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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

B.A. Akinwande, B.I.O. Ade‐Omowaye, S.A. Olaniyan and O.O. Akintaro

This study aimed at the potential use of ginger‐flavoured soy‐cassava flour to produce high‐protein biscuits.

691

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed at the potential use of ginger‐flavoured soy‐cassava flour to produce high‐protein biscuits.

Design/methodology/approach

Preparation of biscuit was done using soy‐cassava flour blends (0:100, 20:80, 30:70 and 40:60 w/w). Biscuit was also prepared from 100 per cent wheat flour to serve as control.

Findings

Chemical analysis indicated that the substitution of soy flour into cassava flour augmented the nutrient content of the biscuit, which indicates a good potential for meeting the nutrient requirements of school children. The use of ginger powder as flavouring agent effectively masked the beany flavour that is normally associated with soybean products. A sensory evaluation also confirmed good aroma and positive acceptability.

Originality/value

The findings in this study confirms the endless possibilities of protein enrichment of cassava flour for the production of biscuits as a potentially effective strategy for enhancing protein‐energy balance in children, particularly in developing countries. The value of this study lies in its potential as a product development strategy in combating protein‐energy malnutrition, thereby promoting good health, labour productivity and mental development.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

B.A. Akinwande, O.A. Abiodun and I.A. Adeyemi

The aim of the study is to compare the effect of steaming method and time on the physico‐chemical properties of underutilized Dioscorea dumetorum with three more commonly consumed…

222

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study is to compare the effect of steaming method and time on the physico‐chemical properties of underutilized Dioscorea dumetorum with three more commonly consumed Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea cayenensis and Dioscorea alata.

Design/methodology/approach

Raw and pre‐gelatinized flour were produced from the yam species. Pre‐gelatinization was done by steaming diced cubes in autoclave at 68,950 Nm‐2 for 5 min and in Barlett steamer at 98±2°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. Flour samples were analyzed for amylose content, swelling index, consistency, solubility, water absorption capacity, and iodine affinity for starch.

Findings

The physico‐chemical properties of the flours were affected by both species and steaming time. Pre‐gelatinization of the tuber reduced amylose content in all the yam species, which reduced further with increase in steaming time. Except for amylose content and iodine affinity for starch, D. dumetorum compared with D. rotundata and D. cayenensis in the parameters that were measured. Samples autoclaved for 5 min had value similar to those steamed in Barlett steamer for 10 and 20 min for all the parameters that were measured, except consistency.

Practical implications

It is very important to encourage the cultivation and utilization of D. dumetorum because of the high yield and nutritional composition to enhance the nutritional and financial well‐being of the populace.

Originality/value

Pre‐gelatinization is important as pre‐treatment for yam tubers. Underutilized D. dumetorum could be useful in ingredient formulation for product development, especially as a thickening agent.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Sadiat Oyenike Babalola and Bolanle Aishat Akinwande

It is very pertinent to determine the nutritional value of indigenous leafy-vegetables to establish their potentials in ensuring adequate nutrition and food security. One of the…

318

Abstract

Purpose

It is very pertinent to determine the nutritional value of indigenous leafy-vegetables to establish their potentials in ensuring adequate nutrition and food security. One of the ways to promote fresh produce is through nutritional information. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Simultaneous multi-element analysis of eight indigenous (with underutilized) vegetables commonly found in the Southwest Nigeria was done by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Wild-grown vegetables were harvested from the National Horticultural Research Institute orchard, in Southwest Nigeria. The contents of investigated quantity minerals as well as trace and heavy metals were determined.

Findings

In all the vegetables, potassium was discovered as the most abundant quantity mineral present with range of 4.364 mg/g in Vernonia amygdalina to 78.218 mg/g in Senecio biafrae (an underutilized vegetable). This was followed by calcium ranging from 3.351 mg/g (Vernonia amygdalina) to 9.914 mg/g (Solanum macrocarpon). Lead had the least content among the heavy metals with range of value from below the detection limit of the method used to 0.05 μg/g.

Practical implications

The results obtained for the mineral profile provide useful information that could sensitize the people on the need for their consumption. This can be a good opportunity to enhance micronutrient supply of the diet of low-income earners which form majority of the society.

Originality/value

Findings from this study indicate that the indigenous vegetables that are not formally cultivated could be important in improving micronutrient deficiency of low-income earners.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2022

Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan Adeyeye, Olusola Timothy Bolaji, T.A. Abegunde, Helen O. Emun and Rasheed Adesina Oyenubi

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute.

Design/methodology/approach

Cookies were produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute in ratio 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. The formulation of margarine and avocado puree blends was done by using D-Optimal Mixture Design. In all, 20 samples were produced from each substitution level and analyses were done in triplicates to obtain mean values using standard methods. Means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test, and significances were accepted at less than 5% confidence level (p < 0.05). Proximate and functional analyses were conducted on the flour samples, while cookie samples were subjected to proximate and sensory analyses.

Findings

The results of this study revealed that the values of loose bulk density, packed bulk density, oil absorption density, water absorption capacity, swelling power, solubility and dispersibility of the flours at p < 0.05 are 0.3–0.4 g/ml, 0.5–0.7 g/ml, 16.9%–94.0%, 39.7%–80.6%, 461.2%–618.2%, 6.0%–29.8% and 69.0%–82.8%, respectively. The moisture, protein, fat, total dietary fiber, total ash and carbohydrate contents of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 3.6%–16.7%, 6.5%–9.9%, 2.5%–19.2%, 1.7%–1.9%, 1.1%–3.0% and 65.0%–70.7%, respectively. The taste, color, crispiness, texture and overall acceptability of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 7.4–7.8, 6.9–7.5, 7.2–7.9, 7.3–7.7 and 7.4–8.3, respectively. The sensory scores showed that panelists preferred the taste, crispiness and texture of the cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute at varying proportion. The sensory characteristics of sample WF4 (100% avocado puree) were rated overall best in all the parameters tested followed by sample WF3 (75% avocado puree). Hence, this study established the possibility of producing cookies from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute without a negative impact on the sensory characteristics and the consumers’ acceptability.

Practical implications

The cookies produced from this study are not meant for vegetarians because eggs were added in the formulations and recipes but could be valuable to ovo-vegetarians that may take food with eggs without restriction. The major challenge of this study was that avocados are very expensive in much of the world, so this is only suitable and viable where there is an excess of the fruit.

Originality/value

This study examined the use of avocado puree as fat substitute in cookie production. Effects of avocado puree on proximate composition and functionality of cookies produced from wheat flour were also determined. This approach was novel, and it will encourage the use of avocado for value-added in industrial food production.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2018

Dipika Agrahar-Murugkar, Shraddha Dwivedi, Preeti Dixit-Bajpai and Manoj Kumar

This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of substituting different concentrations of sesame, soy butter, dried moringa leaves and coconut powder on the physicochemical and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of substituting different concentrations of sesame, soy butter, dried moringa leaves and coconut powder on the physicochemical and sensory properties especially calcium and protein content of salted and sweet cookies.

Design/methodology/approach

Cookies were prepared by fortifying refined flour with sesame (T1 and T3) and soy butter (T2 and T4) and further fortified with dried moringa leaves (salted) and coconut (sweet). Linear programing was used to formulate percentage of major ingredients to yield maximum calcium and protein. Cookies were evaluated for physical, textural, colour, nutritional, functional and organoleptic properties and compared with refined flour cookies, C1 (salted) and C2 (sweet).

Findings

It was observed that fortification significantly decreased the hardness of the test cookies when compared with control. C2 cookies were observed to be the hardest (42.3 N), whereas T2 cookies were the softest (23.7 N). Nutritional and functional components of fortified (T) cookies were significantly (p = 0.01) higher than control (C) cookies, and within T cookies, salted cookies were more nutritious than sweet cookies. Cookies fortified with sesame and dried moringa leaves (T1) contained the highest protein (19 g), calcium (312 mg) and flavonoids (2.0 QE mg/100g) content. Scores on sensory acceptability revealed that T cookies were highly acceptable when compared to cookies for all sensory attributes tested.

Research limitations/implications

Incorporation of protein and mineral rich natural ingredients like sesame, soy butter, dried moringa leaves and coconut powder has improved the nutritional, functional and sensory properties especially calcium and protein content of salted and sweet cookies. There is tremendous scope for utilisation, commercialization of such plant-based nutrient dense ingredients in variety of food snacks, and this will ensure better nutritional security.

Originality/value

Fortification of biscuits with sesame, soy butter, dried moringa leaves and coconut powder resulted in to a superior quality of biscuits in terms of its protein, minerals specially calcium, flavonoid content and organoleptic acceptability. These protein and calcium rich biscuits may help in solving many nutritional deficiencies and can add variety to the bakery industry.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

Khavhatondwi Rinah Netshiheni, Mpho Edward Mashau and Afam Israel Obiefuna Jideani

White maize-based porridge is a staple food for about 80 per cent consumers in South Africa and in other sub-Saharan African countries contributing significantly to the diet of…

4853

Abstract

Purpose

White maize-based porridge is a staple food for about 80 per cent consumers in South Africa and in other sub-Saharan African countries contributing significantly to the diet of rural population in developing countries. White maize is deficient in some amino acids and over-dependency on its porridge may lead to high prevalence of malnutrition-related health conditions. Moringa oleifera (MO) and termite (Macrotermes falciger) are known to contain substantial amount of protein. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of powders from MO leaves and termite on the nutritional and sensory properties of instant maize porridge.

Design/methodology/approach

Inclusion of MO and termite powder in instant maize porridge, using different treatments were considered using a completely randomised design. Factor levels were control (maize flour) cooked, blanched and uncooked MO samples. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23.

Findings

Protein content of fortified instant maize porridge (FMP) significantly increased from 10.0 to 21.2 per cent compared to unfortified porridge, and this could be attributed to the substitution effect, as fresh uncooked MO leaves are reported to be high in protein. Mineral content of FMP was higher in zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. Calcium values of FMP were higher (276.8 mg/100 g) compared to unfortified porridge (7.1 mg/100 g). Upon the addition of MO leaves and termite powder, the zinc content increased from 3.4 mg/100to 7.6 mg/100 g. Higher iron values (27.9-36.9 mg/100 g) were observed among fortified samples. The sensory result showed that control sample had higher acceptance than the fortified samples (p = 0.02). Sensory analysis showed that among fortified porridges, blanched sample was rated high for colour and texture, cooked sample was higher in taste and uncooked sample was higher for aroma. Control sample had higher acceptance than fortified porridges for taste. The results of this study showed that the addition of MO leaves and termite powder to instant maize porridge has led to a substantial increase in the nutritional value of FMP.

Originality/value

This study was carried out to develop instant maize porridge fortified with MO leaves and termite powder suitable for infants, pregnant mothers and other maize consumers. The author aimed at improving the nutritional content of instant maize porridge by combining it with MO leaves and termite powders. The results showed that the addition of MO leaves and termite powders to instant maize porridge has led to a substantial increase in the nutritional value of FMP. Therefore, powder from MO leaves and termites could be used in complementary foods to increase protein and mineral contents.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Der Chao Chen and Ryoko Toyama

This study aims to discuss the development of the semiconductor industry in China and analyzes it through current studies about the catch up of latecomers in newly industrialized…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to discuss the development of the semiconductor industry in China and analyzes it through current studies about the catch up of latecomers in newly industrialized countries (NICs).

Design/methodology/approach

Use the case study approach to explore and discuss the development track of the Chinese semiconductor industry and the catch up experience of Huang Hong NEC in China.

Findings

The experience of NICs can explain the catch up of semiconductor latecomers in China. However, the role of government has changed along with the whole development of the China semiconductor industry; external pressure may influence the pace of development and the span of control of the China Government for future catch ups.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on one single case, which may not reflect the individual differences appeared in different firms in China.

Originality/value

This study contributes to our knowledge about the catch up of latecomer firms in an emerging market and verifies classical arguments about the experience of NICs through the experience of China's semiconductor industry.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Samuel Ayofemi Adeyeye and John O. Akingbala

This study aims to assess the quality characteristics and acceptability of cookies from sweet potato–maize flour blends and to determine nutritional quality, color and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the quality characteristics and acceptability of cookies from sweet potato–maize flour blends and to determine nutritional quality, color and palatability traits and to compare the effects with that of wheat cookies, so as to suggest a cost-effective production method to bakers and retailers. This would ensure food security, enhanced health, combat malnutrition problems and improve the production of the crops.

Design/methodology/approach

Cookies were prepared by the method reported by Okaka and Isieh (1990), Abayomi et al. (2013), Onabanjo and Ighere (2014) with modification. Flour (200 g) from each sample of different flour blends was used for the experiment. Sugar (80 g) was creamed with margarine (100 g) until light and fluffy constituency was obtained using Kenwood chef with initial minimum speed, and the speed increased stepwise until the mark of 6 on the chef indicator was attained. Whole egg (60 g) was added, then followed by flour (200 g), powdered milk (20 g), baking powder (0.1 g) and salt (1 g) were added and mixed until a stiff paste (batter) was obtained. The batter was rolled on a floured board using a rolling pin to a thickness of 0.2-0.3 cm. The rolled batter was cut into circular shapes with a cutter and arranged on a greased tray and baked at 1500°C for 20 minutes. The cookies were brought out, cooked and packaged in cellophane bag until used for laboratory analysis.

Findings

The results revealed that substitution of sweet potato flour with maize flour significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the protein from 6.8-4.4 per cent, moisture from 5.3-5.0 per cent, crude fibre from 3.4-2.5 per cent and fat from 9.8-8.5 per cent of the composite flours and the cookies. The ash and sugar contents were increased from 4.3-5.8 per cent for ash and 2.1-3.9 per cent for sugar with increase in sweet potato flour substitution. The calorific value of the cookies decreased from 457-397 cal/100 g as the percentage of sweet potato flour increased in the maize flour cookies. Sensory evaluation results showed that the colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability changed significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in sweet potato flour substitution. The optimum substitution level was 40 per cent; above this, the product becomes less acceptable to the consumer.

Research limitations/implications

Fabrication and production processing machines that use sweet potato will be a great challenge.

Originality/value

This research is of value to the bakery industry or retailers. The optimum substitution level of sweet potato flour was 40 per cent, and it appears to be a promising measure from the view of practicability. The relative ease of getting sweet potato flour makes it superior to other imported flour like wheat and in reducing cost of importation of wheat to Nigeria.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2010

Wei Zhang, Yongjiang Shi and Xiaobo Wu

This paper aims to answer two research questions: what latecomer advantages and disadvantages they had, and what strategies they employed to utilize the advantages or to surmount…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to answer two research questions: what latecomer advantages and disadvantages they had, and what strategies they employed to utilize the advantages or to surmount the disadvantages.

Design/methodology/approach

After reviews of the literatures on latecomers' characteristics and the notable rise of Taiwanese thin‐film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT‐LCD) panel manufacturers in the global manufacturing contexts, this research project combined secondary industrial sector data analysis and individual company case study (AUO Ltd) approaches in order to build a conceptual framework and identify latecomers' (dis)advantages.

Findings

This paper advances the existing literature on latecomer advantages and disadvantages by reviewing the spectacular rise of Taiwanese TFT‐LCD panel manufacturers and reveals the importance of some unexplored source of latecomer advantage such as the competition dynamics which is proved to be vital for Taiwanese firms to successfully penetrate into the market. The paper finds the influence of technological regime and argues that the incremental technological advance rather than radical innovation provides latecomers with opportunity to utilize the learning curve effect. It has also discovered new forms of latecomer advantages, for example the free‐rider effect of improved equipment due to suppliers' own learning curve. This paper illustrates the necessity of adequate exploration on technology and product features to understand firms' strategic behaviors. Moreover, the subtle tactics found in this case study may enlighten other latecomers.

Research limitations/implications

The study leaves a number of questions unanswered which warrant more attention. First, the theoretical arguments and experiences from this single case are not easily extendable to the other industries. Broader investigation should be helpful to discover the mechanism between latecomer advantage, strategy and performance. Second, the study of latecomer (dis)advantages and strategies should take the firm features into account to get a whole picture. Third, the examination of interactions between latecomer (dis)advantages and more detailed analytical framework are needed.

Originality/value

Although latecomers' characteristics and strategies have been discussed for many years since Asia economy emerged, TFT‐LCD industry is a relatively new and fast growing industry. How can a latecomer play an important role in emerging industry growing phase? This is novel in contrast with classical latecomer's model in established industry.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-552X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Olufunmilola Adunni Abiodun and A.S. Oladapo

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the physico‐chemical properties of African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) components. African star apples are among the under‐utilized…

561

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the physico‐chemical properties of African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) components. African star apples are among the under‐utilized fruits in Nigeria therefore, the four succulent components (peel, pulp, juice and pericarp) of the fruit were analyzed and compared with other known fruits.

Design/methodology/approach

African star apples were purchased and divided into two portions. The first portion was washed and the juice was expressed manually into a bottle and covered, while in the second portion, the peel, pulp and the pericarp (mucilage on the seeds) were separated. The physico‐chemical analyses (moisture, total solid, pH, titratable acidity, total sugar, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total soluble solids) were carried out on the four components.

Findings

Moisture content ranged from 53.5 per cent in peel to 86.3 per cent in juice, while the peel had higher total solid and the least was in the juice. The pH of peel was lower than that of other components. The peel had lower titratable acidity (1.2 per cent) and sugar (0.9 Brix) while the juice had higher value (5.4 Brix) in sugar and 15.0 mg/100 g carotenoid. The juice was rich in ascorbic acid (28.5 mg/100 g) followed by the pulp (25.0 mg/100 g). The pulp had higher total soluble solids (24.8 per cent) and the least was in the pericarp (9.8 per cent).

Originality/value

The physico‐chemical properties of the African star apple fruit gave an indication of the usefulness of this fruit in brewing industry especially for wine making and jelly or jam manufacture. Processing of this fruit will curb wastage during its season and make it available in different form.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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