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Article

Fernando Fantoni Bencke, Eric Charles Henri Dorion, Cleber Cristiano Prodanov and Pelayo Munhoz Olea

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and understand the condition that lead to a constitution’s path of Brazilian Science Parks, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and understand the condition that lead to a constitution’s path of Brazilian Science Parks, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, and consequently to propose a new dimension of analysis to the Triple Helix.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was used to elaborate a descriptive and exploratory research design, where a case study method was applied on six science parks.

Findings

The use of the Triple Helix model could not explain the Brazilian Science Park development realities. A new element, related to the innovation model, was considered as a determinant in the constitution of the Brazilian parks, and is represented as the community leadership category, as the Fourth Helix.

Research limitations/implications

Since it is a qualitative study, the results obtained have a strong relation with the local, cultural and historically constructed contexts. Bias from the researchers’ subjectivity in the data collection procedures is present, although the validity and reliability measures were performed.

Practical implications

The construction of designed and implemented specific “fertile models,” which are capable of developing the necessary conditions for the constitution and the consolidation of science parks in Brazil.

Social implications

Such empirical contribution comes from data referring to spontaneous and endogenous local community development movements.

Originality/value

The identification of a new element of the Triple Helix innovation model is represented as the community leadership category and is considered as a key determinant in the constitution of the Brazilian Science Parks.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article

Priscila Rezende da Costa, Sergio Silva Braga Junior, Geciane Silveira Porto and Marta Pagán Martinez

The purpose of this paper is to focus on evaluating relational capability regarding the configuration of a network of technological partners in Brazilian technology-based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on evaluating relational capability regarding the configuration of a network of technological partners in Brazilian technology-based firms (TBFs).

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected using an online questionnaire made available to technology-based companies resident in Brazilian Technological Parks. A total of 73 companies responded. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques and were processed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software. The statistical tests included factor analysis, Cronbach’s α and multiple regression.

Findings

The paper shows that the strategic alliance portfolio is influenced by organizational learning, diversity of partners, governance structure, intensity of partnership relations and configuration. In particular, the portfolio of alliances with competence orientation is characterized by tacit knowledge exchanges and learning exploration, homogeneity of partners, informal governance mechanisms, strong bonds of trust and reciprocity with partners and low diversification of actors’ profiles, their attributions and the results obtained in the portfolio. Meanwhile, the characteristics of alliance portfolios with legitimacy orientation include explicit knowledge exchange and learning exploitation, heterogeneity of partners, formal governance mechanisms, weak bonds of trust and reciprocity with partners and high diversification of the profile of the actors, their attributions and the results obtained from the portfolio.

Practical implications

The configuration of the alliance portfolio plays an important role in innovation. To stimulate the creation of new technological skills, the executive of a technology-based company from emerging countries such as China, Russia and India, can configure the portfolio of strategic alliances with more homogeneous partners in terms of profile and attribution. However, if this executive is challenged to seek legitimacy and complementary resources in these markets he can invest in the diversification of the strategic alliance portfolio, prioritizing partners with differentiated profiles and attributions.

Originality/value

The originality of the research lies in the adoption of a complementary and multidimensional theoretical prism, considering the relational capacity of TBFs in the configuration of alliances, both in the intra-firm and portfolio perspective. Furthermore, it was considered that the configuration of alliances can be based on both competence and legitimacy factors.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Business in the Information and Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-326-1

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Article

Matteo Pedrini and Laura Maria Ferri

The stakeholder theory is a prominent management approach that has primarily been adopted in the past few years. Despite the increase in the theory’s use, a limited number…

Abstract

Purpose

The stakeholder theory is a prominent management approach that has primarily been adopted in the past few years. Despite the increase in the theory’s use, a limited number of studies have discussed ways to develop, execute and measure the results of using this strategic approach with stakeholders. This study aims to address this gap in the literature by conducting a systematic review of the stakeholder management process.

Design/methodology/approach

Five databases were selected to search articles published from 1985 to 2015. The keywords used were stakeholder management, stakeholder relationship and stakeholder engagement. Starting from 2,457 articles identified using a keyword search, 33 key journal articles were systematically reviewed using both bibliometric and qualitative methods for analysis.

Findings

The results highlight that stakeholder management is increasingly embedded in corporate activities, and that the coming of the internet, social networking and Big Data have put more pressure on companies to develop new tools and techniques to manage stakeholders online. In conclusion, synthesizing the findings and developed framework allows the understanding of different streams of research and identifies future steps for research.

Originality/value

While literature reviews are a widespread practice in business studies, only a few more recent reviews use the systematic review methodology that aggregates knowledge using clearly defined processes and criteria. This is the first review on stakeholder management in which the structure is existing knowledge on strategy development, execution and the measurement of performance.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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Book part

Jurema Tomelin, Mohamed Amal, Aurora Caneiro Zen and Pierfrancesco Arrabito

Internationalisation became an important component of science parks (SPs) practices. In recent years, they have started to include, among the portfolio of their services…

Abstract

Internationalisation became an important component of science parks (SPs) practices. In recent years, they have started to include, among the portfolio of their services, the support and fostering of their tenant firms’ internationalisation, such as soft-landing programmes and international immersion experiences for start-ups. Thus, the main aim of this chapter is to analyse these internationalisation practices in the light of the network and internationalisation theories. Based on an exploratory multiple case study the authors conducted in three Brazilian SPs located in the South of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State) – Tecnopuc in Porto Alegre, Tecnosinos in São Leopoldo and Feevale Techpark in Campo Bom. The authors provide evidences on how cohesive internal and external ties, networks as well as the level of specialisation are the key drivers of the internationalisation process of SPs and their tenant firms.

Details

International Business in the Information and Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-326-1

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

Different from most academic publications about tourism in Brazil, this paper provides an overarching and comprehensive perspective. Analysing key developments, and focusing on the period 2000–2019, this paper also considers long-standing structural issues that hinder tourism development. Although this viewpoint paper deals with Brazil, very similar issues can be identified for many countries worldwide.

Design/methodology/approach

This viewpoint paper is a combination of reflections by leading Brazilian tourism academics; most are members of ABRATUR, the International Academy for the Development of Tourism Research in Brazil. This paper uses secondary data from the grey (e.g. government reports) and academic literature to support this opinion paper. The tourism-related topics covered in this paper include economics, policy and planning, marketing, transport, nature-based tourism, gastronomy, hospitality and education, amongst others.

Findings

Brazil has missed several unique opportunities to place it as a destination of international renown. Since the 1990s, efforts to support regional tourism development have achieved only moderate success as political instability, violence and corruption have impacted tourism. A lack of a coordinated approach between the various levels of government, a shortage of tourism data and a long-term supra-government marketing campaign, among other factors, have meant Brazil has missed several critical opportunities in the 2010s to establish itself as a leading tourism destination in the global market.

Originality/value

From leading tourism academic experts in Brazil, a unique opinion paper offers an overview of the critical development issues in 2000–2019. The paper presents matters that have hindered potential tourism contributions to the largest nation in South America. While these matters may be specific to Brazil, many of these challenges are not dissimilar to those in other emerging (democratic) nations. The authors offer several public policies and technical recommendations to scaffold tourism development towards the 2030 agenda.

设计/方法/途径

本篇观点论文是巴西前沿旅游学者们思考的集合, 其中大多数的学者是巴西旅游发展国际研究院ABRATUR的成员。这篇论文使用了诸如政府工作报告的二手数据和学术文献来支撑文章观点。其中涉及的与旅游相关的主题包括经济学, 政策和规划, 市场营销, 交通, 自然旅游, 烹饪学, 酒店, 教育等等。

目的

与巴西大多数旅游研究的出版物不同, 本文提供了一个重要且全面的视角。文章重点分析了从2000-2009年的旅游业主要发展状况, 同时考虑了阻碍旅游业发展的长期结构性问题。尽管此观点论文涉及巴西, 但在世界许多国家都可以发现非常相似的问题。

结果

巴西已经错失了作为国际知名旅游目的地的几个独特机会。二十世纪九十年代以来, 因为政治动荡, 暴力和腐败对旅游业的影响, 支持区域旅游业发展的努力仅仅取得了有限的成功。各级政府之间缺乏协调方式, 旅游数据短缺和长期的跨政府营销活动等因素, 已经意味着巴西在二十一世纪前十年已经错失了将自己在全球市场中确立为领先旅游目的地的几个重要机会。

创新/价值

这篇来源于一些巴西学术旅游届的领头羊的独特观点论文概述了从2000年到2019年巴西旅游业发展的关键问题。本文介绍了那些已经阻碍南美洲最大旅游国家潜在旅游业贡献的重要事项。尽管这些事项可能是巴西独有的, 但是其中许多问题与其他新兴的(民主的)国家也没有什么不同。我们提供了一些公共政策和技术建议, 以支持旅游业向2030年议程迈进。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este artículo de opinión es una combinación de reflexiones de destacados académicos brasileños del turismo, la mayoría miembros de ABRATUR, la Academia Internacional para el Desarrollo de la Investigación en Turismo en Brasil. Se utilizan fuentes secundarias (por ejemplo, informes gubernamentales) y literatura académica para respaldar este artículo. Los temas relacionados con el turismo que se tratan en este documento incluyen economía, política y planificación, marketing, transporte, turismo basado en la naturaleza, gastronomía, hotelería, y educación, entre otros.

Propósito

A diferencia de la mayoría de las publicaciones académicas sobre el turismo en Brasil, este artículo ofrece una perspectiva global e integral. Al analizar los desarrollos clave y centrarse en 2000–2019, este documento también considera problemas estructurales de larga data que obstaculizan el desarrollo del turismo. Aunque este documento trata de Brasil, se pueden identificar problemas muy similares en muchos otros países del mundo.

Resultados

Brasil ha perdido varias oportunidades únicas para colocarse como un destino de renombre internacional. Los esfuerzos realizados desde la década de 1990 para apoyar el desarrollo del turismo regional solo han logrado un éxito moderado debido a que la inestabilidad política, la violencia y la corrupción han impactado al turismo. La falta de un enfoque coordinado entre los distintos niveles de gobierno, la escasez de datos turísticos, una campaña de marketing supra gubernamental a largo plazo, entre otros factores, han significado que Brasil haya perdido varias oportunidades críticas en la década de 2010 para establecerse como un destino turístico líder en el mercado global.

Originalidad/valor

Un artículo de opinión único de destacados expertos académicos en turismo en Brasil, que ofrece por primera vez una visión general de los problemas críticos del desarrollo desde la década del 2000. El documento presenta asuntos que han obstaculizado las posibles contribuciones del turismo a la nación más grande de América del Sur. Si bien estos asuntos pueden ser específicos de Brasil, muchos de estos desafíos no son diferentes a los de otras naciones (democráticas) emergentes. Ofrecemos diversas recomendaciones técnicas y de políticas públicas para impulsar el desarrollo turístico hacia la agenda 2030.

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 12 no. 4/5/6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Euro Marques Júnior, Jose Alcides Gobbo, Fernando Fukunaga, Roberto Cerchione and Piera Centobelli

This paper aims to highlight the degree of diffusion and intensity of use of knowledge management systems (KMSs) among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Brazil and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the degree of diffusion and intensity of use of knowledge management systems (KMSs) among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Brazil and apply a taxonomy that synthesizes the strategies of use of KMSs by the SMEs. In addition, it seeks to better understand the processes, practices and technologies of KM by SMEs, pointing improvements in the KMS of Brazilian SMEs and contributing to obtain better results in the search for efficiency and innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review on KMSs used by SMEs, an empirical investigation was conceived, developed and conducted through online questionnaires involving 49 selected SMEs operating in several sectors.

Findings

This paper reinforces the results of the previous work of Cerchione and Esposito (2017) that point to the existence of a reciprocal relationship between KM-Tools and KM-Practices: one reinforces the other and vice versa. On the other hand, it indicates a difference in the behavior of Brazilian companies in relation to the sample of Italian companies studied by Cerchione and Esposito (2017), which presented a negative correlation between the general differentiation index and the general use intensity index of SMEs, while the Brazilian ones showed a positive correlation.

Research limitations/implications

The study points out the need for greater dissemination of practices and tools to support knowledge management (KM), as well as greater support for the implementation and effective use of these practices and tools within the organizational context of SMEs.

Practical implications

This paper identifies the main practices and tools to support KM used by Brazilian SMEs, indicating the need for investments in employee training and acquisition of tools.

Social implications

SMEs represent an important part of the generation of jobs and income in Brazil. Initiatives that lead to the successful implementation of tools and practices to support KM can increase the efficiency and productivity of these organizations.

Originality/value

This paper applies in a sample of Brazilian companies the taxonomy proposed by Cerchione and Esposito (2017) combining strategies of SMEs for the use of KMSs.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article

Kelyane Silva, Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos, Josealdo Tonholo and Manuel Mira Godinho

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the patenting activity of the Brazilian academic sector vis-à-vis the domestic business sector, taking into account the recent…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the patenting activity of the Brazilian academic sector vis-à-vis the domestic business sector, taking into account the recent evolution of Brazil’s industrial policies. The paper differentiates between “university academic patents”, which are owned by the universities, and “non-university academic patents”, which despite being invented by academic staff are not owned by the universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ cross-checked information regarding the names of all inventors with Brazilian addresses in PCT patent applications in the Espacenet database with the names of researchers in the CVs available on the Lattes Platform of CNPq. The analysis specifically focussed on patent applications published in the PCT with Brazilian priority for the 2002-2012 period.

Findings

It was found that the Brazilian academic patents concentrate on science-based technology areas, especially in the Pharma Biotechnology domain. For a total of 466 patent applications with Brazilian priority in this field, 233 have academic inventors. Of those 233 academic applications, 66.1 per cent have universities as their owners, while the remaining 33.9 per cent are not owned by universities. Further, it was found that there are more Brazilian academic patents in the biotechnology sub-domain than those filed by the business sector.

Research limitations/implications

This research was based on the intersection of patent databases and the content available on the official curriculum base of Brazil (Lattes Platform, CNPq). Once the curricula information are voluntary, there are risks inherent reliability of this information.

Practical implications

This study allows us to identify more accurately which is the effective role of the Brazilian Academy in patents generation, revealing that a significant unaccounted deposits with personal inventors or companies’ ownership really have a academic contribution.

Originality/value

This paper shows that the academic sector plays a key role in Brazil’s international patenting activity, particularly in science-intensive technology domains, and it highlights the specific contribution of academic patents not owned by universities.

Objetivo

Este trabalho apresenta a análise da atividade de patenteamento do setor acadêmico brasileiro considerando a recente evolução das políticas de promoção da inovação no Brasil. O artigo tem como base a diferenciação necessária entre “patentes acadêmicas universitárias”, que são patentes/depósitos cujos requerentes são as universidades, e as “patentes acadêmicas não-universitárias” que, apesar de ser inventadas por docentes da academia, não têm as universidades como requerentes dos depósitos.

Metodologia

Foram cruzadas informações de todos os inventores constantes nos pedidos de patentes de origem brasileira realizados pela via PCT, com os nomes dos pesquisadores com currículos disponíveis na Plataforma Lattes do CNPq. A análise incidiu sobre pedidos de patentes publicado na via do PCT com prioridade brasileira para o período 2002-2012 contidos no banco de dados do Espacenet.

Resultados

Verificou-se que as patentes acadêmicas brasileiras se concentram em áreas mais tecnológicas, especialmente no domínio de Farmácia-Biotecnologia. Para um total de 466 pedidos de patentes com prioridade brasileiros neste setor, 233 tinham inventores acadêmicos. Destes 233 pedidos acadêmicos, 66.1% têm suas universidades como titulares ou co-titulares, enquanto os restantes 33.9% não são de propriedade das universidades. Verificou-se ainda que existem mais patentes no sub-domínio de biotecnologia depositadas pelo setor acadêmico brasileiro do que aquelas requeridas pelo setor empresarial privado.

Originalidade

Neste artigo, demonstrou que a academia desempenha um papel ainda mais expressivo na atividade de patenteamento internacional do Brasil, particularmente em domínios de tecnologia intensivos em ciência, e destaca a contribuição específica das “patentes acadêmicas não-universitárias”, que possuem origem lastreada pelos pesquisadores da academia.

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Book part

Nuno Arroteia and Khalid Hafeez

This chapter explores how the recognition of opportunities regarding developing technology and entering a new market is influenced by the systemic effect of social forces…

Abstract

This chapter explores how the recognition of opportunities regarding developing technology and entering a new market is influenced by the systemic effect of social forces. These include institutions, social networks and the entrepreneur’s cognitive frames. This study adopts a longitudinal perspective by capturing and analysing the phenomenon in two moments: first, when the businesses started to operate domestically and second, when they began to internationalise. The cases of five Brazilian technology firms are analysed. The findings reveal the systemic and mutually reinforcing effect of these social forces on the recognition of opportunities. The entrepreneurs’ cognitive frames were particularly vital in recognising opportunities to enter the Brazilian market. The institutional support provided by universities along with government mechanisms and entrepreneurs’ social networks were essential to accrue experiential and non-experiential knowledge of international markets, therefore contributing to the recognition of international opportunities. The temporal perspective employed in this research assists the understanding of how historical events shape entrepreneurs’ capabilities to recognise and change company discourse to pursue the recognition of international opportunities. The results provide guidelines for researchers, practitioners and policy-makers, particularly in the emerging economies in Latin America, to support the growth and flourishing of entrepreneurial ventures through pursuing international opportunities.

Details

International Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets: Nature, Drivers, Barriers and Determinants
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-564-1

Keywords

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