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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1980

G. H. Hooley

Examines the use by marketing researchers of a set of techniques, originally developed in mathematical psychology, and termed multidimensional scaling or MDS. States that…

Abstract

Examines the use by marketing researchers of a set of techniques, originally developed in mathematical psychology, and termed multidimensional scaling or MDS. States that MDS techniques can operate on a variety of different types of data — they have a common set of objectives and these are examined. Puts forward that MDS techniques seek to represent these relationships in a spatial configuration or model, so that the relationships between brands and variables can be used to aid product positioning and respondents' product requirements can be used as a basis for market segmentation. Proffers that identification of brand images has been approached from two broad directions — the aggregative approach and the disaggregative approach, and goes on to explain these terms and uses in full. Highlights types of scaling and relevant data involving three types of scaling: stimulus space generation; dimension identification; and joint space analysis, discussing these in greater detail. Summarises by stating there remain certain technical problems and limitations of MDS that require further investigation and that results are not always as clear‐cut as examples cited.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1977

Peter Gilmour

Examines the use of a non‐metric multidimensional scaling to establish the requirements of shippers, in terms of desirable characteristics for eight different types of…

Abstract

Examines the use of a non‐metric multidimensional scaling to establish the requirements of shippers, in terms of desirable characteristics for eight different types of movement. Believes that transport companies often develop marketing strategies without paying sufficiently close attention to the shippers' needs. Provides comparisons of actual adverts with requirements of shippers, such as desirable characteristics for differing types of movements. Concludes that some interesting findings have emerged from this study and this approach may prove to be a worthwhile method for transportation companies to re‐evaluate the advert segment of their marketing strategies.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1976

M.R. Crask and D.B. McKay

Attention has been paid recently to the retail‐consumer link in the distribution channel. The importance of this attention, both for the retailer's revenues and the…

Abstract

Attention has been paid recently to the retail‐consumer link in the distribution channel. The importance of this attention, both for the retailer's revenues and the consumer's satisfaction, is obvious, but the way in which this link should be modelled is not obvious. A critical component for any such model is a measure of retail‐consumer separation or distance. In this article a measure of cognitive distance is proposed and evaluated with encouraging results.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0020-7527

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1987

T.P. Beane and D.M. Ennis

It is important to remain creative when conducting segmentation research, as many different ways to segment a market can exist. Five main bases are discussed: geographic…

Abstract

It is important to remain creative when conducting segmentation research, as many different ways to segment a market can exist. Five main bases are discussed: geographic, demographic, psychographic, behaviouristic and image. This is followed by an overview of the main techniques used to establish and verify segments, including automatic interaction detector, conjoint analysis, multidimensional scaling and canonical analysis.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Martina G. Gallarza, Francisco Arteaga, Giacomo Del Chiappa, Irene Gil-Saura and Morris B. Holbrook

In the fertile line of research on consumer value from the services literature, a gap exists between theoretical and empirical knowledge, in particular regarding…

Abstract

Purpose

In the fertile line of research on consumer value from the services literature, a gap exists between theoretical and empirical knowledge, in particular regarding Holbrook’s conceptual value framework. The purpose of this paper is to find construct validity for a multidimensional value scale based on Holbrook’s proposal.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review, a qualitative phase, and consultation with an expert, eight value scales (efficiency, service quality, play, aesthetics, status, esteem, ethics, and escapism as an adaptation of spirituality) are tested on a sample of 585 hotel customers and are further analyzed with simple and partial correlations, multiple regressions, and structural modeling.

Findings

Following the literature on the merits of Holbrook’s value typology, results are presented in three concatenated phases: validation of Holbrook’s eight value scales corresponding to his eight value types; interrelationships between these value types showing a predominance of the extrinsic-intrinsic and self-other dimensions; and construction of six indices based on the 2×2×2 matrix (self, other, extrinsic, intrinsic, active, and reactive) and a value index as a higher-order representation. The results support Holbrook’s typology, thereby supporting construct validity for the multidimensional scales.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for further conceptual research on value are presented. Meanwhile, the empirical study is context-specific, i.e. related to a hospitality experience.

Originality/value

Although Holbrook’s typology has gained widespread attention, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no previous research has tested all eight value types simultaneously in the same empirical work.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Naresh K. Malhotra and Betsy Charles Bartels

In international marketing research, the researchers are often required to prespecify the salient attributes of a product or service. However, research that prespecifies…

Abstract

In international marketing research, the researchers are often required to prespecify the salient attributes of a product or service. However, research that prespecifies attributes imposes cultural bias on the results, whereas research that does not specify attributes is open to culturally biased interpretations. The purpose is to present a way of minimizing this bias by using correspondence analysis in a new way that minimizes this source of cultural bias. This is done by using a non‐attribute‐based approach to correspondence analysis. The approach is applied in a real‐life setting to analyze data obtained from a foreign country. Evidence on the validity of the approach is presented and compared with traditional multidimensional scaling. Several applications of this approach in minimizing the attribute prespecification bias in international marketing management are discussed, including image tracking and positioning.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Riaz Ahmed and Noor Azmi bin Mohamed

Literature reveals that there is a paucity of instruments to measure multidimensional top management support (TMS). The multidimensionality and the complexity of the TMS…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature reveals that there is a paucity of instruments to measure multidimensional top management support (TMS). The multidimensionality and the complexity of the TMS cannot be reflected by a single-dimensional construct. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate an instrument for the measurement of multidimensional TMS.

Design/methodology/approach

In this cross-sectional study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to check the validity and model fitness based on sample data collected from the PMI community. Ordinary least square and structural equation modeling techniques were used to test the research hypotheses and validate multidimensional TMS.

Findings

The findings revealed a significant positive correlation among all dimensions of top management and their significant influence on project success, especially on project efficiency and team dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

Based on the existing knowledge through a coherent and refined process, the development and validation of a top management support questionnaire (TMSQ) made a significant contribution to theories and research methods.

Practical implications

Multidimensional TMS provides an opportunity to ensure provision of apt assistance throughout the implementation of projects for improving organizational performance across the industries.

Originality/value

This study targeted a sample size of 300 to develop and validate an instrument, which is in line with previous research studies on the development and validation of a reliable instrument. To operationalize TMSQ, this study adopted an online survey and received 208 responses (69 percent) from the PMI community.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 66 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1999

Antreas D. Athanassopoulos and Nikos S. Labroukos

Examines issues related to the behaviour of corporate customers towards financial services in Greece. Deviates from the customary empirical approaches concerning customer…

Abstract

Examines issues related to the behaviour of corporate customers towards financial services in Greece. Deviates from the customary empirical approaches concerning customer satisfaction and loyalty issues since it is considered that banking, at the corporate level, entails issues that cannot be depicted into customer disconfirmation studies. Proposes a framework of analysis that draws on the assumption that corporate customers select their banking relationship on a product by product case. Furthermore, there is differentiation between the dominant criteria of bank selection with price not exhibiting the expected widespread dominance over other types of selection criteria. The empirical analysis was based on a sample of 468 Greek enterprises drawn from a population of the 2,197 largest and profitable Greek enterprises in Greece. Using methodologies of multidimensional scaling, MANOVA and multivariate discriminant analysis the study has shown that the extent to which individual firms are captured in global banking relationships can be explained.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2007

Ben Johnson and Charles Oppenheim

The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the social and citation networks of three information scientists: David Nicholas, Peter Williams and Paul Huntington.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the social and citation networks of three information scientists: David Nicholas, Peter Williams and Paul Huntington.

Design/methodology/approach

Similarities between citation patterns and social closeness were identified and discussed. A total of 16 individuals in the citation network were identified and investigated using citation analysis, and a matrix formed of citations made between those in the network. Social connections between the 16 in the citation network were then investigated by means of a questionnaire, the results of which were merged into a separate matrix. These matrices were converted into visual social networks, using multidimensional scaling. A new deviance measure was devised for drawing comparisons between social and citation closeness in individual cases.

Findings

Nicholas, Williams and Huntington were found to have cited 527 authors in the period 2000‐2003, the 16 most cited becoming the subjects of further citation and social investigation. This comparison, along with the examination of visual representations indicates a positive correlation between social closeness and citation counts. Possible explanations for this correlation are discussed, and implications considered. Despite this correlation, the information scientists were found to cite widely outside their immediate social connections.

Originality/value

Social network analysis has not been often used in combination with citation analysis to explore inter‐relationships in research teams.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Lawrence F. Cunningham, Clifford E. Young and James Gerlach

Few marketing studies look at service classifications for self‐service technologies (SSTs) and none directly compare consumer‐based perceptions of traditional services to…

Abstract

Purpose

Few marketing studies look at service classifications for self‐service technologies (SSTs) and none directly compare consumer‐based perceptions of traditional services to SSTs. To fill this gap, this study aims to examine how customers perceived traditional services and SSTs on service classifications criteria proposed by Lovelock, Bowen and Bell.

Design/methodology/approach

In two separate studies consumer ratings for each classification method on each service were obtained. Using multi‐dimensional scaling (MDS), 13 traditional services and 12 SSTs were separately mapped onto a perceptual space of service classifications.

Findings

The comparison of the two perceptual spaces reveals that consumers viewed the classifications of convenience, person/object, and delivery for SSTs differently than that for traditional services. The classifications of traditional services were represented by two dimensions of customization/standardization and person/object. In contrast, the classifications of SSTs were represented by two dimensions of customization/standardization and separability/inseparability. Thus the description of the underlying dimensions of services varied by traditional services or SSTs.

Research limitations/implications

It is possible that the results of the MDS were influenced by the use of preset classifications. Results may also be influenced by the authors' choice of MDS method. Further research is needed regarding the classification of SSTs and the use of these classifications for SST design.

Originality/value

This research extends previous consumer‐based classification research by including SSTs. The findings identified separate typologies for SSTs and traditional services. The typologies should be of interest to both researchers and managers who are interested in how SSTs are perceived by consumers.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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