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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 May 2022

Songyan Hou

In 2019, the goal of developing a world-class open university through different stages was put forward by the Open University of China (OUC), which indicated that…

Abstract

Purpose

In 2019, the goal of developing a world-class open university through different stages was put forward by the Open University of China (OUC), which indicated that internationalization for Chinese open universities came to the agenda. However, international activities of open universities are different from those in conventional universities, and how to fulfill the goal of internationalization is a main issue faced by educators in Chinese open and distance education arena. This research aimed to identify ways of internationalization for the OUC system.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was employed as a tool to get feedback from target audience. A questionnaire was released to academics, management staff and researchers to the 44 provincial open universities. A total of 501 samples were collected. Among them, 332 were from academics, which accounted for 66.27%, 152 were from school-level directors and 17 were from university-level leaders.

Findings

By analyzing the data collected in the survey, the study proposes four recommendations to fulfill the goal of internationalization for Chinese open universities and these include strengthening top-level strategies, building up professional teams, sharing learning resources and delivering upper-level programs.

Research limitations/implications

The targets of this research were all staff at different levels in the central and local institutions; no students were included in the research. Therefore, this did not reflect a picture from the student perspective, and this will be improved in future research.

Originality/value

Since the establishment of the OUC in 1979, there has been no clear and systematic pathways for the development of internationalization of Chinese open universities. This research proposes a theoretical framework of internationalization for open universities and suggests a direction for future development.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2022

Kader Sahin, Ekrem Tatoğlu, Kubra Mert, Tuğba Kaplan and Ismail Golgeci

This paper aims to investigate the internationalization motives behind location choice among emerging country business groups (EBGs) and the way in which institutional…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the internationalization motives behind location choice among emerging country business groups (EBGs) and the way in which institutional factors affect Türkiye’s foreign direct investment (FDI).

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops a multi-perspective framework that integrates the ownership, location and internalization (OLI) paradigm (Dunning and Lundan, 2008) and the linkage, leverage and learning (LLL) model (Mathews, 2006) with neo-institutional theory to explain the internationalization of EBGs. It adopts a multiple-case study research method relying on 14 semi-structured interviews with top executives to explore the internationalization strategy of a set of Turkish BGs.

Findings

This study supports the combination of the OLI paradigm, the LLL model and neo-institutional theory to explain EBGs’ internationalizing behaviors. Turkish BGs have adopted both asset exploitation and asset augmentation internationalization strategies. The institutional legitimacy mechanism moderates the internationalization motives of Turkish BGs, and their host country location choice and normative pressures are more salient than their regulative and cognitive pressures.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on a sample of EBGs from Türkiye, and this restriction limits the generalizability/applicability of the findings to BGs globally.

Originality/value

Few studies have considered EBGs and their internationalization strategies in the international business field. This paper puts forward an integrated framework for analyzing internationalization and legitimacy in the institutional context of EBGs. This study highlights that BGs bridge institutional voids. Focusing on Turkish BGs helps to answer Granovetter’s Coasian question and contributes to the understanding of emerging countries’ economic development.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Andrei Panibratov, Olga Garanina, Abdul-Kadir Ameyaw and Amit Anand

The authors revisit the traditional OLI paradigm with the objective to allocate politics within the set of internationalization advantages by building on the political…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors revisit the traditional OLI paradigm with the objective to allocate politics within the set of internationalization advantages by building on the political strategy literature. The authors outline the specific role of political advantage that facilitates and propels the international expansion of state-owned multinational enterprises (SOMNEs) from emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual paper which explains the role of political advantage in the internationalization of SOMNEs. The authors expand the scope of the OLI to capture the impact of firms' home governments' policies and relationships with host countries which are leveraged by SOMNEs in their internationalization.

Findings

The authors define political advantage as a new type of advantage which depends on and is sourced from external actors. The authors argue that P-advantage is a multifaceted and unstable part of POLI composition, which is contingent on political shifts and may be leveraged by various firms. The authors also assert that political capabilities have limitations in sustaining political advantage, which may be compensated via enhancing the political activity of firms.

Originality/value

The authors conceptualize the POLI-advantages paradigm for the internationalization of SOMNEs by proposing that in addition to the traditional ownership, location, and internalization advantages, firms can capitalize on their political advantage to enter markets where internationalization might have been difficult without their political connections.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2022

Tianchen Li

Synthesising an individual–opportunity nexus model, this research aims to develop a model of early internationalisation by integrating international competitiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

Synthesising an individual–opportunity nexus model, this research aims to develop a model of early internationalisation by integrating international competitiveness readiness, entrepreneurial motives and home country institutions and empirically assesses this model using a multi-level estimate design.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon a global context comprising 79,402 entrepreneurs from 87 countries, this research applies a Heckman 2-step model together with a multi-level approach that allows to deal with self-selection bias and to take the hierarchical nature of the data into account.

Findings

The findings show that early internationalisation is significantly affected by entrepreneurs' international competitiveness readiness and this association is moderated by entrepreneurial motives. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the individual-level effects are further modified by the quality of country-level governance.

Practical implications

The research findings have significant implications and value for policy-makers who are aiming to stimulate the rate of early internationalisation by influencing the quality of governance.

Originality/value

The results contribute to the development of knowledge and theoretical bases in international entrepreneurship (IE). The results provide a multi-level view on the relationships between entrepreneurs and the internationalisation of entrepreneurs' firms from an integrative perspective, thereby complementing the perspective of international competitiveness readiness that primarily focuses on the effects of inherent resources and capabilities.

Details

Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Virginia Blanzo-Mazagatos, Juan Bautista Delgado-García and Jesús P. Barrero

The study aims to analyze for the Spanish context the influence of the involvement of several generations in the firm's management on family firm internationalization. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to analyze for the Spanish context the influence of the involvement of several generations in the firm's management on family firm internationalization. The authors also respond to the call in the literature to consider the influence of SEW on family firm internationalizations by analyzing the moderating effect of the importance family managers attach to each of the socioemotional wealth (SEW) dimensions – enrichment, continuity and prominence on the relationship between multiple generations involved in management and family firm internationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

The information was obtained by means of a questionnaire sent to the CEOs of family businesses. The authors’ sample consists of 147 Spanish family firms.

Findings

The authors find that the involvement of multiple generations in management is positively related to the internationalization of family firms. Furthermore, the importance that family CEOs attribute to the enrichment dimension of SEW reduces the intensity of the effect of the involvement of several generations in management on family firm internationalization.

Originality/value

The authors’ results, for the Spanish context, complement previous studies (Meneses et al., 2014) showing that the entry of new generations into the family business opens a window of opportunity for the internationalization of the family business. Furthermore, their study shows that the diverse family objectives by CEOs can have different, even conflicting effects on the internationalization decision. These results suggest that the enrichment dimension, which focuses on the short-term family goals may restrain the internationalization of the family business. However, continuity and prominence dimensions, which are related with long term family objectives and jointly enable the fulfillment of nonfamily stakeholders’ objectives, do not influence the internationalization of the family firms analyzed.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Felix Maringe

Although internationalisation has become a key strategic element of universities across the world, there is little empirical evidence suggesting the nature and extent of…

3919

Abstract

Purpose

Although internationalisation has become a key strategic element of universities across the world, there is little empirical evidence suggesting the nature and extent of integration of internationalisation into the strategic mission of individual institutions. Little is also known about challenges faced by institutions in their quest to integrate internationalisation into their broad strategic choices. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study is conducted in six universities in the UK selected from the Russell pre‐1992 group, the post‐1994 group and former colleges of higher education (HE). The study has three distinct but interrelated aims: how internationalisation is conceptualised in the study institutions; the available evidence for its structural integration into the university services and understanding the perceived challenges institutions face in the quest to integrate the idea as a broad strategic element of those institutions.

Findings

There exist a range of distinct barriers working against the full integration of the concept into the institutional cultures. These include: conceptual and structural deficiencies in the organisation of institutional internationalisation; over emphasis on human exchange initiatives over cultural integration efforts and increasing undercurrents of feelings among staff and students of local neglect at the expense of global attention.

Originality/value

The paper creates a sound basis for a more broad‐based study across the HE sector. Specifically, the paper suggests that the increasing cultural diversity in UK HE brought about in part by internationalisation and also by general human migration occasions new thinking and practices in organisational and management terms to address the needs of the “mosaic or cultural melting pot” phenomena characterising the increasingly multicultural HE learning environments.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Graham Elkin, Faiyaz Devjee and John Farnsworth

Purpose – There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of…

3436

Abstract

Purpose – There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development and testing of a model for measuring the internationalisation of universities and to assist with the strategic planning of interationalisation. Design/methodology/approach – The 11‐dimension model was developed as a result of a literature search and interviews with academic and non‐academic university staff. The model was trialled with a range of New Zealand and overseas universities. Findings – The model received widespread support as a useful way of conceptualising and visualising the internationalisation of universities. Measurement of internationalisation was demonstrated. The model was useful for the facilitation of the planning of investment in the various dimensions that make up internationalisation. The “star” model displayed both the current and ideal levels of internationalisation in visual form for an institution. It can be used to make systematic decisions about future institutional activity resource investment. Research limitations/implications – The testing is limited and will need to be extended to other countries, types of universities, faculties, departments and programmes. Originality/value – The model is useful to those who manage the intenationalisation of univerities, clarifying the concept and making systematic action to increase internationalisation possible.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Graham Elkin, John Farnsworth and Andrew Templer

The paper's aims is o explore the relationship between having a complete strategic focus and the extent of the internationalisation of university business schools and the…

3784

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aims is o explore the relationship between having a complete strategic focus and the extent of the internationalisation of university business schools and the level of desire for the future internationalisation and to further validate the model of internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected for business schools and business facilities using the Elkin, Devjee model of internationalisation concerning the current and desired levels of internationalisation of the business schools. In addition schools were asked six key questions about strategic focus.

Findings

It was observed that those schools with complete strategic focus had higher levels of current internationalisation and greater aspirations for even higher levels of internationalisation than schools without a complete strategic focus. It was also found that there may be a connection between research intensity and internationalisation.

Research limitations/implications

Future samples would be better to clearly separate whole universities and business schools and the role and status of respondents.

Practical limitations

In order to be successful in internationalisation institutes need to develop a complete strategic focus.

Originality/value

The use of the model of internationalisation was further validated and the model was used for the first time in conjunction with strategic focus to illustrate strategy in practice.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2022

Xiaobi Zheng, Jiayue Qian and Danbo Chen

Many newly established Internet loss-making enterprises (NEILEs) are always willing to expand overseas within a very short time from their establishment. This phenomenon…

Abstract

Purpose

Many newly established Internet loss-making enterprises (NEILEs) are always willing to expand overseas within a very short time from their establishment. This phenomenon is becoming a hot research area. This paper aims to explore why these enterprises are always willing to expand overseas rapidly even if they are facing severe and persistent losses, and to study the different rapid internationalization modes and the international market entry ways for NEILEs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructs a theoretical framework with the dual situation of negative attainment discrepancy and advantageous slack resources to explain the rapid internationalization of NEILEs. Furthermore, cross-case comparative analysis method, based on interviews, questionnaires and secondary data collection, is adopted to reveal the rapid internationalization modes and the international market entry ways of such enterprises.

Findings

Whether blocking competitors or seeking opportunities or both, NEILEs' goal of rapid internationalization depends on the severity and persistence of negative attainment discrepancy. When the severity and persistence of negative attainment discrepancy are very significant, moderate and mild, NEILEs choose sniper-type, opportunity-type and dual-type internationalization target mode in turn; it is very important for NEILEs to match advantageous slack resources and international market entry ways to achieve specific internationalization goals.

Research limitations/implications

This paper enriches the understanding of NEILEs' transnational entrepreneurial behavior in the era of digital economy. The theoretical contribution of this paper is that the authors build a theoretical framework based on the logical starting point, the logical fulcrum and the logic ending point for understanding the rapid internationalization of NEILEs.

Practical implications

This study demonstrates that NEILEs can also expand into foreign markets according to their own characteristics. Undoubtedly, they need to choose appropriate internationalization target mode and international market entry way in line with the extent and duration of their losses, and their advantageous slack resources.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors construct the rapid internationalization theory of NEILEs based on the dual situation of negative attainment discrepancy and advantageous slack resources in digital economy era. Moreover, the authors discover the behavioral characteristics and patterns of NEILEs' transnational entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Krishna Satyanarayana, Deepak Chandrashekar, Arun Sukumar and Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi

The purpose of this study is to explore how international entrepreneurial orientation of top management team (TMT) of software product firms influence their firms'…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how international entrepreneurial orientation of top management team (TMT) of software product firms influence their firms' internationalization activities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses interpretive analysis techniques and examines data collected from in-depth interviews and secondary sources from 20 software product firms.

Findings

The analysis of data reveals the existence of a pathway through which the international entrepreneurial orientation of the TMT influences the firm's strategic learning functions (knowledge creation, dissemination, interpretation and implementation) which in turn influences the firm's internationalization activities.

Research limitations/implications

The authors extend the existing knowledge by demonstrating an existence of path to interpret the individual attribute of international entrepreneurial orientation of TMT with the organization's knowledge management functions. Building on the theories of knowledge-based view and organizational learning, and by leveraging the microfoundations approach, a process model is also derived based on evidence from data analysis to enable examination of the combined effects of the international entrepreneurial orientation of TMT, firm's strategic learning on internationalization.

Originality/value

The authors provide an integrative process model that connects TMTs' international entrepreneurial orientation to the firms' strategic learning processes, which in turn is linked to examine the combined influence of these constructs on the internationalization activities of a firm.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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