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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2018

Benedikt Schnurr

This paper aims to investigate how product positioning affects the influence of product gender on consumers’ product evaluations.

2016

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how product positioning affects the influence of product gender on consumers’ product evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

Using experimental designs, this research investigates how hedonic versus functional consumption goals affect consumers’ choice between feminine and masculine products (Study 1) and how positioning products as either hedonic or functional influences consumers’ evaluations of feminine and masculine products (Studies 2 and 3).

Findings

When pursuing hedonic consumption goals, consumers are more likely to choose feminine (vs masculine) products, whereas when pursuing functional consumption goals, consumers are more likely to choose masculine (vs feminine) products. Further, consumers evaluate feminine products more favorably when the products are hedonically (vs functionally) positioned, whereas they evaluate masculine products more favorably when the products are functionally (vs hedonically) positioned. Perceptions of product credibility mediate this effect.

Research limitations/implications

Connecting theories of gender identity, product positioning and congruity, this study extends previous literature by demonstrating that the effects of product gender are context-dependent.

Practical implications

Many companies use visual design cues (e.g. shape, color) to promote their products’ gender. The findings of this study suggest that companies promoting their products as feminine should highlight the products’ hedonic benefits, whereas companies promoting their products as masculine should highlight the products’ functional benefits.

Originality/value

Applying a conceptual congruity approach, this research is the first to demonstrate that the effects of product gender on consumers’ product evaluations depend on the product’s positioning.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2018

Timucin Ozcan, Ahmet M. Hattat and Michael Hair

This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of positioning unknown ingredients either with the presence or absence of framing; both are common in marketplace (e.g…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of positioning unknown ingredients either with the presence or absence of framing; both are common in marketplace (e.g. Secret® deodorant visibly claims “aluminum chlorohydrate” while Crystal® promotes “no aluminum chlorohydrate”).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used three scenario-based experiments. The participants were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk online panel and randomly assigned to a variety of experimental conditions.

Findings

Initial study results show that consumers have more positive evaluations and purchase intentions for absence positioning than presence positioning, because absence positioning induces greater perceptions of protection. In the second study, these results are extended using multiple ingredients, along with competitor products; they show that absence positioning leads to better evaluations than presence positioning and replicate the mediation effect that was found earlier. In the final study, through manipulating participants’ regulatory focus, the authors show that absence-positioned ingredients have a higher choice share when consumers are in the prevention mindset. Conversely, when customers are in promotion mindset and looking for better performance, presence positioning of ingredients seems to have higher choice shares.

Research limitations/implications

The research has implications for product development, promotions, labeling and packaging, showing the positive influence of absence positioning of unknown ingredients.

Practical implications

Marketers may emphasize the absence of unknown ingredients in their products instead of following a strategy that highlights the inclusion of them.

Originality/value

To the authors’ extant knowledge, this research is an initial attempt to understand how consumers react to promotion of product ingredients. In addition, it contributes to the literature in unknown attributes by showing that absence positioning of certain types of ingredients is perceived better than presence framing of them.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Olga Ampuero and Natalia Vila

This paper seeks to discuss the need to understand consumer perceptions in order to correctly design product packing and to achieve the desired position in the minds of consumers.

96957

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to discuss the need to understand consumer perceptions in order to correctly design product packing and to achieve the desired position in the minds of consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection was divided into two phases. The first, (based on designers' opinions), to determine the key graphic variables in the design of packaging. The second, (based on consumers' opinions), to associate each packaging with a positioning strategy. The seven productpositioning strategies selected were represented from the consumers' standpoint using multidimensional scaling. Four maps were obtained related to: alternative packaging colours; alternative packaging typography; alternative packaging graphical forms; alternative packaging images

Findings

Each positioning strategy appears associated with particular packaging dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

Consumers have exhibited harmonious perceptions towards products‐packaging strategies, so one can conclude that a general feeling as to what a particular packaging exactly means exists. So the general opinion should guide packaging designers to appropriately meet consumers' expectations.

Originality/value

A range of simulated packaging was prepared for the 46 consumers that took part in the two‐phase experiment: One of the seven positioning strategies was explained. For example: “Product ‘A’ is positioned as reasonably priced. People say the price is OK”; Case to be solved: “From this selection, choose the packaging that seems most suitable for product ‘A’, taking its characteristics into account”. The simulated packaging alternatives were shown and the subject chose the options that seemed most suitable (colour, typography, forms and images). The sequence was repeated for the remaining six positioning typologies.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 April 2012

Gerald E. Smith

The predominant view of positioning in both the literature and practice – a remarkably uni- or two-dimensional view – asks these questions: (1) What dimension should the…

Abstract

The predominant view of positioning in both the literature and practice – a remarkably uni- or two-dimensional view – asks these questions: (1) What dimension should the product or service be positioned on, for example, unique styling, design, performance, and quality? (2) What category does the product or service compete in or belong to? So marketers therefore ask: Should the computer brand be positioned as reliable (Dell), or faster (Toshiba)? Research on economic value is well established in the pricing literature, especially in business-to-business pricing. Most of this literature focuses on differentiation value, that is, how to calculate the worth of the differential benefits a customer receives from using the firm's product versus the competitive substitute. But a much less studied area of this research deals with the price of the competitive reference product, or competitive frame of reference. Rarely do marketers extend positioning strategy to the level of economic value, asking: How is the product framed, and how valuable is the frame? The purpose of this chapter is to explore competitive frames of reference in business-to-business positioning. Specifically, what are alternative types of frames of reference? What is the role of the reference price in frames of reference? What are the implications of choosing one type of frame of reference versus another?

Details

Business-to-Business Marketing Management: Strategies, Cases, and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-576-1

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Bashar S. Gammoh, Anthony C. Koh and Sam C. Okoroafo

This study aims to extend current research efforts by utilizing the institutional theory to propose cross-cultural-based asymmetrical moderating effects of ethnocentrism…

1038

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to extend current research efforts by utilizing the institutional theory to propose cross-cultural-based asymmetrical moderating effects of ethnocentrism and cultural openness on the effectiveness of global, foreign and local consumer culture brand positioning strategies of high-tech products.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an experimental design in the USA (developed country) and India (developing country). Print advertisements across the two countries were used to explore the proposed moderating effects of ethnocentrism and cultural openness on consumer brand evaluations of a high-tech product under the three different consumer culture brand positioning strategies.

Findings

Overall, this study provided empirical evidence in support of the proposed cross-cultural asymmetrical effects. The study findings indicate that consumer ethnocentrism seems to be more important in influencing a subject’s brand evaluations across the positioning strategies in a developed country like the USA, while consumer cultural openness will be more important in influencing a subject’s brand evaluations across the positioning strategies in a developing country like India.

Originality/value

Despite existing research efforts on the potential benefits of positioning brands using global, foreign or local consumer cultures, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of these positioning strategies across different cultures. Theoretically, this research draws on the institutional theory to investigate the asymmetrical cross-cultural moderating effects of ethnocentrism and cultural openness on the effectiveness of the three-consumer culture brand positioning strategies. Managerially, this study provides empirically based suggestions for brand managers attempting to position their brands with different segments of consumers while highlighting the importance of cultural differences between developed and developing markets.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 April 1993

Shaheen Borna and Joseph Chapman

This article examines two common marketing terms: product positioning and product differentiation. Many authors use these terms interchangeably, yet most marketing texts…

3025

Abstract

This article examines two common marketing terms: product positioning and product differentiation. Many authors use these terms interchangeably, yet most marketing texts treat product positioning and product differentiation as two separate concepts. This article attempts to identify the underlying concepts of both product differentiation and product positioning. Product differentiation is shown to be a special case of product positioning; therefore, it is suggested that marketers may want to abandon the concept of product differentiation in favor of product positioning.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Mosad Zineldin and Torbjörn Bredenlöw

While there are many studies on the relationship between service quality and productivity/efficiency (prodeff), between service quality and image and between services and…

5567

Abstract

While there are many studies on the relationship between service quality and productivity/efficiency (prodeff), between service quality and image and between services and positioning, so far, no work in the literature has examined the triangular relationship between quality, prodeff and positioning. This article aims to develop theoretically and empirically an insight understanding of the strategic relationship between service quality, prodeff and positioning strategies. A case study shows that the choice of positioning strategy is not a simple one: it is not merely a question of quality and prodeff, but concerns the behavior of the entire organization. Some key quality, prodeff and positioning measurement areas identified from the literature and the case study are outlined in the paper. Finally, the paper argues that the quality of PRODSERV and prodeff strategies must be tied to broad business and positioning strategies and should be part of the organization’s mission/vision statements.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 16 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2020

Natasha Saqib

The purpose of this paper is to review state-of-the-art literature on product/brand positioning to re-examine the positioning concept and developing a more comprehensive…

21779

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review state-of-the-art literature on product/brand positioning to re-examine the positioning concept and developing a more comprehensive definition from a theoretical viewpoint.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of positioning was conducted. The review conformed to a rigorous set of core principles: it was systematic (organized according to a method designed to address the review questions), transparent (explicitly stated), reproducible and updatable and synthesized (summarized the evidence relating to the review question).

Findings

The literature review reveals that there is lack of coherent definition for positioning, and there is no mutual agreement among marketing scholars and practitioners about the exact meaning of the concept. Therefore, comprehensive definition of positioning encompassing the five underlying positioning perspectives (competition; empty slot/mind; consumers’ perception, differentiation and competitive advantage) is suggested.

Research limitations/implications

This paper will be useful for academicians to analyze the current nature of academic research in this area and will provide an added advantage to managers to design and implement positioning strategies for their product/brands that will allow their organizations to gain competitive advantage. This study acknowledges limitations with respect to its exclusive search criteria, which might affect its generalizability.

Social implications

Position and positioning is of relevance in society in broad terms, e.g. in sports, politics and culture. Positioning strategy is discussed and implemented in different industries (business-to-business and consumer), for all kinds of brands (including, for instance, corporate brands) and for “brands” in the very widest sense (such as places or people).

Originality/value

This is the first systematic review of positioning that provides a detailed understanding of the current state of positioning research on a single platform and also draws a comprehensive positioning conceptualization.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Lenka van Riemsdijk, Paul T.M. Ingenbleek, Marleen Houthuijs and Hans C.M. van Trijp

Next to organic food products, an assortment of ethical products is emerging in the supermarket that targets the large market segment of consumers that are open for…

Abstract

Purpose

Next to organic food products, an assortment of ethical products is emerging in the supermarket that targets the large market segment of consumers that are open for ethical product choices but do not restrict themselves to them. The purpose of this paper is to examine the positioning strategies that marketers use to persuade consumers in this segment to buy animal-friendly products (AFPs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors approach product positioning from a consumption values perspective from which they examine strategies that make animal welfare (AW) personally relevant to the buyer because they reinforce AW with suitable consumption value (functional, emotional, social, sensory, epistemic and/or ethical). Using data from 129 AFPs from a Dutch supermarket, the authors explore the positioning strategies of these products.

Findings

The results identified four different strategies used to position AFPs in a Dutch supermarket. They respectively call upon consumers’ emotions, functional or sensory perceptions, curiosity and sense of public welfare. The findings also show substantial category differences, with fresh products relying predominantly on emotional value and processed food on functional value.

Originality/value

This study is the first to empirically explore positioning strategies of AFPs on the basis of their consumption values. The study offers a novel perspective to understand how companies try to extend the market for AFPs, thus providing a basis for a new research agenda.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2008

Umut Asan and Seçkin Polat

In this paper we discuss the relationship between the competence-based perspective and market positioning. We argue that a product, which as the ultimate expression of a…

Abstract

In this paper we discuss the relationship between the competence-based perspective and market positioning. We argue that a product, which as the ultimate expression of a firm's competence reflects a firm's distinctive competences, should have the potential to achieve a superior market position. We suggest how a specific capability of central importance in product creation – modular design capability – may help firms to achieve advantageous market positioning. In particular, we develop a framework for assessing the potential impact of modular design capability on customers’ perception of competing products in the market for mobile phone handsets.

Details

Advances in Applied Business Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-520-8

1 – 10 of over 125000