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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Kalyan R. Piratla and Samuel T. Ariaratnam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate design alternatives for pump‐included water distribution networks considering sustainability and reliability aspects. The aim…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate design alternatives for pump‐included water distribution networks considering sustainability and reliability aspects. The aim is to demonstrate that CO2 emissions could be reduced at a reasonable cost. The paper also investigates the trade‐offs between cost and reliability of water distribution networks.

Design/methodology/approach

An existing genetic algorithm optimization tool is customized in this research to perform multi‐objective optimization with various objectives and constraints. The developed model is demonstrated using a benchmark water distribution network.

Findings

The results from this research suggest that CO2 emissions from water distribution networks could be reduced at a reasonable cost by choosing better objectives during the design stage. High system reliability could also be ensured for the lifetime by paying reasonable additional cost. This research presents various design alternatives for an engineer to choose from.

Research limitations/implications

The design of water distribution networks is a computationally complex process and often requires significant CPU time to arrive at an optimal solution. This problem is significant in the case of larger networks, especially when all the failed states need to be simulated. Simpler measures of reliability could be adopted in the future.

Originality/value

Although a significant amount of research had been undertaken in the area of optimal water distribution network design, only limited research includes environmental impacts as a design objective. This paper not only includes environmental aspects but also considers reliability. The model proposed in this research is a useful tool for engineers for considering various alternatives before choosing the best design.

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Vincent Kotwicki and Meshan Al‐Otaibi

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on how drinking water consumption could be potentially reduced by the introduction of dual water distribution networks

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on how drinking water consumption could be potentially reduced by the introduction of dual water distribution networks. Since water of this quality is required only for drinking, cooking, bathing, and washing, delivering such water for uses that require non‐drinking water quality represents a tremendous waste of water and energy, and contributes to environmental pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

An overview of dual distribution networks in several countries is presented. Kuwait, in which 86 percent of the freshwater network has a parallel brackish water network, is the leader in this field, with brackish water used for a range of outdoor activities. The residential sector is the major consumer of freshwater in Kuwait and the control of demand in this sector will be a key factor in curbing the overall demand, which without any demand management measures is expected to quadruple by 2025. Computer modeling based on existing water use statistics and the proposed phasing‐in of a dual distribution network for indoor use in households has been undertaken to determine how the large quantities of reclaimed can be used to reduce drinking water consumption.

Findings

The paper presents a modeling exercise that demonstrates that by using reverse osmosis (RO) treated wastewater for toilet flushing and watering the gardens, water consumption demand can be stabilized at present levels over a 20‐year period.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that with foresight and long‐term planning it is feasible to implement a dual water supply network in a major city, on a scale which may lead to saving up to 25 percent of drinking quality water on top of other traditional water conservation measures.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Dragan Savic, Godfrey Walters, Philip G. Ashcroft and Arthur Arscott

Notes that the most important fixed asset of any water distribution company is its pipe network. However, once installed it is difficult to manage not only because it is…

Abstract

Notes that the most important fixed asset of any water distribution company is its pipe network. However, once installed it is difficult to manage not only because it is buried in the ground but because management of potable water networks encompasses complex activities concerned with supply. In addition, privatized UK water utilities are required to balance often conflicting demands from their shareholders, regulators and customers. Maintenance, including rehabilitation, replacement, and/or expansion of existing networks to meet current and future demands, is the major element of potable water distribution management. Introduces hydroinformatics as a way forward for water network management and maintenance in particular. Looks at elements such as geographic information systems and artificial neural networks. Outlines the scope for improvement to the new technologies for maintenance of water networks together with a wide range of possible applications.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

M. Engelhardt, P. Skipworth, D.A. Savic, A. Cashman, G.A. Walters and A.J. Saul

A whole life costing (WLC) methodology has been developed for determining long term maintenance expenditure requirements for water distribution networks. The methodology…

Abstract

A whole life costing (WLC) methodology has been developed for determining long term maintenance expenditure requirements for water distribution networks. The methodology utilises an accounting scheme that ties the costs incurred by the operator and other stakeholders to the attributes or performance that drive the costs. It has specifically been derived with the requirements placed by the regulatory regime on the water companies that operate in England and Wales in mind. Expenditure constraints are implied by the regulator through price caps that companies can charge their customers. Appropriate levels of expenditures included as part of the price cap determinations are required by the regulator to be economically robust and tied to the service received by the customers. Therefore, maintenance decisions must reflect more immediate concerns of meeting performance requirements, but must ensure that such levels are sustainable in the long term. The WLC methodology achieves this through an integrated platform that links costs identified within a structured accounting scheme with their performance based drivers commonly modelled based on historical data. Thus, a robust and fully auditable methodology is provided that can address the requirements of all stakeholders. This methodology is the basis for software (WiLCO) that provides decision support in determining appropriate pipe rehabilitation and operational strategy and thus expenditure levels over extended time horizons.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2009

Shamsuddin Ahmed

The role of business logistics for a water distribution company in Central Asia has become a major concern. As the marketing environment is getting more and more…

Abstract

Purpose

The role of business logistics for a water distribution company in Central Asia has become a major concern. As the marketing environment is getting more and more competitive, the company is forced to focus on the efficiency of its supply chain management operations both by improving customer service, increasing its profitability and productivity. The purpose of this paper is to report upon the designing of a responsive supply chain for water distribution in Central Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

A logistic plan to satisfy customer requirement for water distribution in a Central Asian city subject to satisfactory service levels both in the number of distribution centers (DCs) and truck delivery schedule is outlined in this paper. The logistics plan includes repositioning the DCs in relation to the customer location for efficient distribution. The problem is formulated as truck delivery schedule using a new algorithm where single distribution centre is converted into a multiple warehouse location problem. The problem is solved using WINQSB software. Further, the current DCs are appraised with the software and suggested possible new locations for convenience.

Findings

The application part of this case study consists of identifying water DCs in city limits. By developing improved distribution and logistics management, the study aims at economical operations, convenient zonal distributions, and responsive SCM characteristics. To this end, a spatial distribution plan and route sequencing solution is developed for water distribution.

Originality/value

The paper shows how to improve logistic network that results in cost savings, convenient zonal distributions, and responsive SCM operations. To this end, a spatial distribution plan and route sequencing is developed for water distribution.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 109 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Rada-Orellana Mauricio, Jiménez María-de-León and Fernanda Fierro María

While in some districts having drinking water is a given reality, there are others where there is a lack of access to this resource. Unfortunately, even today, 10.2% of…

Abstract

While in some districts having drinking water is a given reality, there are others where there is a lack of access to this resource. Unfortunately, even today, 10.2% of the world population lives this situation and it could be worse in the coming years, according to UNICEF. Inhabitants in Pamplona Alta at southern Lima, Peru, daily suffer this harsh reality. This social challenge study attempts to define a methodology for an effective logistic planning of water distribution in Torres Minas. Currently, they obtain it from unsanitary and informal vendors. This chapter provides the basis of a new layout of the water distribution network based on clusters to efficiently satisfy water demand. Specifically, we propose the use of orderly delivery points called “bus-stops of water” in a two-echelon distribution system, whose optimization relies on a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) technique. The objective of these guidelines is minimizing the transactional and transportation cost, while increasing the bargaining power of the community. Results showed a reduction of 52.67% and 26% in transactional and transportation costs, respectively, and a reduction of the associated risks of shortage and contamination of a tight delivery of water. Moreover, we foster the application of this methodology in other similar situations to produce sustainable growth for human settlements; regardless, there is a lack of access to water or a steep geography.

Details

Supply Chain Management and Logistics in Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-804-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Dragan A. Savic and Godfrey A. Walters

This paper introduces hydroinformatics, a discipline that has strong ancestry in the computational sciences and artificial intelligence, as a way forward for water network

Abstract

This paper introduces hydroinformatics, a discipline that has strong ancestry in the computational sciences and artificial intelligence, as a way forward for water network management and maintenance in particular. Within hydroinformatics, geographic information systems and data mining (artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms specifically) are the new technologies with probably the widest applicability to the water industry. This paper introduces basic concepts of hydroinformatics and data mining, explains the process by which they may be applied and describes basic technologies with their advantages and disadvantages.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 24 November 2020

Seyed Ashkan Zarghami and Indra Gunawan

As a response to the growing operational and disruptive threats to water distribution networks (WDNs), researchers have developed a vast array of methods for the…

Abstract

Purpose

As a response to the growing operational and disruptive threats to water distribution networks (WDNs), researchers have developed a vast array of methods for the reliability analysis of WDNs. In order to follow this growing number of methods, this paper reviews and documents in one place the historical developments in the reliability analysis of WDN.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review (SLR) is carried out to summarize the state-of-the-art research on reliability analysis of WDNs. In conducting this systemic literature review, the authors adopted an iterative approach to define appropriate keywords, analyze and synthesize data and finalizing the classification results.

Findings

First, the hydraulic approach to reliability analysis is currently pervasive, and relatively little academic research has addressed the topological reliability analysis of WDNs. Second, in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the network reliability, a different approach that integrates topological and hydraulic attributes seems a more effective method. Third, the conventional reliability analysis methods are only effective for demonstrating a snapshot of these networks at a given point in time. The availability of methods that enable researchers to evaluate the reliability in response to changes in its variables is still a major challenge.

Originality/value

The present paper facilitates future research in the reliability analysis of WDNs by providing a source of references for researchers and water utilities. Further, this article makes a contribution to the literature by offering a roadmap for future reliability analysis of WDNs by reviewing the evolution of the current reliability analysis methods throughout history.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2019

Seyed Ashkan Zarghami and Indra Gunawan

In recent years, centrality measures have been extensively used to analyze real-world complex networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs), as a good example of complex…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, centrality measures have been extensively used to analyze real-world complex networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs), as a good example of complex networks, exhibit properties not shared by other networks. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of applying the classical centrality measures to these networks. The purpose of this paper is to generate a new centrality measure in order to stick more closely to WDNs features.

Design/methodology/approach

This work refines the traditional betweenness centrality by adding a hydraulic-based weighting factor in order to improve its fit with the WDNs features. Rather than an exclusive focus on the network topology, as does the betweenness centrality, the new centrality measure reflects the importance of each node by taking into account its topological location, its demand value and the demand distribution of other nodes in the network.

Findings

Comparative analysis proves that the new centrality measure yields information that cannot be captured by closeness, betweenness and eigenvector centrality and is more accurate at ranking the importance of the nodes in WDNs.

Practical implications

The following practical implications emerge from the centrality analysis proposed in this work. First, the maintenance strategy driven by the new centrality analysis enables practitioners to prioritize the components in the network based on the priority ranking attributed to each node. This allows for least cost decisions to be made for implementing the preventive maintenance strategies. Second, the output of the centrality analysis proposed herein assists water utilities in identifying the effects of components failure on the network performance, which in turn can support the design and deployment of an effective risk management strategy.

Originality/value

The new centrality measure, proposed herein, is distinct from the conventional centrality measures. In contrast to the classical centrality metrics in which the importance of components is assessed based on a pure topological viewpoint, the proposed centrality measure integrates both topological and hydraulic attributes of WDNs and therefore is more accurate at ranking the importance of the nodes.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Maurizio Faccio, Mauro Gamberi, Mojtaba Nedaei and Francesco Pilati

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the autoclave-pump pressured water distribution system. Pressured water is used in many manufacturing processes, as a raw…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the autoclave-pump pressured water distribution system. Pressured water is used in many manufacturing processes, as a raw material or as a service fluid for different applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The performances and the total installation costs of such systems are strongly related to its design and to its decision variables definition. The authors first identify the independent variables (i.e. the decision variables) and the dependent variables of the system and, second, propose a techno-economic mathematical method able to determine its minimum installation cost with an integrated approach.

Findings

The trade-off between the autoclave installation costs versus the pump installation costs is demonstrated. A sensitive analysis of the cost of the system as function of its decision variables has been performed to propose a practical graphical analysis tools to proper design the integrated pump-autoclave pressured water distribution system.

Originality/value

Many previous researches focus only on the pump system optimization or in the tank system optimization without an integrated approach. The wide utilization in industry of the autoclave-pump pressured water distribution system together with the lack of similar contributions in this area enforces the value of this research.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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