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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Kalyan R. Piratla and Samuel T. Ariaratnam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate design alternatives for pump‐included water distribution networks considering sustainability and reliability aspects. The aim…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate design alternatives for pump‐included water distribution networks considering sustainability and reliability aspects. The aim is to demonstrate that CO2 emissions could be reduced at a reasonable cost. The paper also investigates the trade‐offs between cost and reliability of water distribution networks.

Design/methodology/approach

An existing genetic algorithm optimization tool is customized in this research to perform multi‐objective optimization with various objectives and constraints. The developed model is demonstrated using a benchmark water distribution network.

Findings

The results from this research suggest that CO2 emissions from water distribution networks could be reduced at a reasonable cost by choosing better objectives during the design stage. High system reliability could also be ensured for the lifetime by paying reasonable additional cost. This research presents various design alternatives for an engineer to choose from.

Research limitations/implications

The design of water distribution networks is a computationally complex process and often requires significant CPU time to arrive at an optimal solution. This problem is significant in the case of larger networks, especially when all the failed states need to be simulated. Simpler measures of reliability could be adopted in the future.

Originality/value

Although a significant amount of research had been undertaken in the area of optimal water distribution network design, only limited research includes environmental impacts as a design objective. This paper not only includes environmental aspects but also considers reliability. The model proposed in this research is a useful tool for engineers for considering various alternatives before choosing the best design.

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Vincent Kotwicki and Meshan Al‐Otaibi

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on how drinking water consumption could be potentially reduced by the introduction of dual water distribution networks

1096

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on how drinking water consumption could be potentially reduced by the introduction of dual water distribution networks. Since water of this quality is required only for drinking, cooking, bathing, and washing, delivering such water for uses that require non‐drinking water quality represents a tremendous waste of water and energy, and contributes to environmental pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

An overview of dual distribution networks in several countries is presented. Kuwait, in which 86 percent of the freshwater network has a parallel brackish water network, is the leader in this field, with brackish water used for a range of outdoor activities. The residential sector is the major consumer of freshwater in Kuwait and the control of demand in this sector will be a key factor in curbing the overall demand, which without any demand management measures is expected to quadruple by 2025. Computer modeling based on existing water use statistics and the proposed phasing‐in of a dual distribution network for indoor use in households has been undertaken to determine how the large quantities of reclaimed can be used to reduce drinking water consumption.

Findings

The paper presents a modeling exercise that demonstrates that by using reverse osmosis (RO) treated wastewater for toilet flushing and watering the gardens, water consumption demand can be stabilized at present levels over a 20‐year period.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that with foresight and long‐term planning it is feasible to implement a dual water supply network in a major city, on a scale which may lead to saving up to 25 percent of drinking quality water on top of other traditional water conservation measures.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Dragan Savic, Godfrey Walters, Philip G. Ashcroft and Arthur Arscott

Notes that the most important fixed asset of any water distribution company is its pipe network. However, once installed it is difficult to manage not only because it is…

941

Abstract

Notes that the most important fixed asset of any water distribution company is its pipe network. However, once installed it is difficult to manage not only because it is buried in the ground but because management of potable water networks encompasses complex activities concerned with supply. In addition, privatized UK water utilities are required to balance often conflicting demands from their shareholders, regulators and customers. Maintenance, including rehabilitation, replacement, and/or expansion of existing networks to meet current and future demands, is the major element of potable water distribution management. Introduces hydroinformatics as a way forward for water network management and maintenance in particular. Looks at elements such as geographic information systems and artificial neural networks. Outlines the scope for improvement to the new technologies for maintenance of water networks together with a wide range of possible applications.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

M. Engelhardt, P. Skipworth, D.A. Savic, A. Cashman, G.A. Walters and A.J. Saul

A whole life costing (WLC) methodology has been developed for determining long term maintenance expenditure requirements for water distribution networks. The methodology…

1269

Abstract

A whole life costing (WLC) methodology has been developed for determining long term maintenance expenditure requirements for water distribution networks. The methodology utilises an accounting scheme that ties the costs incurred by the operator and other stakeholders to the attributes or performance that drive the costs. It has specifically been derived with the requirements placed by the regulatory regime on the water companies that operate in England and Wales in mind. Expenditure constraints are implied by the regulator through price caps that companies can charge their customers. Appropriate levels of expenditures included as part of the price cap determinations are required by the regulator to be economically robust and tied to the service received by the customers. Therefore, maintenance decisions must reflect more immediate concerns of meeting performance requirements, but must ensure that such levels are sustainable in the long term. The WLC methodology achieves this through an integrated platform that links costs identified within a structured accounting scheme with their performance based drivers commonly modelled based on historical data. Thus, a robust and fully auditable methodology is provided that can address the requirements of all stakeholders. This methodology is the basis for software (WiLCO) that provides decision support in determining appropriate pipe rehabilitation and operational strategy and thus expenditure levels over extended time horizons.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 January 2022

Hani Gilani, Sahar Shobeiry, Mohammad Biglari Kami and Hadi Sahebi

A sustainable selection method for facility location of the water treatment is formulated by best–worst method. In addition, the model addresses the selection of…

Abstract

Purpose

A sustainable selection method for facility location of the water treatment is formulated by best–worst method. In addition, the model addresses the selection of appropriate technologies in the treatment plant, management of water leakage in the whole transmission network by using modernization and selection of different transmission technologies. Finally, the interaction between water and energy in this network seems to be paying particular attention.

Design/methodology/approach

Rapid population growth and urban development, and the constraints of water supply have become one of the crucial challenges around the world in the 21st century. Hence, the use of refined urban wastewater is increasing in many countries as an alternative source of water. In this regard, the rehabilitation of urban wastewater recycling and reuse has been proposed as one of the most suitable solutions for urban water management. Hence, in this paper, a mathematical model is formulated to design the simultaneous marketing of the urban water distribution network and wastewater treatment (including).

Findings

It seeks to ensure that energy is supplied through chemical methods to ensure that the system's energy dependence is on the national electricity grid. And in order to validate the model, a case study has been studied. By analyzing the results, it can be concluded that the upgrading of sewage treatment plants to replace underground water and water from nearby dams in household, agricultural and industrial applications will have positive environmental and economic impacts. One of the notable environmental impacts is the decline in groundwater and water scarcity in the coming years.

Originality/value

The summary of contributions is presented follow as: design and planning of water and urban wastewater integrated network; sustainable selection of facility location for the water treatment; capability selecting different treatment technologies in simultaneous design water and urban sewage supply chain; managing water leak in the network; proposed a water–energy nexus model in simultaneous design water and urban sewage supply chain; studying the feasibility of construction of power plants from biogas, the resulting of anaerobic digestion in treatment centers.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 September 2022

Akka Habib, Bencharki Bouchaib and Said Housni

The objective of this article is to propose a panel of management performance evaluation indicators at operator level. This panel would be the tool to be made available to…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this article is to propose a panel of management performance evaluation indicators at operator level. This panel would be the tool to be made available to an observatory that should be set up by regulation. The proposal comes at the right time given that Morocco is planning a major reform of the sector very soon. A framework law has already been promulgated for this purpose (Law 51-21 relating to the reform of public establishments).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed panel is the result of (1) a review of the literature dealing with public management theories, in particular those relating to industrial and commercial public services and whose character is captive. The management of the latter requires a great deal of caution to preserve their economic balance and consequently their sustainability. (2) A review of experiences of countries is chosen because of contextual their similarities with Morocco like France having a similar legal background, Tunisia and Algeria chosen for geographical and economic similarities. The British experience is also discussed for what it represents as a liberal model in the management of public water and sanitation services, as opposed to the German model also studied and which stands as the only country where the management of public services has almost always been a communal prerogative. The analysis of these models has made it possible to identify management evaluation practices that could be adapted to the Moroccan context. (3) Research work by practitioners and reports from specialized international institutions (International Water Association [IWA]). (4) A critical analysis of a multitude of management and activity reports from 12 autonomous authorities and 4 private delegates covering 16 million inhabitants of the urban environment. A total of 15 indicators are developed. They aim to assess the effectiveness of management in terms of saving drinking water and preserving the natural environment from the pollution of water resources.

Findings

Approximately, 15 indicators for assessing water resource management in public water and sanitation services are proposed. These indicators relate to the efficiency of pipe networks, the performance of storage systems and losses in users' homes. Indicators specific to liquid sanitation systems, particularly with regard to the control of wastewater overflows into the public highway and their treatment before discharge into the natural environment, are also proposed.

Research limitations/implications

The application of the results of this research could be confronted with its appropriation by the operators. Indeed, the investment involved in setting up the proposed evaluation system, as well as the conflict of interest that may arise in the process of formalizing and standardizing the system at the national level, may slow down the process of setting it up.

Practical implications

In practice, the implementation of a system for evaluating the performance of water resource management in public drinking water and liquid sanitation services would make it possible to optimize the volume of water to be mobilized. Substantial savings are expected both at the level of the resource itself and at the level of the investments that accompany the realization of the mobilization and distribution infrastructures. These savings will be very useful for the creation of other similar services and to serve more people.

Social implications

The distribution of drinking water and liquid sanitation is a vital human need. These services are extremely captive. They are key factors in the socioeconomic development of the territory and the citizen. The impact is transversal and affects the lifestyle of the populations. On the one hand, it favors the sedentarization of the populations and on the other hand, preserves their health by fighting against the diseases of water origin. In addition, the comfort that it provides in the daily life of users is highly coveted when they are delivered in a modern way and arranged with modern technologies.

Originality/value

The regulation of public drinking water and liquid sanitation services in Morocco is the weakest link in the sector. The Ministry of the Interior is legally responsible for setting up a standard system for evaluating the management of these services to fill this gap (organic law 113-14 on municipalities). Unfortunately, this initiative is not yet underway. The opportunity to apply the results of this research is well timed. Morocco plans to launch a global reform of the sector starting in 2022–2023 (Law 50-21 on the reform of public institutions).

Details

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-9899

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 January 2009

Shamsuddin Ahmed

The role of business logistics for a water distribution company in Central Asia has become a major concern. As the marketing environment is getting more and more…

2340

Abstract

Purpose

The role of business logistics for a water distribution company in Central Asia has become a major concern. As the marketing environment is getting more and more competitive, the company is forced to focus on the efficiency of its supply chain management operations both by improving customer service, increasing its profitability and productivity. The purpose of this paper is to report upon the designing of a responsive supply chain for water distribution in Central Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

A logistic plan to satisfy customer requirement for water distribution in a Central Asian city subject to satisfactory service levels both in the number of distribution centers (DCs) and truck delivery schedule is outlined in this paper. The logistics plan includes repositioning the DCs in relation to the customer location for efficient distribution. The problem is formulated as truck delivery schedule using a new algorithm where single distribution centre is converted into a multiple warehouse location problem. The problem is solved using WINQSB software. Further, the current DCs are appraised with the software and suggested possible new locations for convenience.

Findings

The application part of this case study consists of identifying water DCs in city limits. By developing improved distribution and logistics management, the study aims at economical operations, convenient zonal distributions, and responsive SCM characteristics. To this end, a spatial distribution plan and route sequencing solution is developed for water distribution.

Originality/value

The paper shows how to improve logistic network that results in cost savings, convenient zonal distributions, and responsive SCM operations. To this end, a spatial distribution plan and route sequencing is developed for water distribution.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 109 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Rada-Orellana Mauricio, Jiménez María-de-León and Fernanda Fierro María

While in some districts having drinking water is a given reality, there are others where there is a lack of access to this resource. Unfortunately, even today, 10.2% of…

Abstract

While in some districts having drinking water is a given reality, there are others where there is a lack of access to this resource. Unfortunately, even today, 10.2% of the world population lives this situation and it could be worse in the coming years, according to UNICEF. Inhabitants in Pamplona Alta at southern Lima, Peru, daily suffer this harsh reality. This social challenge study attempts to define a methodology for an effective logistic planning of water distribution in Torres Minas. Currently, they obtain it from unsanitary and informal vendors. This chapter provides the basis of a new layout of the water distribution network based on clusters to efficiently satisfy water demand. Specifically, we propose the use of orderly delivery points called “bus-stops of water” in a two-echelon distribution system, whose optimization relies on a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) technique. The objective of these guidelines is minimizing the transactional and transportation cost, while increasing the bargaining power of the community. Results showed a reduction of 52.67% and 26% in transactional and transportation costs, respectively, and a reduction of the associated risks of shortage and contamination of a tight delivery of water. Moreover, we foster the application of this methodology in other similar situations to produce sustainable growth for human settlements; regardless, there is a lack of access to water or a steep geography.

Details

Supply Chain Management and Logistics in Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-804-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Dragan A. Savic and Godfrey A. Walters

This paper introduces hydroinformatics, a discipline that has strong ancestry in the computational sciences and artificial intelligence, as a way forward for water network

1051

Abstract

This paper introduces hydroinformatics, a discipline that has strong ancestry in the computational sciences and artificial intelligence, as a way forward for water network management and maintenance in particular. Within hydroinformatics, geographic information systems and data mining (artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms specifically) are the new technologies with probably the widest applicability to the water industry. This paper introduces basic concepts of hydroinformatics and data mining, explains the process by which they may be applied and describes basic technologies with their advantages and disadvantages.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2020

Seyed Ashkan Zarghami and Indra Gunawan

As a response to the growing operational and disruptive threats to water distribution networks (WDNs), researchers have developed a vast array of methods for the…

Abstract

Purpose

As a response to the growing operational and disruptive threats to water distribution networks (WDNs), researchers have developed a vast array of methods for the reliability analysis of WDNs. In order to follow this growing number of methods, this paper reviews and documents in one place the historical developments in the reliability analysis of WDN.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review (SLR) is carried out to summarize the state-of-the-art research on reliability analysis of WDNs. In conducting this systemic literature review, the authors adopted an iterative approach to define appropriate keywords, analyze and synthesize data and finalizing the classification results.

Findings

First, the hydraulic approach to reliability analysis is currently pervasive, and relatively little academic research has addressed the topological reliability analysis of WDNs. Second, in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the network reliability, a different approach that integrates topological and hydraulic attributes seems a more effective method. Third, the conventional reliability analysis methods are only effective for demonstrating a snapshot of these networks at a given point in time. The availability of methods that enable researchers to evaluate the reliability in response to changes in its variables is still a major challenge.

Originality/value

The present paper facilitates future research in the reliability analysis of WDNs by providing a source of references for researchers and water utilities. Further, this article makes a contribution to the literature by offering a roadmap for future reliability analysis of WDNs by reviewing the evolution of the current reliability analysis methods throughout history.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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