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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2019

Seyed Ashkan Zarghami and Indra Gunawan

In recent years, centrality measures have been extensively used to analyze real-world complex networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs), as a good example of complex…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, centrality measures have been extensively used to analyze real-world complex networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs), as a good example of complex networks, exhibit properties not shared by other networks. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of applying the classical centrality measures to these networks. The purpose of this paper is to generate a new centrality measure in order to stick more closely to WDNs features.

Design/methodology/approach

This work refines the traditional betweenness centrality by adding a hydraulic-based weighting factor in order to improve its fit with the WDNs features. Rather than an exclusive focus on the network topology, as does the betweenness centrality, the new centrality measure reflects the importance of each node by taking into account its topological location, its demand value and the demand distribution of other nodes in the network.

Findings

Comparative analysis proves that the new centrality measure yields information that cannot be captured by closeness, betweenness and eigenvector centrality and is more accurate at ranking the importance of the nodes in WDNs.

Practical implications

The following practical implications emerge from the centrality analysis proposed in this work. First, the maintenance strategy driven by the new centrality analysis enables practitioners to prioritize the components in the network based on the priority ranking attributed to each node. This allows for least cost decisions to be made for implementing the preventive maintenance strategies. Second, the output of the centrality analysis proposed herein assists water utilities in identifying the effects of components failure on the network performance, which in turn can support the design and deployment of an effective risk management strategy.

Originality/value

The new centrality measure, proposed herein, is distinct from the conventional centrality measures. In contrast to the classical centrality metrics in which the importance of components is assessed based on a pure topological viewpoint, the proposed centrality measure integrates both topological and hydraulic attributes of WDNs and therefore is more accurate at ranking the importance of the nodes.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2014

James A. Chyz and Scott D. White

This paper takes a unique approach to provide additional insight into the agency view of tax avoidance. We directly investigate the association between the presence of…

Abstract

This paper takes a unique approach to provide additional insight into the agency view of tax avoidance. We directly investigate the association between the presence of agency conflicts and corporate tax avoidance. Using a measure of CEO centrality, developed by Bebchuk, Cremers, and Peyer (2011), we identify settings in which agency conflicts are likely to be high. In contrast to prior literature, our primary tests do not rely on the inferences of market participants regarding tax avoidance. We find that CEO centrality is positively and significantly associated with tax avoidance. Additionally, we analyze the mediating role of monitoring by institutional investors in our setting. We find that the relation between tax avoidance and the existence of agency conflicts is strongest for firms with low levels of CEO monitoring. We also add to prior literature by investigating the implications of our setting on future accounting performance and future firm value.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-120-6

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Sunil Babbar, Xenophon Koufteros, Ravi S. Behara and Christina W.Y. Wong

This study aims to examine publications of supply chain management (SCM) researchers from across the world and maps the leadership role of authors and institutions based…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine publications of supply chain management (SCM) researchers from across the world and maps the leadership role of authors and institutions based on how prolific they are in publishing and on network measures of centrality while accounting for the quality of the outlets that they publish in. It aims to inform stakeholders on who the leading SCM scholars are, their primary areas of SCM research, their publication profiles and the nature of their networks. It also identifies and informs on the leading SCM research institutions of the world and where leadership in specific areas of SCM research is emerging from.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on SCM papers appearing in a set of seven leading journals over the 15-year period of 2001-2015, publication scores and social network analysis measures of total degree centrality and Bonacich power centrality are used to identify the highest ranked agents in SCM research overall, as well as in some specific areas of SCM research. Social network analysis is also used to examine the nature and scope of the networks of the ranked agents and where leadership in SCM research is emerging from.

Findings

Authors and institutions from the USA and UK are found to dominate much of the rankings in SCM research both by publication score and social network analysis measures of centrality. In examining the networks of the very top authors and institutions of the world, their networks are found to be more inward-looking (country-centric) than outward-looking (globally dispersed). Further, researchers in Europe and Asia alike are found to exhibit significant continental inclinations in their network formations with researchers in Europe displaying greater propensity to collaborate with their European-based counterparts and researchers in Asia with their Asian-based counterparts. Also, from among the journals, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal is found to exhibit a far more expansive global reach than any of the other journals.

Research limitations/implications

The journal set used in this study, though representative of high-quality SCM research outlets, is not exhaustive of all potential outlets that publish SCM research. Further, the measure of quality that this study assigns to the various publications is based solely on a publication score that accounts for the quality of the journals, as rated by Association of Business Schools that the papers appear in and nothing else.

Practical implications

By informing the community of stakeholders of SCM research about the top-ranked SCM authors, institutions and countries of the world, the nature of their networks, as well as what the primary areas of SCM research of the leading authors in the world are, this research provides stakeholders, including managers, researchers and students, information that is helpful to them not only because of the insights it provides but also for the gauging of potential for embedding themselves in specific networks, engaging in collaborative research with the leading agents or pursuing educational opportunities with them.

Originality/value

This research is the first of its kind to identify and rank the top SCM authors and institutions from across the world using a representative set of seven leading SCM and primary OM journals based on publication scores and social network measures of centrality. The research is also the first of its kind to identify and rank the top authors and institutions within specific areas of SCM research and to identify future research opportunities relating to aspects of collaboration and networking in research endeavors.

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2020

Adrien Bouchet, Xuehu Song and Li Sun

This study aims to examine the impact of a chief executive officer (CEO) social network centrality on corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of a chief executive officer (CEO) social network centrality on corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study carries out a multivariate linear regression analysis on a panel data sample of 11,507 firm-year observations (representing 1,386 unique US firms) from 2004 to 2014.

Findings

This paper finds a significant negative relation between CEO network centrality and irresponsible CSR performance (measured as CSR concerns). The findings suggest that better-connected CEOs can better mitigate CSR concerns or weaknesses, leading to improved overall CSR performance of a firm.

Originality/value

This is the first study that directly examines the empirical link between CEO centrality and CSR performance.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Seyed Ashkan Zarghami, Indra Gunawan and Frank Schultmann

The increased complexity of water distribution networks (WDNs) emphasizes the importance of studying the relationship between topology and vulnerability of these networks…

Abstract

Purpose

The increased complexity of water distribution networks (WDNs) emphasizes the importance of studying the relationship between topology and vulnerability of these networks. However, the few existing studies on this subject measure the vulnerability at a specific location and ignore to quantify the vulnerability as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by extending the topological vulnerability analysis further to the global level.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces a two-step procedure. In the first step, this work evaluates the degree of influence of a node by employing graph theory quantities. In the second step, information entropy is used as a tool to quantify the global vulnerability of WDNs.

Findings

The vulnerability analysis results showed that a network with uniformly distributed centrality values exhibits a lower drop in performance in the case of partial failure of its components and therefore is less vulnerable. In other words, the failure of a highly central node leads to a significant loss of performance in the network.

Practical implications

The vulnerability analysis method, developed in this work, provides a decision support tool to implement a cost-effective maintenance strategy, which relies on identifying and prioritizing the vulnerabilities, thereby reducing expenditures on maintenance activities.

Originality/value

By situating the research in the entropy theory context, for the first time, this paper demonstrates how heterogeneity and homogeneity of centrality values measured by the information entropy can be interpreted in terms of the network vulnerability.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2018

Jimmy H.T. Chan, Anthony C.K. Ko, Alan K.M. Au and Matthew C.H. Yeung

The understanding of leaders’ network centrality in social networks has been acknowledged as a major topic that can advance the social network field; most studies in this…

Abstract

Purpose

The understanding of leaders’ network centrality in social networks has been acknowledged as a major topic that can advance the social network field; most studies in this area have either taken firms as the subject by which the network centrality of firms was measured or/and have been conducted for the functional project context. Very little research has been done in the pure project context. This paper aims to revisit the centrality–performance link in the singular specialized project context.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed relationships using panel data on 48 movie directors who lead pure projects has been studied. Freeman’s (1979) and Wasserman and Faust’s (1994) procedures have been adopted to compute our three centrality measures and their effects have been examined on box-office and artistic performance. A random effect and a mixed-effects Poisson model have been fit to examine the significance of the centrality–performance relationship.

Findings

The findings provide empirical evidence to support three out of the six hypotheses. The findings suggested that degree and closeness centrality are positively related to commercial performance and betweenness centrality is negatively related to commercial performance. However, it was found that only the degree centrality is related to artistic performance.

Originality/value

This study has two features that distinguish it from prior studies that link centrality to performance. First, the focus is on centrality attached to the leaders instead of the centrality attached to functional project teams or firms, as previously investigated. Second, this study is the first attempt of its kind to analyse the proposed relationship for an Asian market.

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Claudia Donato, Paolo Lo Giudice, Roberta Marretta, Domenico Ursino and Luca Virgili

The development of innovations in all the research and development (R&D) fields is leading to a huge increase of patent data. Therefore, it is reasonable to foresee that…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of innovations in all the research and development (R&D) fields is leading to a huge increase of patent data. Therefore, it is reasonable to foresee that, in the next future, Big Data-centered techniques will be compulsory to fully exploit the potential of this kind of data. In this context, network analysis-based approaches are extremely promising. The purpose of this paper is to provide a contribution to this setting. In fact, the authors propose a well-tailored centrality measure for evaluating patents and their citations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors preliminarily introduce a suitable support directed network representing patents and their citations. After this, the authors present the centrality measures, namely, “Naive Patent Degree” and “Refined Patent Degree.’” Then, the authors show why they are well tailored to capture the specificities of the patent scenario and why classical centrality measure fails to fully reach this purpose.

Findings

The authors present three possible applications of the measures, namely: the computation of a patent “scope” allowing the evaluation of the width and the strength of the influence of a patent on a given R&D field; the computation of a patent lifecycle; and the detection of the so-called “power patents,” i.e., the most relevant patents, and the investigation of the importance, for a patent, to be cited by a power patent.

Originality/value

None of the approaches proposing the application of centrality measures to patent citation networks consider the main peculiarity of this scenario, i.e., that, if a patent pi cites a patent pj, then the value of pi decreases. So, differently from classical scientific paper citation scenario, in this one performing a citation has a cost for the citing entity. This fact is not considered by all the approaches conceived to investigate paper citations. Nevertheless, this feature represents the core of patent citation scenario. The approach has been explicitly conceived to capture this feature.

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Seung Ik Baek and Young Min Kim

The purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamics of an online community by examining its participants’ centrality measures: degree, closeness, and the betweenness…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamics of an online community by examining its participants’ centrality measures: degree, closeness, and the betweenness centrality. Each centrality measure shows the different roles and positions of an individual participant within an online community. To be specific, this research examines how an individual participant’s role and position affects her/his information sharing activities within an online community over time. Additionally, it investigates the differences between two different online communities (a personal interest focussed community and a social interest focussed community), in terms of the interaction patterns of participants.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, the authors collected log files from Korean online discussion communities (café.naver.com) using a crawler program. A social network analysis was used to explore the interaction patterns of participants and calculate the centrality measures of individual participants. Time series cross-sectional analysis was used to analyze the effects of the roles and the positions on their information sharing activities in a longitudinal setting.

Findings

The results of this research showed that all three centrality measures of an individual participant in previous time periods positively influenced his/her information sharing activity in the current periods. In addition, this research found that, depending on the nature of the discussion issues, the participants showed different interaction patterns. Throughout this research, the authors explored the interaction patterns of individual participants by using a network variable, the centrality, within a large online community, and found that the interaction patterns provided strong impact on their information sharing activities in the following months.

Research limitations/implications

To investigate the changes of participant’s behaviors, this study simply relies on the numbers of comments received and posted without considering the contents of the comments. Future studies might need to analyze the contents of the comments exchanged between participants, as well as the social network among participants.

Practical implications

Online communities have developed to take a more active role in inviting public opinions and promoting discussion about various socio-economic issues. Governments and companies need to understand the dynamics which are created by the interactions among many participants. This study offers them a framework for analyzing the dynamics of large online communities. Furthermore, it helps them to respond to online communities in the right way and in the right time.

Social implications

Online communities do not merely function as a platform for the free exchange and sharing of personal information and knowledge, but also as a social network that exerts massive influence in various parts of society including politics, economy, and culture. Now online communities become playing an important role in our society. By examining communication or interaction behaviors of individual participants, this study tries to understand how the online communities are evolved over time.

Originality/value

In the area of online communities, many previous studies have relied on the subjective data, like participant’s perception data, in a particular time by using survey or interview. However, this study explores the dynamics of online communities by analyzing the vast amount of data accumulated in online communities.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 115 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Ravi S. Behara, Sunil Babbar and Philip Andrew Smart

The purpose of this paper is to examine the leadership role of authors, institutions, and countries based on research co-authorship networks in the field of operations…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the leadership role of authors, institutions, and countries based on research co-authorship networks in the field of operations management (OM) and ranks European authors, institutions, and countries using network centrality measures. It also identifies the primary research areas of each of the leading European authors and maps the areas that European research in general has focussed most on.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on co-authorships in publications appearing in a representative set of three leading OM journals over the 15-year period of 1998-2012, network measures of total degree centrality and betweenness centrality are used to identify influential European agents serving as leaders and bridge builders in OM research. Keyword analysis is used to identify the dominant areas of OM research in Europe as well as the primary areas of research of the leading authors.

Findings

With UK, Spain, The Netherlands, and Italy accounting for the dominant share of authorship of papers in the journal set, many authors and institutions from these countries are also found to rank high on network centrality measures. While certain authors, institutions, and countries are found ranking high on total degree centrality based on number of direct connections in the network, others are found to play uniquely important roles as gatekeepers and bridge builders in network relationships. The body of research is found to be focussed most on the area of supply chain management. It is also found to be focussed more on manufacturing than service.

Research limitations/implications

The examination of networks in this study based on co-authorships in publications in the set of three leading journals: Journal of Operations Management, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, and Production and Operations Management, is not all encompassing as there are likely other co-authorship relationships of OM researchers that go beyond publications in this set of journals.

Practical implications

Co-authorship of papers in the leading academic journals in a discipline provides a window on patterns of collaboration among key researchers within that academic community. The findings of this study inform the community of stakeholders on who the leading European agents in OM research are, what the primary areas of research of the leading European authors are, and areas that European research has focussed most on.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind that identifies and maps key European authors, institutions, and countries based on the analysis of co-authorship networks of researchers who have published in a set of leading OM journals that are considered to be among the most relevant outlets in the field of OM. It also maps the primary areas of research.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 34 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

Honghong Zhang and Xiushuang Gong

This study aims to empirically investigate how susceptibility to social influence in new product adoption varies with one’s structural location in a social network.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically investigate how susceptibility to social influence in new product adoption varies with one’s structural location in a social network.

Design/methodology/approach

The social network data were collected based on a sociometric network survey with 589 undergraduate students. Social network analysis and ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

This study finds that consumers with high degree centrality (i.e. hubs) who have a large number of connections to others and consumers with high betweenness centrality (i.e. bridges) who connect otherwise distant groups in social networks are both less sensitive to informational influence from others. More importantly, the authors find evidence that consumers with moderate levels of degree/betweenness centrality are more susceptible to normative influence and status competition than those with low or high degree/betweenness centrality. The inverse-U patterns in the above relations are consistent with middle-status conformity and anxiety.

Research limitations/implications

This research complements social influence and new product diffusion research by documenting important contingencies (i.e. network locations) in consumer susceptibility to different types of social influence from a social network perspective.

Practical implications

The findings will assist marketers to leverage social influence by activating relevant social ties with effective messages in their network marketing strategies.

Originality/value

This research provides a better understanding of the mechanisms driving susceptibility to social influence in new product diffusion.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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