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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Chung-Shing Chan and Lawal M. Marafa

This chapter explores the concept of branding in a contemporary competitive arena of places. The multi-dimensional interpretations of places offer a variety of…

Abstract

This chapter explores the concept of branding in a contemporary competitive arena of places. The multi-dimensional interpretations of places offer a variety of possibilities to better understand the true essence of destination branding. One of the common interpretations of places is through the study of their images, as destination branding requires a thorough understanding of destination image. The important foundation and relation of destination image are specified and explained. The notion of destination branding has evolved from the fields of marketing and urban studies and has become a cross-disciplinary research area. Thus, the researchers explain that destination branding as well as ‘place branding’ are dynamic concepts that are being continuously being explored in academia for the benefit of practitioners in travel and tourism. This chapter suggests that the use of brand equity is also one of the frontier areas of study in ‘place branding’ as it emphasises the need to thematise destinations (e.g. for their historical heritage, cultural value, natural attractions, etc.) and places for residence (e.g. as green cities, creative cities, smart cities, etc.).

Details

The Branding of Tourist Destinations: Theoretical and Empirical Insights
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-373-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Yinghui Zhang, Euisoo Kim and Zunming Xing

Image congruence is one central metrics that significantly influences image transfer. Nevertheless, studies on impact of image congruence on consumers' attitudinal and…

Abstract

Purpose

Image congruence is one central metrics that significantly influences image transfer. Nevertheless, studies on impact of image congruence on consumers' attitudinal and behavioral components in the context of sport tourism remain few. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relationship among image congruence between sport event and host city, spectators' attitude toward the event and city and their intention to revisit and recommend the event and city. A mediating role of attitude in the relationship between image congruence and behavioral intention was also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The study selected non-local spectators of the F1 Chinese Grand Prix and Shanghai ATP Masters 1000 as the participants. A total of 491 valid questionnaires were obtained from the survey of two events, including 222 from F1 Chinese Grand Prix and 269 from Shanghai ATP Masters 1000. Among respondents, 360 were Chinese spectators from other regions (73.3%) and 131 were international spectators (26.7%). The data were analyzed via descriptive statistics, correlations, factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), hierarchical regression analysis and ANOVA.

Findings

The results showed that image congruence between sports event and host city had a positive impact on spectators' attitude toward and intention to recommend the city; but it had no significant impact on attitude toward event, intention to revisit and recommend the event and intention to revisit the city. Attitude toward event had a positive impact on intention to revisit and recommend the event, and attitude toward host city had a positive impact on intention to revisit and recommend the city. In addition, attitude toward host city fully mediated the relationship between image congruence and intention to recommend the city.

Originality/value

The current study provides a meaningful contribution to the existing literature by examining the impact of image congruence on spectators' attitudinal and behavioral components in the context of sport tourism.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Hui Li, Che-Hui Lien, Stephen W. Wang, Tien Wang and Weiwei Dong

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of three sources of social representation (i.e. direct experience of an event, the media and social interaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of three sources of social representation (i.e. direct experience of an event, the media and social interaction) on tourists’ formation of event image; to examine the effect of event image, satisfaction and city image on tourists’ revisit intentions to the host city; and to explore the mediating role of city image.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the 28th Qingdao International Beer Festival (QIBF) as the case for verifying the relationships in the proposed model. The survey was conducted in Qingdao and 366 valid observations were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to validate the research model.

Findings

Event image is found to be significantly and positively influenced by direct experience of an event and social interaction. City image and satisfaction are important predictors of revisit intention. The meaning of event image is transferred to city image. City image plays a pivotal role in mediating the effect of event image and satisfaction on revisit intention to the host city.

Research limitations/implications

This study surveyed Chinese tourists attending QIBF in Qingdao and consequently the outcomes may lack generalizability. This research did not survey foreign tourists. Thus, the differences of attitudes and behaviors between Chinese and foreign tourists are not compared.

Practical implications

The outcomes provide insights into how a city manager can organize an event to enhance tourists’ intentions to revisit the city.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the few studies that use both social representation theory and the theory of brand image transfer in examining the influence of external social contexts on tourists’ formation of event image and investigates how the unique meaning of event activities is transferred to city image. In addition, the mediating role of city image is fully explored in this research.

研究目的

本研究的目的包括(1)探究社会表征的三个来源(事件的直接体验, 媒体影响, 社会互动)对游客事件形象评价的影响;(2)验证事件形象、满意度、城市形象对游客重访举办地意愿的影响;(3)检验城市形象的中介作用。

研究方法

本研究以第28届青岛国际啤酒节为案例研究对象, 来验证模型中的变量关系。调研在青岛进行, 共收集有效问卷366份。通过结构方程模型来验证研究假设。

结论

事件形象评价受到直接体验和社会互动的显著积极影响。城市形象和满意度是游客重访意愿重要的影响因素, 事件形象的内涵转移到城市形象。城市形象在事件形象和满意度对重访意愿的影响作用中起到重要的中介作用。

研究局限

本研究对参加青岛国际啤酒节的中国游客进行调研, 结果可能缺少普适性。本研究没有调研外国游客, 缺少中外游客的态度和行为差异的对比。

实践意义

研究结论对于城市管理者如何更好的组织事件活动以提升游客重访城市的意愿提供了新的思路。

价值

本研究将社会表征理论和品牌形象理论应用到事件营销当中, 解释了游客事件形象评价的形成过程中外部社会情境的影响, 以及事件活动的独特内涵向城市形象转移的过程。同时, 本研究验证了城市形象在事件形象和满意度对重访意愿的影响作用中的中介作用。

关键词

事件形象, 城市形象, 满意度, 重访意愿, 社会表征理论

文章类型

研究论文

Propósitos de investigación

(1) explorar el impacto de tres fuentes de representación social (experiencia directa de eventos, influencia de los medios, interacción social) en la evaluación de la imagen del evento de los turistas; (2) Verificar el impacto de la imagen del evento, la satisfacción y la imagen de la ciudad en la voluntad de los turistas para volver a visitar el lugar; (3) verificar el papel mediador de la imagen de la ciudad.

Métodos de investigación

Este estudio toma el 28° Festival Internacional de Cerveza de Qingdao como un objeto de estudio de caso para verificar la relación de las variables en el modelo. La encuesta se realizó en Qingdao y se recolectó un total de 366 cuestionarios válidos. El modelo de ecuación estructural se utiliza para verificar la hipótesis de investigación.

Conclusión

El estudio muestra que la experiencia directa de los eventos y la interacción social tienen un impacto positivo y significativo en la evaluación de la imagen del evento. La imagen de la ciudad y la satisfacción son factores importantes que influyen en la voluntad de los turistas a volver a visitar. Los resultados de la investigación muestran que la imagen de la ciudad desempeña un importante papel de mediación en el efecto de la imagen del evento y la satisfacción en la voluntad de volver a visitar.

Limitaciones de investigación

este estudio encuestó a los turistas que participaron en el Festival Internacional de Cerveza de Qingdao, y los resultados pueden carecer de generalidad. Este estudio no investigó a los turistas extranjeros, solo a los turistas chinos, por eso careció de una comparación de las diferencias en actitudes y comportamientos entre los turistas chinos y extranjeros.

Importancia práctica

las conclusiones de la investigación proporcionan nuevas ideas sobre cómo los administradores de la ciudad pueden organizar mejor las actividades del evento para aumentar la voluntad de los turistas a visitar la ciudad nuevamente.

Valor

este estudio aplica la teoría de la representación social y la teoría de la imagen de marca al marketing de eventos, explicando el impacto de los contextos sociales externos en la formación de la evaluación de imágenes de eventos turísticos y el proceso de transferir la connotación única de las actividades de eventos a la imagen urbana. Al mismo tiempo, este estudio demuestra que el papel mediador de la imagen de la ciudad tiene un impacto de la imagen del evento y la satisfacción en la voluntad de volver a visitar.

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2019

Van-Anh T. Truong

Danang – a heritage gateway, a socioeconomic urban of Central Vietnam – has been known as a livable city, a fantastic destination and a leading position in the Provincial…

Abstract

Purpose

Danang – a heritage gateway, a socioeconomic urban of Central Vietnam – has been known as a livable city, a fantastic destination and a leading position in the Provincial Competitive Index. Since branding Danang appears to be unfocused, it is suggested that the city follow a strategy to meet the shared expectations of stakeholders instead of trying to create separate images toward different audiences. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Therefore, this study selects the bottom-up approach from the viewpoint of Danang students whose requirement is consistent with those of investors, citizens and tourists.

Findings

The finding represents the initial associations of students about Danang as a livable, friendly, dynamic, modern coastal city of tourism and development with many opportunities, potential, attraction, integration and hometown feel. These salient images are exceeded from city characteristics, such as natural endowment, leisure places, beautiful scenes, diverse cuisine, peaceful, suitable living environment, orderly traffic, infrastructure and local people. Besides, crowded caused by development and population growth leads to an unpleasant feeling about narrow spaces but can be overwhelmed by the bustle. Although the result shows the success of Danang in communication, it also figures out the loss of the livable image in local students’ minds.

Practical implications

Hence, Danang must boost the positive effects of tourism development and limit its negative side. University–city cooperation through co-branding strategies can be considered a solution.

Originality/value

The study contributes not only to branding Danang but also to the literature because this is the first complete application of the Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique in city branding.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Deepa Jawahar, Vinney Zephaniah Vincent and Anju Varghese Philip

All touristic cities have their unique attributes to showcase and differentiate themselves from others. This distinctive attribute is the unique selling product or tourism…

Abstract

Purpose

All touristic cities have their unique attributes to showcase and differentiate themselves from others. This distinctive attribute is the unique selling product or tourism product of a particular city. It could be an art form, culture, regional climate, food and festival. Literature indicates that the identity of the entire city would be affected by such tourism products. The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of the ‘image’ of an Art-event to city branding. The study also examines the mediating role of ‘city attachment’ in the relationship between event image and city brand equity.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 432 samples have been collected from visitors to one of the biggest contemporary art events in India – the “Kochi-Muziris Biennale – 2018,” conducted in the city of Cochin, situated in Kerala, the southernmost state of India.

Findings

Results show that the direct relationship between event image and city brand equity is stronger than the hypothesised path through the mediating role of city attachment.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides a better understanding of the event image and its importance in creating the host city’s brand equity. It contributes to both the practitioners and tourism researchers.

Originality/value

This study looks at the event image through functional and affective aspects and its influence on city attachment and city brand equity.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2018

Fabio Cassia, Vania Vigolo, Marta Maria Ugolini and Rossella Baratta

City image has been defined as the sum of beliefs, ideas and impressions people hold regarding a city. While abundant literature has explored city image from tourists…

Abstract

Purpose

City image has been defined as the sum of beliefs, ideas and impressions people hold regarding a city. While abundant literature has explored city image from tourists’ perspectives, few studies have explored residents’ perceptions, and even fewer have compared city image as perceived by tourists and residents. In addition, very few studies have compared tourists’ and residents’ perceptions of city image in small- to medium-sized destinations. Considering these research gaps, the purpose of this paper is to address city image in a medium-sized destination, Verona, in northern Italy with three specific objectives: to examine residents’ perceptions of the city of Verona’s image; to examine tourists’ perceptions of the city of Verona’s image and to compare the perceptions of the two groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted through questionnaires collected among residents and tourists in Verona. Questionnaires were based on a multi-item scale addressing four dimensions of the city image.

Findings

The findings show that residents and tourists hold similar perceptions of city image regarding services and leisure, security and entertainment. The only significant difference in city image concerns the municipal facilities. Specifically, residents are more critical than tourists about this dimension of city image.

Practical implications

The research provides useful implications for policy makers and destination management organisations, and shows some strengths and weaknesses of Verona.

Originality/value

The study addresses the image of a medium-sized city that is typical in the Italian context, thus enhancing knowledge about city image. In addition, by testing and enhancing a scale previously used only to measure residents’ perceptions, the study provides a common measurement instrument to compare tourists’ and residents’ perceptions.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Hong-bumm Kim and Sanggun Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the causal relationships of city personality and city image, together with the possible effect of city image on the revisit…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the causal relationships of city personality and city image, together with the possible effect of city image on the revisit intention of visitors, through empirical validation, so that some meaningful implications can reveal to city planners and marketers how the city tourists can be affected by the personality and image of the city.

Design/methodology/approach

This study offers an integrated approach to understanding the relationship between city personality and city image. The research model investigates the relevant relationships among the underlying dimensions of city personality and city image by using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Data obtained from a sample of 302 respondents drawn from a web-based survey in South Korea were analyzed with AMOS program.

Findings

The results of this empirical study indicate that city personality positively or negatively affect city image depending on the nature of constructs. Positive relationships are found to exist between excitement as well as sophistication personality and dynamic image of city. On the contrary, the relationship between sincerity personality and dynamic image is negative. All the specific three images of city: dynamic, specific, and static image show positive impact on revisit intention of city tourists.

Originality/value

The empirical results of this study provide tenable evidence that the proposed SEM designed to consider city personality and city image, and revisit intention simultaneously is acceptable. Even though in the previous literature, researchers tried to explain the relationship between city personality and city image, the conceptual model and empirical studies pertaining to causal relationships among those constructs have not been thoroughly examined. It is believed that this study has a substantial capability for generating more precise applications related to city tourism, especially concerning city personality and city image.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Somia Kherbouche and Abdelkader Djedid

Focussing on the event “Tlemcen Capital of Islamic Culture 2011”, the purpose of this paper is to examine the changing perception of the city’s image, assess its…

Abstract

Purpose

Focussing on the event “Tlemcen Capital of Islamic Culture 2011”, the purpose of this paper is to examine the changing perception of the city’s image, assess its durability and determine its relationship with the development of sustainable cultural tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is tested by an empirical study that combines a qualitative and a quantitative approach. The qualitative study is based on semi-directive interviews, whereas quantitative study is based on statistics from the Wilaya Tourism Department.

Findings

The results of this study indicate first of all that the perception of the city’s image by the inhabitants is not static and that it follows the same process of evolution of the perception of the image by tourists but in relation to other factors such as awareness and age. The second result shows that the sustainability of the image must be verified both inside and outside to achieve sustainable cultural tourism.

Originality/value

This study is in line with previous research with another point of view on the city’s image and another case study which is the historical city of Tlemcen. It serves to examine the evolution of the perception of the city’s image produced by the event and to assess its sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Fang Wang, Lijun Lu, Lu Xu, Bihu Wu and Ying Wu

Tourists’ destination image is crucial for visiting intentions. An ancient capital with diverse characteristics is an important component of China’s urban tourism. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Tourists’ destination image is crucial for visiting intentions. An ancient capital with diverse characteristics is an important component of China’s urban tourism. The purpose of this paper is to address the following questions: what are the differences and commonalities of the perceived destination image of ancient capitals? What makes the difference of the perceived destination image in these cities? Aside from the exterior factors, are there internal factors of cities that influence tourists’ cognition and perception of destination image?

Design/methodology/approach

The comment text data of Baidu tourism website were used to determine the differences in the destination images of China’s four great ancient capitals: Beijing, Xi’an, Nanjing and Luoyang. ROST content mining and semantic network analysis were for differences and commonalities of the perceived destination image, and correlation analysis was used to explore the internal factors of cities that influence tourists’ cognition and perception of destination image.

Findings

Though the same as ancient capital, the four ancient capitals’ images are far apart; historical interests are the core of tourism experience in ancient capital city; image perception is from physical carrier, history and culture, and human cognition; tourist’ destination affect of ancient capital is most from its history and culture; protecting identity and maintaining daily life are crucial for ancient city tourism.

Originality/value

Previous studies on ancient capitals have focused on the invariable identity of ancient capitals’ destination images, and left a gap on determining from where the invariable identity comes in general and how much it influences destination image. This gap was addressed in this study, by analyzing the destination images of four ancient capitals in China as cases. In this way, this study provided reference to the other ancient cities worldwide.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Shabnam Doosti, Mohammad Reza Jalilvand, Ali Asadi, Javad Khazaei Pool and Parisa Mehrani Adl

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate how electronic word of mouth (e-WOM), attitude, and city image affect tourists’ intention to visit a tourism city.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how electronic word of mouth (e-WOM), attitude, and city image affect tourists’ intention to visit a tourism city.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from the tourism management literature, the authors hypothesize and test the relationships among e-WOM, attitude, overall city image, and visit intentions. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the proposed relationships among the variables.

Findings

The empirical results suggested that e-WOM has a positive and significant influence on tourists’ attitude and overall city image. Further, e-WOM, attitude toward city, and overall city image were significant determinants of visit intentions.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to understand the relationship between four constructs of e-WOM, attitude, and overall city image and visit intentions, tested in city tourism in the context of a tourism city.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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