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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Chang Fei Yee, Asral Bahari Jambek and Azremi Abdullah Al-Hadi

This paper aims to analyze the impact of non-perfect reference plane on the integrity of microstrip differential signals at multi-gigabit transmission on a printed circuit…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the impact of non-perfect reference plane on the integrity of microstrip differential signals at multi-gigabit transmission on a printed circuit board (PCB). The effects of non-perfect reference contributed by signal crossing over split plane such as impedance discontinuity and crosstalk are investigated by performing analysis in two phases.

Design/methodology/approach

The first phase involves three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling extraction using Keysight EMPro software. Meanwhile, the second phase involves the import of model extracted from EMPro into simulation using Keysight Advanced Design System that covers insertion loss, return loss, crosstalk, time domain reflectometry and eye diagram.

Findings

A non-perfect reference plane has a negative impact on signal reflection, attenuation and crosstalk. The analysis results are presented and discussed in detail in the later section of this paper.

Originality/value

The work that studied the impact of the width and the amount of gaps due to crossing of split planes being experienced on the signal integrity was performed by other researchers. Meanwhile, this paper focused on the impact of length and depth of the gap on signal integrity. These research papers serve as a reference guide for high-speed PCB layout design.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Chang Fei Yee, Muammar Mohamad Isa, Azremi Abdullah Al-Hadi and Mohd Khairuddin Md Arshad

This paper aims to analyze the negative impact of surface mount (SMT) pad and imperfect via structure such as stub, pad, non-functional pad (NFP) and anti-pad on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the negative impact of surface mount (SMT) pad and imperfect via structure such as stub, pad, non-functional pad (NFP) and anti-pad on the signal integrity at 40 Gbps transmission on printed circuit board (PCB) due to impedance mismatch or discontinuity. The optimized modeling of via and SMT structures is performed to achieve minimal impedance mismatch and insertion loss less than 10 dB for six-inch full path transmission line between transmitter and receiver on PCB at Nyquist frequency 20 GHz.

Design/methodology/approach

This work is split into two phases. The first phase involves optimization of via and SMT structures in three-dimensional electromagnetic (3DEM) simulation using Hyperlynx Via Wizard and Keysight EMPro software, respectively, followed by analysis of time domain reflectometry (TDR) and insertion loss (Sdd21). Whereas, in the second phase, full path hybrid mode simulation involving vias for signal layer transition, a 6-inch PCB channel and SMT pads is performed using Keysight ADS software to observe the TDR, Sdd21 and eye diagram at 40 Gbps transmission.

Findings

Imperfect via and SMT structures have a negative effect on signal reflection and attenuation. The optimized via and SMT minimizes the impedance mismatch by 81 per cent and insertion loss by 4.5 dB, ultimately enlarging the eye diagram opening to achieve minimal data loss at receiver with 40 Gbps transmission.

Originality/value

The results of original empirical research work on signal integrity analysis that optimizes the PCB channel design to achieve 40 Gbps signal transmission are presented in this study. It serves as a reference guide for high-speed PCB layout design.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Swee-Yong Pung, Yim-Leng Chan, Srimala Sreekantan and Fei-Yee Yeoh

The purpose of this study is to synthesize a semiconductor photocatalyst which responds to both UV light and visible light in removal of organic dyes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to synthesize a semiconductor photocatalyst which responds to both UV light and visible light in removal of organic dyes.

Design/methodology/approach

ZnO nanoparticles were pre-synthesised via sol-gel method using zinc nitrate tetrahydrate and methanamine at 90°C for 20 h. Subsequently, the as-synthesised ZnO nanoparticles were filtered, washed and dried. To synthesize ZnO-MnO2 core shell nanocomposites (CSNs), 2:3 M ratio of KMnO4 and MnSO4 solution was stirred for an hour. Next, ZnO nanoparticles were added into the solution. The solution was heated at 160°C for 3 h for the formation of ZnO-MnO2 CSNs. The structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnO-MnO2 CSNs were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer and PL spectroscopy, respectively.

Findings

The photodegradation efficiencies of rhodamine B (RhB) dye by ZnO-MnO2 CSNs as photocatalysts are 87.1 per cent under UV irradiation and 76.6 per cent under visible light irradiation, respectively. Their corresponding rate constants are 0.016 min−1 under UV irradiation and 0.013 min−1 under visible light irradiation. It can be concluded that N-deethylation was the dominant step during the photodegradation of RhB dye as compared to cycloreversion. The ZnO-MnO2 CSNs demonstrated good photostability after three consecutive runs.

Originality/value

ZnO-MnO2 CSN photocatalyst which could response to UV and visible light in degradation of RhB dye was synthesised using sol-gel method. The analysis shows that N-deethylation was the key photodegradation mechanism of RhB by ZnO-MnO2 CSN.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2018

Fakhrozi Che Ani, Azman Jalar, Abdullah Aziz Saad, Chu Yee Khor, Roslina Ismail, Zuraihana Bachok, Mohamad Aizat Abas and Norinsan Kamil Othman

This paper aims to investigate the characteristics of ultra-fine lead-free solder joints reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles in an electronic assembly.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the characteristics of ultra-fine lead-free solder joints reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles in an electronic assembly.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focused on the microstructure and quality of solder joints. Various percentages of TiO2 nanoparticles were mixed with a lead-free Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu solder paste. This new form of nano-reinforced lead-free solder paste was used to assemble a miniature package consisting of an ultra-fine capacitor on a printed circuit board by means of a reflow soldering process. The microstructure and the fillet height were investigated using a focused ion beam, a high-resolution transmission electron microscope system equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and a field emission scanning electron microscope coupled with an EDS and X-ray diffraction machine.

Findings

The experimental results revealed that the intermetallic compound with the lowest thickness was produced by the nano-reinforced solder with a TiO2 content of 0.05 Wt.%. Increasing the TiO2 content to 0.15 Wt.% led to an improvement in the fillet height. The characteristics of the solder joint fulfilled the reliability requirements of the IPC standards.

Practical implications

This study provides engineers with a profound understanding of the characteristics of ultra-fine nano-reinforced solder joint packages in the microelectronics industry.

Originality/value

The findings are expected to provide proper guidelines and references with regard to the manufacture of miniaturized electronic packages. This study also explored the effects of TiO2 on the microstructure and the fillet height of ultra-fine capacitors.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2018

Fakhrozi Che Ani, Azman Jalar, Abdullah Aziz Saad, Chu Yee Khor, Mohamad Aizat Abas, Zuraihana Bachok and Norinsan Kamil Othman

This study aims to investigate the NiO nano-reinforced solder joint characteristics of ultra-fine electronic package.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the NiO nano-reinforced solder joint characteristics of ultra-fine electronic package.

Design/methodology/approach

Lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder paste was mixed with various percentages of NiO nanoparticles to prepare the new form of nano-reinforced solder paste. The solder paste was applied to assemble the ultra-fine capacitor using the reflow soldering process. A focussed ion beam, high resolution transmission electron microscopy system equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used in this study. In addition, X-ray inspection system, field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nanoindenter were used to analyse the solder void, microstructure, hardness and fillet height of the solder joint.

Findings

The experimental results revealed that the highest fillet height was obtained with the content of 0.01 Wt.% of nano-reinforced NiO, which fulfilled the reliability requirements of the international IPC standard. However, the presence of the NiO in the lead-free solder paste only slightly influenced the changes of the intermetallic layer with the increment of weighted percentage. Moreover, the simulation method was applied to observe the distribution of NiO nanoparticles in the solder joint.

Originality/value

The findings are expected to provide a profound understanding of nano-reinforced solder joint’s characteristics of the ultra-fine package.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2015

This chapter examines China’s corporate governance and accounting environment that shapes the adoption of internationally acceptable principles and standards…

Abstract

This chapter examines China’s corporate governance and accounting environment that shapes the adoption of internationally acceptable principles and standards. Specifically, it examines international influences, including supranational organizations; foreign investors and international accounting firms; domestic institutional influences, including the political system, economic system, legal system, and cultural system; and accounting infrastructure. China’s convergence is driven by desired efficiency of the corporate sector and legitimacy of participating in the global market. Influenced heavily by international forces in the context of globalization, corporate governance and accounting practices are increasingly becoming in line with internationally acceptable standards and codes. While convergence assists China in obtaining legitimacy, improving efficiency is likely to be adversely affected given that corporate governance and accounting in China operate in an environment that differs considerably from those of Anglo-American countries. An examination of the corporate governance and accounting environment in China suggests heavy government involvement within underdeveloped institutions. While the Chinese government has made impressive progress in developing the corporate governance and accounting environment for the market economy, China’s unique institutional setting is likely to affect how the imported concepts are interpreted and implemented.

Details

Adoption of Anglo-American Models of Corporate Governance and Financial Reporting in China
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-898-3

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Won-Moo Hur and Yeonshin Kim

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived corporate hypocrisy on customer mistreatment behaviors within the banking industry and the moderating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived corporate hypocrisy on customer mistreatment behaviors within the banking industry and the moderating effects of customer–company identification (CCI) and brand equity on the hypocrisy-mistreatment behavior relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using multistage sampling, 567 South Korean banking service users participated in an online survey. Structural equation modeling (confirmatory factor analysis) and hierarchical regression analysis were used to analyze the data.

Findings

Perceived corporate hypocrisy was positively related to customer mistreatment behaviors. CCI and brand equity differentially moderated the positive relationship between perceived corporate hypocrisy and customer mistreatment behaviors. Specifically, CCI and brand equity strengthened and weakened the positive relationship between perceived corporate hypocrisy and customer mistreatment behaviors, respectively.

Practical implications

Marketers and banking service managers should pay careful attention to customer evaluations of their social activities and communication about the ethical values and actions of their firms. Since CCI and brand equity have contrasting moderating effects on the corporate hypocrisy-aggressive behavior relationship, marketers should devise different strategies to manage the adverse effects of such corporate crises on company-identified and brand-committed customers. For example, managers should focus on customers who actively express their deep sense of disappointment or profound anger in response to corporate hypocrisy (e.g. those with high levels of CCI) because they are likely to exhibit aggressive behaviors toward the company or its employees. Managers need to devise customized relationship-recovery strategies for such customers (e.g. forging a personal connection between the customer and service provider).

Originality/value

The present findings delineate the adverse effects of perceived corporate hypocrisy on customer behaviors and the moderating effect of customer relationship quality on the corporate hypocrisy-mistreatment behavior relationship within the banking industry.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2018

Fayiz Dahash Shrafat

The potential for the adoption of a knowledge management system (KMS) is becoming a crucial matter in small and medium enterprises (SMEs); however, there is a scarcity of…

Abstract

Purpose

The potential for the adoption of a knowledge management system (KMS) is becoming a crucial matter in small and medium enterprises (SMEs); however, there is a scarcity of studies related to KMS adoption in SMEs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to advance further our understanding of the factors that influence the KMS adoption process among SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The collected sample size was 247 respondents. For statistical analysis, Smart partial least square (PLS) (a structural model-based tool) was used to build, run and validate the process model. PLS regression techniques were used to analyze the latent constructs. Smart PLS exhibits both the measurement model and the structural model.

Findings

The results indicate that knowledge management capabilities, knowledge sharing, organizational learning capabilities and IT capabilities are the significant factors which influence KMS adoption. This study also identifies some unexpected results.

Research limitations/implications

The number of responses obtained from the survey was rather small. However, a larger number of responses would probably have resulted in a more accurate finding. Additionally, this study should be verified via a larger sample to increase its generalization.

Practical implications

The result of this study will provide SMEs with valuable guidelines to better understand what factors should be considered as highly important and thus providing decision makers and managers with valuable insights to increase the adoption level of KMSs.

Originality/value

The study addresses the research gap by developing and empirically validating a research model of KMS adoption from a different perspective that incorporates critical issues which have never been simultaneously examined.

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Ammar Mohamed Aamer, Mohammed Ali Al-Awlaqi, Ifadhila Affia, Silvia Arumsari and Nabeel Mandahawi

The food supply chain (FSC) challenges coupled with global disruptions, such as the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak, exacerbate its…

Abstract

Purpose

The food supply chain (FSC) challenges coupled with global disruptions, such as the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak, exacerbate its vulnerability. The Internet of things (IoT) is one of the disruptive technologies being adopted in food supply chain management (FSCM). This study aims to address the challenges of IoT adoption in the FSC by systematically analyzing the prior pertinent literature.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured literature review was used to collate a list of peer-reviewed and relevant publications. A total of 72 out of 210 articles were selected for the final evaluation.

Findings

The literature review findings suggest five themes: technical, financial, social, operational, educational and governmental related challenges. A total of 15 challenges were devised from the review related literature of IoT adoption. The study concludes with future research recommendations for scholars and practical implications for practitioners.

Research limitations/implications

While this study focuses on the overall FSC, further research should address other domains in the FSC such as cold supply chain, agriculture and perishable food to gain a better contextual understanding of the specific case.

Originality/value

The topic of IoT adoption in the FSCM is still considered emerging. Therefore, the present work contributes to the limited studies and documentation on the level of IoT implementation in the FSCM. This study should help organizations to assimilate how to adopt and manage the IoT application by addressing the factors and challenges presented in this research.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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