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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Toula Perrea, Athanasios Krystallis, Charlotte Engelgreen and Polymeros Chrysochou

The paper aims to address the issue of how customer value is created in the context of novel food products and how customer value influences product evaluation.

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to address the issue of how customer value is created in the context of novel food products and how customer value influences product evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study proposes a model formed by a series of causal relations among value (i.e. functional, social, hedonic, altruistic values) and cost perceptions (i.e. price, effort, evaluation costs, performance and product safety), their trade-offs (i.e. overall customer value) and product evaluation outcomes (i.e. satisfaction, trust).

Findings

Despite doubts about certain search (information), credence (safety) and experience (taste) attributes, perceptions about product quality, likeability and ethical image predominantly formulate customer value, indicating novel products’ potential to be evaluated positively by consumers.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed model advances knowledge in the context of product innovation. Contrary to past research that focuses on consumer attitudes towards a manufacturing technology and individual technology-specific risks and benefits, the customer value approach refers to novel product-related consumer attitudes conceptualized as overall customer value; the latter results from product-related value-cost trade-offs, leading towards specific consumer–product evaluations.

Practical implications

The customer value approach refers to the value from the adoption of a new product that underlies a relevant set of product attributes (e.g. quality, image, sustainability, price, convenience, taste, safety, etc.) Focusing on product attributes that generate gain – loss perceptions impactful on consumer – product evaluations is highly relevant for product managers concerned with new product development.

Originality/value

The originality of this work lies in the successful contextualization and testing of an inclusive model that comprises both emotional and rational components, operational at the product level, to generate substantial insights on the widely unexplored interplay between consumer – perceived customer value and the generation of consumer – product evaluation outcomes.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Machiel J. Reinders, Marija Banovi´, Lluis Guerrero and Athanasios Krystallis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed fish products.

Design/methodology/approach

Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category involvement, domain-specific innovativeness, subjective knowledge, suspicion of novelties and optimistic bias) are tested as segmentation basis with the objective of defining a number of cross-border consumer segments with distinctive and clear-cut profiles in terms of consumer perceptions towards farmed fish.

Findings

Based on the consumer psychographic profiles, three distinct segments are found: involved traditional, involved innovators and ambiguous indifferent, of which the first two constitute especially interesting targets for market positioning strategies for aquaculture products.

Practical implications

The results of the segmentation analysis opens new horizons in terms of positioning and differentiation of fish products from the aquaculture industry according to the most important potential market segments.

Originality/value

The current research brings insights into different pan-European consumer segments and their characteristics that allow for a corresponding differentiation strategy within the aquaculture industry. The fact that the segments tend to be uniform across all countries suggests a relatively homogeneous or converging European fish-related culture.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Krisztina Rita Dörnyei, Athanasios Krystallis and Polymeros Chrysochou

This paper aims to investigate the impact of assortment size and attribute quantity on the depth and content of consumer information searches.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of assortment size and attribute quantity on the depth and content of consumer information searches.

Design/methodology/approach

For a computer-aided experiment using an information display board, participants (n = 393) were placed in a simulated shopping situation that involved choosing a product among three sets of frequently purchased, low-involvement, FMCG alternatives.

Findings

The findings show that when the assortment size increases, consumers acquire information from more products and cues but sacrifice product attributes. In particular, this sacrifice comes at the expense of secondary product attributes (e.g. nutrition information, country of origin), whereas primary product attributes (e.g. brand name, price) remain constant. Attribute quantity does not have a significant effect on information search.

Practical implications

Provided that several strategies rely on providing more information to consumers with the aim of making more deliberate and better choices, the findings suggest that they may have a limited effect in product categories in which the assortment size is wide. The authors discuss the implications for category management and public policy.

Originality/value

Information searches are measured by means of three different variables (searched cues, searched products and searched attributes), which enable a more complex exploration of the consumer information search process.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Antonia Delistavrou, Athanasios Krystallis and Irene Tilikidou

Although boycotting campaigns have been increasing, a limited amount of academic research has been focussed on the antecedents of consumers’ participation in the retail…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although boycotting campaigns have been increasing, a limited amount of academic research has been focussed on the antecedents of consumers’ participation in the retail field. This paper presents an examination of consumers’ intentions to boycott the “unethical” supermarket products by a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) application. Materialism/Post-materialism was incorporated in the research as a moderating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

Personal interviews were taken in a sample (420) selected by a probability sampling method. Structural equation modelling was performed to analyse the data.

Findings

TPB was found powerful to explain boycotting intentions. Consumers, who more strongly intent to boycott, are affected more by social norms than by attitudes and perceived behavioural control. Those consumers believe more strongly that boycotting “unethical” retail products will generate valuable outcomes, will comply with their referents’ expectations and will not be obstructed by any barriers. Post-materialists were found to hold stronger intentions than materialists. Materialists are mostly influenced by their attitudes and their perceived control over participation in boycotting. On the contrary, post-materialists are solely influenced by their feelings regarding social pressure to boycott.

Research limitations/implications

Control for social desirability should be included in future research. National or multinational samples more effective for generalization. The ability of other psychographics or demographics to moderate TPB relationships could be further investigated.

Practical implications

Retailers, who try to avoid potential boycotts, should primarily aim to diminish the social influence towards boycotting. Secondarily, they should aim to decrease the consumers’ positive attitudes and perceived controllability over participation in boycotting. On the other side, consumers’ groups or associations when designing a boycott campaign should address their call targeting to post-materialist consumers. Messages for a boycotting call should enhance the important referents’ pressure towards a friendlier society in which people’s action is able to ethics in the market.

Originality/value

In this study, TPB was expanded by the incorporation of values, namely Materialism/Post-materialism, as a moderating factor.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Athanasios Krystallis and George Chryssohoidis

Seeks to provide answers to two questions: is willingness to pay (WTP) for organic products influenced by the same set of factors that affect purchasing of conventional…

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Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to provide answers to two questions: is willingness to pay (WTP) for organic products influenced by the same set of factors that affect purchasing of conventional foods? Does WTP for organic products vary according to different food categories?

Design/methodology/approach

Purchasers were approached during their food shopping in retail chains in Athens in July 2003. Sample inclusion is based on real awareness of the term “organic”. The questionnaire included in its first part a number of criteria that influence consumers when buying food. In the second part respondents were asked to indicate if any food products they buy were organic and to state how much more they were willing to pay. Information from the first part was analysed with factor analysis. With the help of t‐value analysis, it was examined whether there is a statistically significant difference per product category between consumers who are willing to pay and consumers who are unwilling to pay in terms of the factors identified.

Findings

Consumers' stated WTP and the type and magnitude of factors that affect it differ according to the organic food category. These factors include food quality and security, trust in the certification, and, for some products, brand name. Organoleptic characteristics, prices and consumers' socio‐demographic profiles do not constitute determinants of organic WTP.

Research limitations/implications

Organic types of some fresh as well as processed food products do not exist in the Greek market. Moreover, the large number of t‐tests conducted might result in Type I error.

Originality/value

Purchasing of organic food follows “basic‐highest frequency”, “basic‐average frequency”, and “non‐basic” discrimination. The most frequently consumed organic products are some basic components of the Greek diet. Only the factors “quality and security” and “trust” play an important role in defining WTP for most organic food categories. Consumers' attitudes towards both organic and PDO/PGI certifications converge towards a perception of high quality food. Approximately 26 percent of the sample exhibited a U‐shaped WTP trend for 14 out of 16 organic food categories in increments from 45 to 120 percent. All the above elements of originality are particularly valuable for organic food firms and policy/decision makers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 107 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Christos Fotopoulos, Athanasios Krystallis and Pagiaslis Anastasios

Schwartz's portrait value questionnaire (PVQ) has extensively been used in personal values research. The present paper aims to validate the 40‐item PVQ typology, using a…

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Abstract

Purpose

Schwartz's portrait value questionnaire (PVQ) has extensively been used in personal values research. The present paper aims to validate the 40‐item PVQ typology, using a nationally representative sample of 997 consumers. The main objective of the survey was to investigate whether higher‐than‐average regular purchasing of quality food products (i.e. organic and PDO labelled products) coincides with stronger identification with specific PVQ values.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was distributed nationwide. Data were collected through personal interviews with 997 consumers. Confirmatory factor analysis and cluster analysis were the main analytical techniques used.

Findings

At the value‐based segmentation level of the analysis, identification with the PVQ value domains decreased per cluster progressively and jointly for almost all value domains, a trend that led to the identification of five distinctive national consumer segments. The trend of stronger identification with security, universalism and benevolence that appeared at the sample level re‐emerged for the “urban upper class”, the “countryside class I” and the “countryside class II”, which accounted for two‐thirds of the overall sample and were the clusters with the most dynamic quality food purchasing profile.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the emergence of a clear relation between consumers' self‐transcendence and security value similarity and higher‐than‐average frequency of quality food purchasing, quality food consumers did not form a separate and clearly diversified cluster if the PVQ inventory functions as a basis for segmentation. Future models should incorporate values together with intermediate‐level constructs (e.g. beliefs and/or attitudes) when attempting to predict consumer behaviour towards quality food products.

Originality/value

The paper shows that while values can be used to meaningfully segment quality food consumers, there is still much to learn regarding the direct and indirect determinants of quality food purchase behaviour.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Toula Perrea, Klaus G. Grunert, Athanasios Krystallis, Yanfeng Zhou, Guang Huang and Yue Hue

Values-attitudes hierarchical models are quite frequent in the consumer behaviour literature. In attitudinal models specific to food produced in an environmentally…

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Abstract

Purpose

Values-attitudes hierarchical models are quite frequent in the consumer behaviour literature. In attitudinal models specific to food produced in an environmentally friendly way (i.e. “green” food), past research evidence mainly originating in Western cultures posits that the strongest path of the model can be found among collectivistic consumer values, general environmental attitudes, and attitudes specific to green food. On the other hand, in non-Western cultures (i.e. China), green food (e.g. organic) is perceived by consumers as safer to consume. With this as point of departure, the present paper aims to examine whether attitudes towards green food in a values-attitudes model in China are determined as postulated in past Western research.

Design/methodology/approach

A “typical” (i.e. Western research evidence-based) values-attitudes hierarchical model was developed and a questionnaire comprising 34 items reflecting the conceptual model was designed. Data collection was focused on six major Chinese cities, as this is where the current changes in eating habits are predominantly taking place. Data were collected by personal interviews conducted by local researchers between January and March 2009 through a mall-intercept method. A total number of 479 respondents were recruited, equally distributed among the six cities.

Findings

Collectivistic values and environmental attitudes were still found to be strong determinants of Chinese consumers' attitudes towards green foods; contrary to relevant Western findings, however, collectivism also influenced technological attitudes; which, in turn, influenced attitudes towards green food jointly with environmental attitudes. These findings point to the conclusion that Chinese consumers, possibly guided by altruistic predispositions, see technology as a positive determinant of both food safety and environmental friendliness in food production. Empirical findings like these highlight the need for adaptation of well-substantiated models to completely customised research approaches within new globally rising environments.

Originality/value

It is still not quite clear how green food products are perceived in South-East Asian consumer cultures, as well as in other non-Western contexts. This scarcity makes the empirical examination of well-established values-attitudes hierarchies in such contexts valuable from an academic and practitioner's point of view.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Athanasios Krystallis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of tobacco differentiation attributes (i.e. nicotine and tar content, length, flavor and thickness) in market…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of tobacco differentiation attributes (i.e. nicotine and tar content, length, flavor and thickness) in market performance and loyalty levels of brands.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a stochastic approach to measure brand loyalty at the attribute level using the Dirichlet model as a benchmark tool. Data based on the Juster Probability Scale were collected from a sample of n=155 young smokers in Iceland.

Findings

Product differentiation strategies operate differently. Light nicotine and tar content encourages smokers to switch across brands and within family brands, resulting on improved market performance and loyalty levels. Length and thickness‐related differentiation are slightly better than non‐differentiation in inducing loyalty, but worse in improving performance.

Practical implications

Two types of categorization prevail in the category: first, a family brand‐based, mainly relevant for large brands; and second, an attribute‐driven, apparent for small family brands. Two types of switching behaviors can also be considered: first within family brands, switching among product attributes for the larger brands; and second within product attributes, switching among family brands for smaller brands.

Social implications

These findings have profound implications for the development of anti‐smoking policy in terms of the exact functioning of product differentiation as part of the tobacco industry's strategy. Public health policy makers can benefit in their fight against nicotine consumption by taking public policy counter‐measures (e.g. completely banning or regulating production of “light” nicotine and tar content brands) that can limit the anticipated success of differentiation strategies of the tobacco industry.

Originality/value

Not much research has been done on loyalty within the tobacco category, possibly due to the ethical considerations accompanying managerial suggestions about smoking. The contribution of the present work lies in the provisions of evidence‐based insights to help brand managers and other stakeholders (e.g. public health policy makers) to take informed decisions.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Athanasios Krystallis and Polymeros Chrysochou

This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of Greek red and white wine varieties and to measure the loyalty behaviour of frequent wine…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of Greek red and white wine varieties and to measure the loyalty behaviour of frequent wine buyers in Greece.

Design/methodology/approach

The study measures brand performance and loyalty of four different Greek wine varieties. Based on stated preference data, basic brand performance measures are estimated through Juster purchase probabilities of brand choice. To measure loyalty behaviour, the polarisation index φ (phi) is used as a measure to model both loyalty to the brand name and specific wine attributes and their levels.

Findings

The findings of the present study point to the conclusion that each one of the four Greek wine varieties under examination exhibits its own market structure and loyalty profile, whereas price, quality certification and winemaker's size seem to function as loyalty stimulators more effectively for white wines. Moreover, it is also clear that the (Greek) origin or type of the wine variety per se does not constitute a particularly important loyalty component in the marketing mix of the Greek red and white wines examined here.

Research limitations/implications

Wine has always been one of the most challenging product categories to investigate. Many product‐related attributes contribute to building loyalty; this attribute‐based loyalty is often hard to delineate and take into account. Moreover, the present methodology is based on stated preference data, whereas revealed preference data could be the ideal for applying the specific methodology.

Originality/value

Few studies, if any, have used the present methodological approach to explore the issue of loyalty in the case of wine.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Christos Fotopoulos and Athanasios Krystallis

The present study attempts to offer more insights into the Greek organic market. It examines the organic products as “eco‐products”, suitable for “green” consumers, who…

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Abstract

The present study attempts to offer more insights into the Greek organic market. It examines the organic products as “eco‐products”, suitable for “green” consumers, who are ecologically/environmentally ecology‐aware and who are concerned with health and quality‐of‐life issues. Analysing a countrywide sample, the survey concludes that three consumer types exist in terms of attitude towards, purchase intention and awareness of organic products: the “unaware”, the “aware non‐buyers”, and the “(aware) buyers” (or simply buyers) of organic food products. After developing a detailed profile of the first two, the “aware buyers” type is segmented in terms of five groups of personality and behavioural factors, defined in the international literature as the driving forces of organic purchasing.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 104 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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