high-level semantics that humans understand from images. Therefore, computer vision and ontology are combined to achieve intelligent evaluation and decision-making and to bridge the above gap.

Design/methodology/approach

Combining ontology and computer vision, this paper establishes an evaluation and decision-making framework for concrete surface quality. By establishing concrete surface quality ontology model and defect identification quantification model, ontology reasoning technology is used to realize concrete surface quality evaluation and decision-making.

Findings

Computer vision can identify and quantify defects, obtain low-level image semantics, and ontology can structurally express expert knowledge in the field of defects. This proposed framework can automatically identify and quantify defects, and infer the causes, responsibility, severity and repair methods of defects. Through case analysis of various scenarios, the proposed evaluation and decision-making framework is feasible.

Originality/value

This paper establishes an evaluation and decision-making framework for concrete surface quality, so as to improve the standardization and intelligence of surface defect inspection and potentially provide reusable knowledge for inspecting concrete surface quality. The research results in this paper can be used to detect the concrete surface quality, reduce the subjectivity of evaluation and improve the inspection efficiency. In addition, the proposed framework enriches the application scenarios of ontology and computer vision, and to a certain extent bridges the gap between the image features extracted by computer vision and the information that people obtain from images.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Jin Sun, Xiaobo Chen, Haihong Liao and Juntong Xi

The purpose of this paper is to propose a template‐based framework for nasal prosthesis fabrication using a 3D areal scanner and a CT scanner.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a template‐based framework for nasal prosthesis fabrication using a 3D areal scanner and a CT scanner.

Design/methodology/approach

Use of a self‐designed 3D areal scanner enables acquisition of accurate data describing the patient's face. Patients with nasal defects have no organization for reference, but the template‐based model construction method can ensure successful building of the outer surface of the nasal prosthesis. Since the areal scanner has some difficulties acquiring data for concave areas, preoperative CT data are used to provide concave information, enabling construction of the inner surface for the nasal prosthesis. The combined inner and outer surfaces are used to generate the completed nasal prosthesis.

Findings

The results showed that the nasal prosthesis fits the patient's appearance well. Clinical applications confirmed that this framework is attractive and has the potential desired nasal prosthesis in daily clinical practice.

Practical implications

The results of this study improve the fabrication accuracy of nasal prostheses. The construction and development technique employs a nasal digital library, 3D areal scanning data and CT scanning data. This technique facilitates fabrication of precise nasal prostheses while helping the patients predict the effect before the prosthesis is manufactured.

Originality/value

This template‐based framework has strong potential for clinical applications because of its advantages over other methods in terms of accuracy, speed, safety, and cost.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1975

SVEN HIRN, ELIN TÖRNUDD, SAMULI NUOTIO, ESKO HÄKLI, EEVA‐MAIJA TAMMEKANN and KEIJO PERÄLÄ

FINNISH ARCHITECTURE has won fame and honour. This applies to the best of it, of course, the achievements suitable for export and as a trade mark. Our world image tells…

Abstract

FINNISH ARCHITECTURE has won fame and honour. This applies to the best of it, of course, the achievements suitable for export and as a trade mark. Our world image tells nothing of our middling, ordinary buildings. Finland probably has just as many deficiently planned and poorly implemented monstrosities as most other countries. But it is probably characteristic that the end product is technically quite polished. The building regulations are exceptionally precise, partly because of our harsh climate, partly because of the bureaucratic tradition of our administrative machinery.

Details

New Library World, vol. 76 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1960

LOOKING BEFORE AND AFTER : BEFORE Opening, as we do, a new volume of THE LIBRARY WORLD, especially as with it we reach the venerable age of sixty‐one, does suggest…

Abstract

LOOKING BEFORE AND AFTER : BEFORE Opening, as we do, a new volume of THE LIBRARY WORLD, especially as with it we reach the venerable age of sixty‐one, does suggest retrospective and prospective view. The magazine is the oldest amongst independent library journals, though others existed before 1899 in different forms or under other titles than those by which they are known to‐day. When at the end of last century it was felt that utterances were needed about libraries, unfettered by uncritical allegiance to associations or coteries, librarianship was a vessel riding upon an official sea of complacency so far as its main organisation was concerned. It was in the first tide, so far as public libraries were concerned, of Carnegie gifts of buildings, not yet however at the full flood. The captains were men of the beginnings of the library voyage; who were still guided themselves by the methods and modes of the men who believed in libraries, yet feared what the public might do in its use of them. Hence the indicator, meant to show, as its name implies, what books were available, but even more to secure them from theft, and to preserve men and women from the violent mental reactions they would suffer from close contact with large numbers of books. There were rebels of course. Six years earlier James Duff Brown has turned his anvil shaped building in Clerkenwell into a safeguarded open access library in which he actually allowed people, properly vetted, to enter and handle their own property. This act of faith was a great one, because within a mile or so some 5,000 books had been lost from the Bishopgate Institute Library, which has open shelves, too, not “safeguarded”. Brown's “cave of library chaos” as a well‐known Chairman, who by one visit was convinced of its good sense and practicability, called it, focused the attention of scores of librarians—so much so that Brown had to beg them to keep away for about a year, so that the method might be better judged after sufficient trial. It also focused the attention of the inventors of the indicator, who, presumably, had more than a benevolent interest in its sales. So there was war against this threat and for several years this childish contention raged at conferences, in private conversations amongst library workers, and in letters to the press aimed to convict Brown and all his satellites of encouraging dishonesty, mental confusion and other maladies public. Hence Brown, L. Stanley Jast, William Fortune and others initiated this journal to teach librarians and library committees how libraries were to be run. That, in extreme brevity, is our genesis. For sixty years it has encouraged voices, new and old, orthodox or unorthodox, who had something to say, or could give a new face to old things, to use its pages. Brown was its first honorary Editor, and with some assistance in the later stages remained so for the thirteen years he had yet to live. Nearly every librarian of distinction in his day has at some time or other contributed to these pages. So much of our past may be said and we hope will be allowed.

Details

New Library World, vol. 62 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1946

W. BONSER

In the period between the two wars, Oxford and Cambridge and most of our provincial universities and colleges have either built new libraries or large additions to…

Abstract

In the period between the two wars, Oxford and Cambridge and most of our provincial universities and colleges have either built new libraries or large additions to existing ones. But the library of Birmingham University has remained—as has the university itself—in two sections which are 2½ miles apart. The main library, including the books of the Faculty of Arts, remain in the Edmund Street building (of 1880) in the City Centre, and are housed in a number of classrooms. The science and commerce books are at Edgbaston, and in premises which, when built in the first decade of this century, were quite inadequate both in design and in the accommodation provided.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Michael Y.L. Chew, Sheila Conejos and Jessie Sze Long Law

Nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings can potentially address the current surge in façade cleaning cost, maintenance and labour problems. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings can potentially address the current surge in façade cleaning cost, maintenance and labour problems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate potential maintainability issues and design challenges concerning the effective performance of TiO2 façade coatings’ hydrophilic properties, especially in tropical environments such as Singapore. This paper aims to establish a list of green maintainability design criteria to help minimise future TiO2 façade coating issues when this coating is applied on commercial buildings with concrete and stonemasonry façade materials.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-mode approach that includes a literature review, site investigation, instrumental case studies and expert interviews is used in this study.

Findings

TiO2 coatings help improve façade performance whilst offering environmental benefits to society. This study reports that green maintainability design criteria are vital requirements in designing sustainable buildings at the outset. The identified defects and issues will aid in ensuring the effectiveness of TiO2 application in building façades.

Originality/value

This study acts as a foundation for future researchers to strengthen this little researched area, serves as a useful guide in preventing possible TiO2 coating issues and promotes industry awareness of the use of TiO2 façade coatings.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1963

GUEST editor of this South African issue of THE LIBRARY WORLD is Hendrik M. Robinson, Director of Library Services, Transvaal Provincial Administration, Pretoria.

Abstract

GUEST editor of this South African issue of THE LIBRARY WORLD is Hendrik M. Robinson, Director of Library Services, Transvaal Provincial Administration, Pretoria.

Details

New Library World, vol. 64 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1930

IN this and subsequent numbers we are issuing an art supplement devoted to the subject of Library Architecture. Sheffield's new library system is the first to be dealt…

Abstract

IN this and subsequent numbers we are issuing an art supplement devoted to the subject of Library Architecture. Sheffield's new library system is the first to be dealt with, followed by Exeter, Dagenham, Croydon, Burnley, Hornsey, Bolton, Halifax, and others. The importance of library planning for the modern librarian cannot be overestimated, seeing the great need for remodelling old buildings and for providing new ones for new areas of population. The spread of population over the country is the most remarkable phenomenon of the age in which we live; there are now flourishing towns in places where ten years ago corn was growing. The old idea of one library in a town has given place to library provision which in some places approximates in its numbers of “agencies” to that which is frequent in America. So we get the need for many types of building, and hope to describe a number of them in this series.

Details

New Library World, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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