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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

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Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

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Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Abdulla Hamad MA Fetais, Osama Sam Al-Kwifi, Zafar U Ahmed and Dang Khoa Tran

In 2017, Qatar Airways was recognized as the world's number-one airline by SKYTRAX World Airline Awards. These international awards have been described as “the Oscars of…

Abstract

Purpose

In 2017, Qatar Airways was recognized as the world's number-one airline by SKYTRAX World Airline Awards. These international awards have been described as “the Oscars of the aviation industry,” reflecting global recognition and excellence in conducting business activities at the international level. The main purpose of this case-based research is to explore and evaluate the internationalization strategies employed by Qatar Airways in becoming known as one of the best airlines in the world.

Design/methodology/approach

In accordance with the nature of this study, data were collected by interviewing managers from Qatar Airways as well as by exploiting supporting materials from secondary sources and airline-specific records. The recorded interviews were analyzed via content analysis to define airline strategies aimed at expanding globally and building a global brand.

Findings

The findings reveal that Qatar Airways has adopted effective strategies that have facilitated its aggressive global expansion and enhanced its global consumer recognition – mainly as a fast-growing network connecting important destinations that maintains a focused consumer orientation dedicated to providing an optimal travel experience. These strategies have been focused on building a superior consumer experience marked by exceptional comfort.

Practical implications

Qatar Airways' implementation of internationalization strategies in the airline industry represents an innovative approach marked by efficient operations and high-quality standards. Both international business managers and academics can learn from these strategies and their implications for enhancing airlines' global reputation and overall quality performance.

Originality/value

Unlike other research studies that investigate a wide range of firms across industries, this study focuses on exploring the factors that support the successful internationalization of a single firm, thus providing in-depth understanding of specific strategies to achieve global recognition. This study provides unique insights to analyze strategies and assess their practical relevance.

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Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2007

Lei Li and Dan Li

This study compares U.S. firm international strategies between two starkly different industries. We find that firms are more inclined to adopt global strategies in the…

Abstract

This study compares U.S. firm international strategies between two starkly different industries. We find that firms are more inclined to adopt global strategies in the integrated global industry than in the multidomestic industry. The global strategy does not seem to be effective unless a firm possesses substantial intangible assets. R&D-based intangible assets play a more significant role than marketing-based intangible assets in both the integrated global industry and (to a lesser extent) the multidomestic industry. Additionally, internationalization pace has a positive direct impact, and a negative interaction effect with the global strategy on firm performance in the integrated global industry.

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Regional Aspects of Multinationality and Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1395-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Ali Yakhlef and Francine Maubourguet

The paper discusses networking through brand affiliation/endorsement as an increasing mode of internationalisation. Brand affiliation or brand endorsement involves a form…

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Abstract

The paper discusses networking through brand affiliation/endorsement as an increasing mode of internationalisation. Brand affiliation or brand endorsement involves a form of franchising, whereby local services take on a global reach. Whereas conventional theories on the internationalisation process explicitly or implicitly assume that internationalisation is a matter of tapping a new geographical market, mired with risk and uncertainty due to its “foreignness”, brand affiliation means that the offerings of a local business take on the global features associated with the global brand. The global brand endorses or vouches for the locally bound business, thereby providing it with a global recognition and reach. In spite of the global explosion in the practice of affiliation and franchising, there has been little concern with this form of internationalisation, or with the issues and the challenges posed for the franchisees, which are most often SMEs, in managing two brands, two identities and two cultures. The present paper seeks to explore this business relationship and its inherent contradictions, mainly from the franchisee's perspective, and asks whether the dictates of global requirements for efficiency, functionality and consistency can be reconciled with social and cultural values associated with localisation, and what the theoretical and practical implications of this internationalisation process are.

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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2007

Michelle R. Nelson and Hye‐Jin Paek

This research examines global advertising strategies and tactics in a global media brand for a shared audience across seven countries (Brazil, China, France, India, South…

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Abstract

Purpose

This research examines global advertising strategies and tactics in a global media brand for a shared audience across seven countries (Brazil, China, France, India, South Korea, Thailand, and USA).

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of advertisements in local editions of Cosmopolitan magazine compares the extent of standardization in execution elements (advertising copy, models) across product nationality (multinational, domestic) and category (beauty, other).

Findings

Local editions deliver more multinational than domestic product ads across all countries, except India. Overall, multinational product ads tend to use standardized strategies and tactics more than domestic product ads, although this propensity varies across countries. Beauty products (cosmetics, fashion) are more likely to use standardized approaches than are other products (e.g. cars, food, household goods).

Research limitations/implications

The research only examines one type of magazine and for one type of audience.

Practical implications

A global medium such as Cosmopolitan offers international advertisers an opportunity to reach a shared consumer segment of women with varying degrees of standardization, and that even in Asian countries, some standardization is possible.

Originality/value

This is the first multi‐country study to examine advertising executions for global advertising strategy within a transnational media brand. Unlike previous studies that advise against global strategy in Asia, we find that contemporary advertisers are practicing some global advertising strategies, but to varying degrees.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Saeed Samiee

The purpose of this paper is to explore global brands, global consumer culture (GCC) and globalization, and offers a thesis in line with Steenkamp (2019) regarding the…

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2991

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore global brands, global consumer culture (GCC) and globalization, and offers a thesis in line with Steenkamp (2019) regarding the world’s continued move toward greater integration.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines the three concepts articulated by Steenkamp (2019): global brands, GCC and globalization.

Findings

Globalization is often thought of as a necessary condition for the existence of global brands and GCC. However, global brands existed long before the transition toward an increasingly integrated world. Further, global branding is related to the development of GCC as an intermarket segment. The paper also highlights the absence of an operational definition for global brands and the overemphasis on consumer brands as the drivers of much of the research in global branding and GCC.

Originality/value

The paper offers a different perspective on the GCC phenomenon, and identifies new avenues for future research.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2010

Jan Aart Scholte

This paper aims to clarify the character of globalization, to identify the changes it brings to structures of governance, and to consider ways in which these arrangements

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5176

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the character of globalization, to identify the changes it brings to structures of governance, and to consider ways in which these arrangements could be made to serve a good (more global) society.

Design/methodology/approach

This essay takes a reflective approach.

Findings

The paper considers the rules and regulatory processes that govern today's more global world. The first step in the analysis identifies globalization as a trend whereby people's lives become more interconnected on a planetary scale. The second section describes the institutional apparatuses through which global issues are governed. Global governance is seen to take shape not as a “world government”, but as a complex array of regulatory networks that span local to global scales and also combine public and private sectors. The third section assesses the normative values that this “networked” and “polycentric” governance of global affairs might serve. Both an earlier “neoliberal” design of global governance and a currently prevailing “social market” paradigm are critiqued. An alternative vision of global social and ecological democracy is offered as a more promising road to a good society in the contemporary more global world.

Practical implications

The paper suggests alternative guiding principles for governance of today's more global society, including the role of corporations in it.

Social implications

The paper suggests ways in which global governance can deliver social justice, ecological sustainability and democracy along with material prosperity.

Originality/value

The paper consolidates a conception of post‐statist governance that can aid researchers and practitioners alike in mapping the processes of contemporary policymaking. The normative framework presented can, moreover, help to clarify the objectives that citizens of a more global world would wish regulation to provide.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Jean Paul Simon

This paper aims to provide a synthesis of the evolution of the global internet markets through an assessment of their economic strength. It is an attempt to describe the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a synthesis of the evolution of the global internet markets through an assessment of their economic strength. It is an attempt to describe the various segments of the internet value chain and the evolution of the markets. It aims at briefly summing up the very dynamics of the sector, of the various subsectors while looking at the business models and the market capitalization.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a descriptive paper, presenting market trends, based on desk research and trade press. It is not meant to provide any theoretical contribution but attempting to reconstruct the views from the industry as documented by trade literature. Hence, the paper relies mostly on industry and consultancy data. The paper builds on a database collected by the author over the past 30 years and the selection of the relevant data to document and identify the trends and offer a synthesis of the views of the industry.

Findings

The paper shows how over the past 30 years the internet has changed dramatically from both a quantitative (reaching more and more users worldwide and witnessing a dramatic growth of all markets) and qualitative (offering an array of innovative products and services enabled by the deployment of new networks) and the availability of new devices. The paper reveals how each technological wave ushered in a series of innovation and new services, boosted the foundation and the growth of pioneering companies.

Research limitations/implications

Taking into account the lack of official data, the industry data used should be treated as just signals of potential trends, but sufficient to give an overview of the evolution of the global internet markets. Furthermore, detailed studies should complement this descriptive approach. The approach does have obvious methodological and theoretical limits, not providing a robust methodological framework just offering a reconstruction of the trends as documented by the trade publications. However, it concludes highlighting some of the tensions and contradictions.

Practical implications

The paper closes with a summary of the main transformations and considers some future developments. The paper draws some lessons from some failures and from the strategies of firms.

Social implications

The paper hints at the way users developed “unique” behaviors using social media, taking advantage of the new opportunities to exchange with others. The paper hints at some regulatory issues and challenges.

Originality/value

The paper briefly sums up the very dynamics of the global internet market(s). It attempts to characterize some of the main features of their evolution and of the main segments. If offers a comprehensive overview of available data.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Kathleen Park and Frederick Wallace

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence and advantages of leadership multiculturalism on global strategy development through cross-border mergers and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence and advantages of leadership multiculturalism on global strategy development through cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBA) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) from emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs) expanding into emerged markets. The key contribution of asymmetric multiculturalism is a novel finding based on inductive research. We fill a gap by further linking business leader characteristics and corporate strategic actions and examining how multicultural business leaders from emerging markets can be highly effective at CBA and CSR.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on in-depth interviews, observations and documentary evidence analyzed with iterative coding, construct definition and thematic development to understand how leadership multiculturalism affects CBA and CSR in an EMNC over time.

Findings

The new construct of leadership asymmetric multiculturalism describes strategic advantages accruing to leaders from developing markets who are culturally fluent in both emerging and emerged market milieus. The construct contributes to emergent research on the rise of multicultural leaders and their strategic advantages and delineates a pathway toward identifying advantages of emerging over emerged market business leaders.

Research limitations/implications

The research addresses specific CBA and CSR strategies within one emerging market region and EMNC. Future research should further articulate and validate the key construct of asymmetric multiculturalism, further examine its sources, draw more explicit comparisons with data from emerged market leaders, and explore the applicability of these findings to strategic actions and advantages in both emerging and emerged markets.

Practical implications

Emerging market corporate leaders should identify and develop pertinent aspects of their own asymmetric multiculturalism in enacting CBA and CSR strategy with respect to EMNCs and firms from developed markets. Emerged market leaders should become more aware of and cultivate their own multiculturalism.

Social implications

Asymmetric multiculturalism can be accompanied by heightened awareness of global citizenship — including codes of ethics, environmental challenges, community outreach and fair labor practices — which, in tandem with CBA, can strengthen emerging market firms’ performance and reinforce their global stature and reputation.

Originality/value

Asymmetric multiculturalism is a new explanatory construct in the sociological, economic and management disciplines. Emerging markets corporate leaders utilize their multicultural competence to accelerate global CBA and CSR activity and advance strategic opportunities for their firms. The identification of advantages deriving from emerging market leadership capabilities is an unusual finding given the more typical emphasis on the privileges of emerged market leaders and firms.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Brendon Knott, Alan Fyall and Ian Jones

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with…

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Abstract

Purpose

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with their hosting being a deliberate policy for many nations, most notably among emerging nations. One such nation is South Africa, which explicitly stated its nation branding ambitions through the staging of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Through this single case, this paper aims to identify the unique characteristics of the sport mega-event that were leveraged for benefits of nation branding.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist, qualitative study explored the insights of nation brand stakeholders and experts, elicited using in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 27) undertaken two to three years after the staging of the event.

Findings

Three characteristics of the 2010 sport mega-event were deemed by stakeholders to be unique in creating nation branding opportunities: the scale of the event that created opportunities for transformational development; the global appeal, connection and attachment of the event; and the symbolic status of the event that was leveraged for internal brand building and public diplomacy. The paper proposes that while sport mega-events provide nation branding opportunities, the extent of these benefits may vary according to the context of the nation brand with lesser-known, troubled or emerging brands seemingly having the most to gain.

Originality/value

While acknowledging the critique of mega-events, this paper highlights a pertinent example of an emerging nation that leveraged the potential of a sport mega-event for nation branding gains. It extends the understanding of sport mega-events and their potential for nation branding.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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