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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2011

Gary Tribou

This paper examines different means of associating image attributes in sport. The findings reveal that an attribute strongly associated with a specific sport can have…

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2912

Abstract

This paper examines different means of associating image attributes in sport. The findings reveal that an attribute strongly associated with a specific sport can have almost no association with the sponsor, and vice-versa. Conversely, a low profile attribute can have a strong reference to the sponsor.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Maryam Tofighi, Bianca Grohmann and H. Onur Bodur

This paper aims to examine to what extent congruity between ethical attributes (i.e. product attributes with positive implications for the environment, human rights…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine to what extent congruity between ethical attributes (i.e. product attributes with positive implications for the environment, human rights, social issues and animal welfare) and brand concept (i.e. the unique meaning associated with a brand in consumers’ minds) influences consumers’ evaluations of brands offering ethical attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

Four studies involving North American consumers empirically tested the moderation effect of brand concept on consumer evaluations of ethical attributes and the mediating role of perceived congruity.

Findings

This research finds an interactive effect of ethical attribute type and brand concept on brand evaluations, such that congruent ethical attributebrand concept pairings (i.e. a utilitarian [symbolic] ethical attribute offered by a brand with a utilitarian [symbolic] brand concept) result in more favorable brand evaluations (Studies 1, 2, 3 and 4). Consumers’ perceptions of congruity between ethical attributes and brand concepts mediate this interactive effect (Studies 2 and 3). Moreover, a positive congruity effect of ethical attributes and brand concepts emerges at higher levels of conspicuous brand consumption (Study 4).

Research limitations/implications

It is important to acknowledge that the current research did not specifically consider the case of utilitarian and symbolic ethical attribute offerings by luxury brands. This is a question that is left to future investigations.

Practical implications

For marketing managers, findings indicate that brands gain from ethical attribute introductions only when these attributes are congruent with the brand concept. In addition, brands benefit to a greater extent from offering congruent ethical attributes when brand consumption is conspicuous.

Originality/value

The findings of this research contribute to the literature on the effect of ethical attributes on consumers’ responses to brands and highlight the importance of brands’ choice of ethical attributes.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Nadzirah Rosli, Norbani Che Ha and Ezlika M. Ghazali

This paper aims to investigate the effects of hotels’ brand attributes on consumers’ (patrons’ and guests’) by fostering brand credibility and brand attachment towards the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of hotels’ brand attributes on consumers’ (patrons’ and guests’) by fostering brand credibility and brand attachment towards the propensity of word-of-mouth. The study uses the signaling theory to assess the relationships among the constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach to validate the research model and the research hypotheses. To test the hypotheses, 474 travellers in Malaysia were recruited.

Findings

The empirical results reveal that hotel attributes have direct influence on brand credibility and brand attachment. Similarly, brand credibility has direct influence on brand attachment, while brand attachment also has direct influence on word-of-mouth. Consumers’ brand credibility partially mediates the relationship between hotel attributes and brand attachment. Likewise, consumer’s brand attachment also partially mediates the relationship between hotel attributes and word-of-mouth. Last but not least, brand credibility and brand attachment sequentially mediate the relationship between hotel attributes and word-of-mouth. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed together with its limitation and future research direction.

Originality/value

First, in terms of measures, brand attachment construct is operationalised as a formative second-order construct, with three reflective variables (brand passion, self-brand connection and brand affection) as the first-order constructs. In addition, brand credibility is also operationalised as a formative second-order construct, with three reflective variables (expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness) as the first-order constructs. On the other hand, hotel attributes construct is operationalised formatively as a higher-order abstraction of three categories of hotel facilities, which were also operationalised formatively (essential, culture compliant and in-room facilities). Second, this paper offers new insight into how brand credibility and brand attachment influence the relationship between hotel attributes and word-of-mouth. In a sustainability era, dissemination of complete and correct information is vital, to ensure consumers’ acceptance (e.g. likelihood to recommend to others). Thus, it is suggested that hotel managers to pay close attention to the role of brand credibility and brand attachment in tourists’ hotel choice, to secure sustainable brand.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Seung-Pyo Jun and Do-Hyung Park

Online web searches have played crucial roles in influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Web search traffic information enables researchers and practitioners to…

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3155

Abstract

Purpose

Online web searches have played crucial roles in influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Web search traffic information enables researchers and practitioners to better understand consumers in terms of their preferences and interests, among other things. The purpose of this paper is to use web search traffic information provided by Google Trends to derive relationships among product brands as well as those between product brands and product attributes to propose a method to enhance the visibility of consumer brand positioning.

Design/methodology/approach

This study builds upon the interesting observation that consumers’ behavior in performing simultaneous searches, or searches including two or more keywords, can be converted into data indicating relationships among brands as well as those between brands and their attributes. The study focuses on the cases of hybrid cars and tablet PCs, and applies a social network analysis method to identify these relationships. Time series information on web search traffic is used because it can track these two product groups from the early stages to the present. This step is completed to verify the changes in the status of each brand and in their relationships that occurred in consumers’ minds over time.

Findings

Results show that consumers’ web search behaviors reveal the brand positioning and brand-attribute associations in their minds. Specifically, using consumers’ simultaneous search data, the authors derived relationships among brands (brand-brand network) from consumers’ behaviors of searching simultaneously for two brands and the relationships between brands and attributes (brand-product attributes network) from consumers’ behavior of searching simultaneously for a specific brand and certain product attributes.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this study verifies that consumers’ web search traffic information can be used to microscopically identify the positions of individual brands and their relationships in the minds of consumers. Regarding practical applications, this study proposes a method that can be used by companies to track how consumers perceive their brands by performing a simple and cost-effective analysis using the free search traffic information provided by Google.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Graham Hankinson

Most studies of destination brand images have been conducted from the perspective of the leisure tourist. This study identifies brand images from a business tourist…

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30917

Abstract

Purpose

Most studies of destination brand images have been conducted from the perspective of the leisure tourist. This study identifies brand images from a business tourist perspective (people visiting destinations for business meetings, incentive events, conferences and exhibitions) and tests their relationship with perceived quality and commercial criteria.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on the brand image attributes associated with 15 UK destinations promoting themselves as business tourism centres were collected via repertory grid analysis from a sample of 25 organisations using business tourism facilities. A self‐completion questionnaire was used to measure managers’ ratings of the perceived quality of each destination and the commercial criteria used to select a destination. The data were analysed using content analysis, exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis.

Findings

The content analysis identified eight clusters of brand image attributes. Subsequent factor analysis identified three underlying dimensions – overall destination attractiveness, functionality, and ambience. While all three were correlated with perceived quality, commercial criteria were dominated by a destination's functional rather than ambience attributes.

Originality/value

The results of the study provide a more informed and systematic basis on which to develop a destination's business tourism positioning strategy by providing a framework for selecting relevant brand image attributes.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Lance Leuthesser, Chiranjeev S. Kohli and Katrin R. Harich

The halo effect is a systematic bias in attribute ratings resultingfrom raters′ tendency to rely on global affect rather than carefullydiscriminating among conceptually…

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13894

Abstract

The halo effect is a systematic bias in attribute ratings resulting from raters′ tendency to rely on global affect rather than carefully discriminating among conceptually distinct and potentially independent brand attributes. Traditionally, researchers have regarded the halo effect as a source of measurement error to be avoided. Discusses how halo measurement can serve as a useful indicator of brand equity. Uses consumer rating data in three categories of commonly purchased household products to demonstrate the approach.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Kunter Gunasti, Selcan Kara and William T. Ross, Jr

This research aims to examine how credence, search and experience attributes compete with suggestive brand names that are incongruent with the attributes they cue (e.g…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine how credence, search and experience attributes compete with suggestive brand names that are incongruent with the attributes they cue (e.g. expensive EconoLodge Motel, short-lasting Duracell battery and joint-stiffening JointFlex pill).

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on experimental studies, together with analyses of variance, t-tests and logistic regressions.

Findings

Incongruent suggestive brand names can distort product evaluations and alter perceptions of product performance in joint product judgments involving contradictory credence attributes; they can misdirect product evaluations even if the search attributes conflict with competitor brands. Furthermore, they are more likely to backfire if contradictory experience attributes are readily available to consumers.

Research limitations/implications

This test of the role of incongruence between suggestive brand names and actual product features includes key concepts that can inform continued studies, such as search attributes that consumers can readily observe, experience attributes that can be observed only after product use and credence attributes that might not be observed even after use.

Practical implications

This study provides applicable guidelines for managers, consumers and policymakers.

Originality/value

The findings expand beyond prior literature that focuses on memory-based, separate evaluations of advertised benefits and inferences or expectations of unavailable attributes. Specifically, this study details the implications of congruence between the suggestive brand names and different types of attributes observable at different consumption stages.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Rui Vinhas Da Silva and Sharifah Faridah Syed Alwi

The main aim of the present study is to empirically test a model of antecedents and consequences of corporate brand image (CBI) in two book retailers, one selling…

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16539

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of the present study is to empirically test a model of antecedents and consequences of corporate brand image (CBI) in two book retailers, one selling exclusively online, and the other selling exclusively offline in a British context.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a survey to investigate the relationships of the antecedents and consequences of the CBI. The sample (n=511) comprised experienced customers of these two bookstores (visitors and shoppers of the site or bookstore). The antecedents of CBI which were the functional aspects of brand attributes (such as ease of use, secured web site, interactivity/building relationship, customer care and reliability) were combined with the CBI itself (emotional aspects of the corporate brand or personality traits of the company) and, further, the consequences of these emotional aspects such as customer satisfaction and loyalty were tested using a cross‐sectional study.

Findings

Using two separate structural equation models, the study found an empirical relationship between the brand attributes and the corporate brand image (the emotional values). This relationship in turn influences the customer's responses (loyalty).

Research limitations/implications

By combining two methodological approaches of brand image evaluation: cognition (assessed through tangible and intangible brand attributes) and affect/emotion (assessed through brand personality scale) this study intends to add to the current understanding of consumer brand knowledge, in particular when the consumer is assessing a company's brand image (the CBI) and also learn how important the effect of cognitive attributes (such as brand attributes of a store and web site) is in explaining the subsequent CBI, and the integration effect on consumer responses such as brand loyalty. Do cognitive evaluations drive conative, behavioural actions in retail buying decision making? Are cognitive evaluations directly related with satisfaction with the retailer and consumer loyalty?

Practical implications

Explicitly, the present study offers practitioners a research framework, aimed at guiding them as to how they could understand their defined or desired brand values (the corporate core values) among their consumers.

Originality/value

In general, the present study adds to the existing literature in cognitive and affective attributes in consumer judgement and corresponding conative or behavioural attitudes in branding and reputation management. It brings together the concept of functional brand attributes, emotional brand attributes (the CBI), and the dependent variables such as customer satisfaction and loyalty in a unique context (internet), and compares this with the bricks and mortar context.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2002

Terry Bristol

This paper presents a conceptualization of brand extension attributes that emerge when consumers evaluate brand extensions. These emergent attributes are unique in the…

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2833

Abstract

This paper presents a conceptualization of brand extension attributes that emerge when consumers evaluate brand extensions. These emergent attributes are unique in the extension product category and thus represent potential points of leverage for the brand. An empirical study was conducted to show the utility of these attributes in influencing consumers’ responses. Consumers were allowed to write their thoughts as they evaluated fictitious extensions of four actual brands. The results indicate that when emergent attributes are formed, they appear to influence consumers’ attitudes toward brand extensions. Unlike previous findings that have suggested that good fit is necessary to ensure extension success, the results indicate that the influence of emergent attributes on consumer attitudes increases as the brand’s fit with the extension decreases.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Randle D. Raggio, Robert P. Leone and William C. Black

Prior research has identified that brands have a differential impact on consumer evaluations across various brand benefits. This paper investigates whether these effects…

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1584

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research has identified that brands have a differential impact on consumer evaluations across various brand benefits. This paper investigates whether these effects are stable over time, or evolve in a consistent way.

Design/methodology/approach

Consumer evaluations of brand benefits into overall brand and detailed attribute-specific sources through a standard confirmatory factor analysis approach have been decomposed. Two unique datasets have been analyzed; the first contains cross-sectional data from Kodak across four different consumer goods categories, and the other is a longitudinal dataset from the USA and Canada in the surface-cleaning category, covering seven brands over five years (2007-2011).

Findings

A systematic evolution in brand effects has been demonstrated: a general trend is that over time and with experience, consumers rely more heavily on overall brand information to develop their evaluations. However, early in a brand’s life, or later when circumstances compel consumers to actively consider the attributes, ingredients or features of a brand, consumers may rely more heavily on, detailed attribute-specific information to evaluate brand benefits.

Research limitations/implications

The systematic evolution in consumers’ use of information from attribute to brand is hypothesized in this paper and is found to occur contrary to the speculation of Dillon et al. (2001) regarding the direction of such an evolution. Further, our results indicate the sensitivity of our approach to detect changes in consumers’ use of the two sources that should be expected, given the various exogenous factors.

Practical implications

Brand managers can use the results from our procedure to alter their messages to more strongly emphasize either overall brand information or detailed attribute-specific information, depending on the consumer segment or key benefit in question. The research offers insights for the kind of information managers should communicate for brands trying to extend into new categories. The research also raises interesting questions regarding the extent to which brands can own a strong position on a particular benefit over time.

Originality/value

No prior work has evaluated brand effects (i.e. the relative use of brand vs attribute sources) to evaluate brand benefits over time. Our results demonstrate the value of the decompositional procedure we recommend and the importance of knowing which source is relied upon more heavily as consumers evaluate brands.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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