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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Teodor Sommestad, Henrik Karlzén and Jonas Hallberg

This paper aims to challenge the assumption that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) includes all constructs that explain information security policy compliance and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to challenge the assumption that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) includes all constructs that explain information security policy compliance and investigates if anticipated regret or constructs from the protection motivation theory add explanatory power. The TPB is an established theory that has been found to predict compliance with information security policies well.

Design/methodology/approach

Responses from 306 respondents at a research organization were collected using a questionnaire-based survey. Extensions in terms of anticipated regret and constructs drawn from the protection motivation theory are tested using hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

Adding anticipated regret and the threat appraisal process results in improvements of the predictions of intentions. The improvements are of sufficient magnitude to warrant adjustments of the model of the TPB when it is used in the area of information security policy compliance.

Originality/value

This study is the first test of anticipated regret as a predictor of information security policy compliance and the first to assess its influence in relation to the TPB and the protection motivation theory.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Ramkrishnan (Ram) V. Tenkasi and Lu Zhang

Organizational Development and Change (ODC) has been called to aid organizational greening goals. Carbon labeling of products by organizations is a common greening…

Abstract

Organizational Development and Change (ODC) has been called to aid organizational greening goals. Carbon labeling of products by organizations is a common greening strategy. However, its effectiveness is dependent on supportive consumer behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is used to explain actor choice in buying low carbon products (LCPs). Actual buying behavior of 873 subjects in China, a country new to carbon labeling, demonstrated that Declarative norms, Attitude, and Perceived behavioral control explained significant variance in actual buying behavior of LCPs. The TPB model may be better served by observing actual behavior versus behavioral intention. Revisions to the TPB model for diagnosis and interventions in behavioral change are indicated. ODC should revert to theoretically informed practice versus the increasing reliance on A-theoretical tools and techniques.

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Sergey Yuzhanin and David Fisher

The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) considers the interrelationship between such concepts as beliefs, attitudes, norms, intentions and behaviour (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) considers the interrelationship between such concepts as beliefs, attitudes, norms, intentions and behaviour (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1975). Based on a review of academic sources, this paper aims to analyse the efficacy of the TPB for predicting people’s intentions when choosing a travel destination.

Design/methodology/approach

Surprisingly, only 15 studies were identified that used TPB to predict the choice of travel destination, though the theory has been used in other areas of tourism analysis.

Findings

Mixed results were found in the studies. Therefore, the adequacy of the TPB for predicting travellers’ intentions of choosing a destination may be questioned. However, there is nothing in the TPB suggesting that all the constructs of the model must contribute equally, significantly and simultaneously to behavioural intentions.

Originality/value

To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the intentions in question, the TPB model may have to be extended to suit different settings. The decision-making process of choosing a destination is a complicated one; therefore, researchers’ attention should not only consider travellers’ intentions but also the direct effect of intentions on the actual behaviour.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Patricia David and Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

In response to calls for theory use and a more reflexive turn in social marketing, this paper aims to draw on previously executed studies. In line with dominant social…

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2694

Abstract

Purpose

In response to calls for theory use and a more reflexive turn in social marketing, this paper aims to draw on previously executed studies. In line with dominant social marketing downstream-focussed practice, the explanatory power of a commonly used theory, namely, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), was empirically examined across three different contexts and critically assessed to guide future research practice.

Design/methodology/approach

TPB measures were drawn from prior studies, and inconsistent item use across contexts was observed. Quantitative studies involving from 876 to 3,191 respondents underpin this study. Each study focussed on a different behaviour, namely, walking to and from school, binge drinking and packing fruits and vegetables into lunchboxes. Hierarchical multiple linear regressions were used for data analysis.

Findings

Item use was mixed, construct reliability was not consistent and consequent findings indicated that TPB explained walking to and from school and binge drinking, but it did not explain packing fruits and vegetables into lunchboxes.

Originality/value

Theory use is recommended to enhance intervention outcomes. However, theory application remains scarce in social marketing. Moreover, when theory is used, consistent measures are not used; items are removed from constructs to obtain model fit and constructs used within the theory differ. The current study draws from three studies, all of which applied TPB to explain behaviours. Mixed outcomes were observed when the same analytical process was applied using the available measures and constructs. Close investigation of the measures used across the three studies highlights one explanation for mixed findings. In the absence of consistent application of the theory, drawing definitive conclusions about a theory’s effectiveness is premature. Precise application of theoretical constructs is needed to deliver theoretically derived understanding.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Yuhee Jung, Norihiko Takeuchi and Tomokazu Takeuchi

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it empirically examines two theory-based models of applicants’ job search developed from planned happenstance theory (PHT) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it empirically examines two theory-based models of applicants’ job search developed from planned happenstance theory (PHT) and theory of planned behavior (TPB). Second, it tests the cross-cultural compatibility of these models in Japan and Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested two theory-based job search models, PHT model and TPB model based on samples of college students from Japan (n=175) and Korea (n=172).

Findings

The results indicated that the TPB model was a significantly better fitting to the data than the PHT model. Moreover, a multi-group test of the TPB model demonstrated that the TPB model was invariant between the Japanese and the Korean samples.

Originality/value

Although there had been an important question among job search literatures regarding how important the planned behavior in the job search processes would be, the study gave an empirical support to the TPB job search model in contrast to the PHT model. Another contribution is that the study tested the Western-driven theories using Asian samples from Japan and Korea, constituting an important benchmark for further studies that attempt to test the generalizability of the TPB model, particularly in countries/areas that employ different employment systems.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Fitri Rahmafitria, Karim Suryadi, Hera Oktadiana, Heru Purboyo H. Putro and Arief Rosyidie

The paper aims to examine the effect of physical distancing control on the intention to travel during the pandemic and to assess the influence of knowledge, social concern…

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1048

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the effect of physical distancing control on the intention to travel during the pandemic and to assess the influence of knowledge, social concern and perceived risk on the theory of planned behavior (TPB).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 1,068 Indonesian respondents through a purposive sampling approach, filled out online questionnaires during the pandemic. The collected data were analyzed using partial least squares-structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results indicated that subjective norm as the external factor of the TPB has a stronger effect than the internal factors; attitude and behavioral control. It appears that in a collectivist society, prohibition enforced by family and friends, as well as the government’s sanctions have a stronger influence on one’s decision to travel. The findings also suggested that knowledge, perceived risks and social concern effect tourists’ behavior. Uncertainty and inadequate knowledge will decrease the level of perceived risk, which leads to lower control in practicing physical distancing and increasing intention to travel during the pandemic.

Research limitations/implications

The research has limitations in its use of a convenient sampling method. This method may not represent the whole population, causing the results to be difficult for generalization. There is also the need for extending the TPB model with different variables in the context of tourism and pandemic. This study enriches the existing tourism literature by applying TPB to examine tourists’ behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic, focusing on knowledge, social concern and perceived risk theory.

Practical implications

This paper offers useful insights for tourism planners in the government and private destination management levels. It is crucial for a destination management organization to understand the relationship between knowledge, perception and social concern with tourists’ behavior while traveling during pandemics. The understanding of tourist’s behavior when traveling during the pandemic will assist in developing and creating activities and designing health protocols at tourist attractions.

Originality/value

This study extended the TPB to analyze tourists behavior during the pandemic by applying knowledge, social concern and perceived risk elements.

研究目的

本研究旨在解释疫情期间社交距离控制对出行意图的影响,并分析知识,社会意识和风险感知在计划行为理论中的作用。

研究设计和方法

在新冠肺炎疫情期间,通过目的性抽样的方法, 1,068名来自印度尼西亚的受访者参与了网络问卷调查。所获数据通过PLS-SEM分析。

研究结果

结果表明,主观规范作为计划行为理论的外部因素比内部因素(态度和行为控制)具有更强的作用。在集体主义社会中,来自亲友的禁令以及政府的制裁似乎对旅行决策产生了更大的影响。研究结果还表明,知识、风险感知和社会关注会影响游客的行为。不确定性和知识不足将降低风险感知的水平,从而导致人们对距离控制的疏忽,并在疫情期间增加旅行意向。

研究实施局限性

该研究存在局限性在于使用了方便样本。此样本不能代表整个群体,因此研究结果可能不具有极高的普适性。未来关于疫情下出游的研究,需要继续延申计划行为理论,探讨该模型与其他变量的关联。本研究丰富了现有的游客研究,主要贡献针对计划行为理论在疫情下出游这一场景中的应用,和与知识、社会意识和风险感知的理论建构。

研究实际意义

这项研究为公共与私人旅游区的管理做出了重要贡献。 目的地管理组织(DMO)必须了解在疫情期间的游客的行为与知识、风险感知和社会关注之间的关系。这些疫情下游客行为的理论建构能够帮助开发游客活动,并为疫情下旅游区游客健康守则提供设计参考。

研究原创性或新颖性

这项研究是对计划行为理论的拓展,并且是对该理论模型在疫情下出游的具体应用;研究分析了此理论模型与知识、社会关注和风险感知的关联。

关键词:社交距离,疫情期间的出游,新冠肺炎疫情,计划行为理论,风险感知,社会关注

文章类型:研究论文

Propósito

Este artículo analiza los efectos del control de la distancia física en la intención de viajar durante la pandemia y la influencia del conocimiento, la preocupación social y riesgo percibido en la teoría del comportamiento planificado (TPB).

Diseño/ metodología

A través de un sistema de muestreo por conveniencia, se obtuvo una muestra de 1.068 participantes de Indonesia que completaron la encuesta online durante la pandemia. La información recopilada fue analizada a través del PLS-SEM.

Resultados

Los resultados indicaron que la norma subjetiva como factor externo de la teoría del comportamiento planificado ejerce un efecto superior al de los factores internos; actitud y control del comportamiento. Resulta que, en una sociedad colectivista, la prohibición reforzada por la familia y amigos, así como las sanciones del gobierno ejercen una influencia mayor en la decisión individual de viajar. Los resultados también sugieren que el conocimiento, los riesgos percibidos y la preocupación social afectan al comportamiento del turista. La incertidumbre y el desconocimiento disminuyen el nivel de riesgo percibido lo cual conduce a un menor control a la hora de cumplir con el distanciamiento físico y a una mayor intención de viajar durante la pandemia.

Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones

Las limitaciones de esta investigación tienen su origen en el sistema de muestreo de conveniencia utilizado en esta investigación. Este método puede no representar al total de la población, lo cual provoca dificultad en la generalización de los resultados. También existe la necesidad de ampliar el modelo de la teoría del comportamiento planificado (TPB) incorporando variables propias del contexto turístico y de la pandemia. Este estudio supone una aportación a la literatura existente en turismo al aplicar la teoría del comportamiento planeado al análisis del comportamiento de los turistas durante la pandemia del covid-19, con un enfoque en el conocimiento, la preocupación social y la teoría del riesgo percibido.

Implicaciones prácticas

Esta investigación es de utilidad para los responsables de la planificación de la actividad turística tanto a nivel gubernamental como privado. Es crucial para que las organizaciones responsables de la gestión del destino (DMO) comprendan la relación existente entre conocimiento, percepción y preocupación social, con el comportamiento de los turistas cuando viajan en tiempos de pandemia. La comprensión del comportamiento de los turistas cuando viajan durante la pandemia ayudará a desarrollar, crear actividades y diseñar protocolos de salud en las atracciones de los turistas.

Originalidad/valo

Este estudio extiende la teoría de comportamiento planificado al análisis del comportamiento de los turistas durante la pandemia a través de la aplicación del conocimiento, preocupación social y elementos de riesgo percibido.

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Wassim J. Aloulou

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the entrepreneurial intention literature by applying the theory of planned behavior to Saudi context and determining the…

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2419

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the entrepreneurial intention literature by applying the theory of planned behavior to Saudi context and determining the factors that affect the intentions of final-year Saudi university business students to become entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a survey study, the paper aims to investigate the significant theory of planned behavior (TPB) antecedents (attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm (SN) and perceived behavioral control) to determine entrepreneurial intentions of 177 students by using correlations, linear and hierarchical regressions models.

Findings

The results showed that the antecedents of theory of planned behavior significantly explain 33.4 percent of the variance in students’ entrepreneurial intentions. However, the authors also found that SN associated with entrepreneurial intention had a higher regression coefficient than those of the two other antecedents. Hence, SN has a more significant influence on attitudes and less on perceived behavioral control (PBC). The results also showed that some demographic characteristics have an indirect influence on entrepreneurial intentions through SN and PBC. The findings suggest, therefore, that the TPB is a valuable tool for predicting entrepreneurial intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation stems from the fact that it is not possible to claim generalization as the research is the result of a study focused on one Saudi university. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed in order to promote entrepreneurship amongst Saudi students and an entrepreneurially friendly culture in Saudi society.

Originality/value

In this paper, the TPB is validated tool to a Saudi university context for predicting entrepreneurial intentions. Broader reflections about the generalizability of results is also considered by undertaking new researches with other Saudi universities and developing contextualized framework based on cultural considerations.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Mark Tucker, Christine Jubb and Chee Jin Yap

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which the three constructs associated with the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can explain student banking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which the three constructs associated with the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can explain student banking intentions and assist in understanding their bank satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

This research issue was investigated using a mixed methods approach, incorporating both qualitative and quantitative methods. Convenience sampling was used. Factor analysis and logistic regression were used to ascertain the relevance of the TPB in explaining student banking intentions.

Findings

Using factor analysis, perceived behavioural control was shown to be the key determinant in explaining student banking intentions. Using a logistic regression, the TPB was shown to have strong application in predicting customer satisfaction with all three of its constructs significant, but weaker application for predicting the likelihood of a bank switch, with subjective norms and attitude significant, and even less for the likelihood of recommending the bank to a friend, with only perceived behavioural control significant.

Research limitations/implications

The use of an online survey which limits the pool of respondents to internet users, together with the sample size, limit the generalisability of findings.

Practical implications

Banks can better target and understand the drivers that influence both student banking intentions and customer satisfaction. This knowledge will allow banks to better attract and retain student customers.

Originality/value

Provides insight to and a better understanding of how the TPB can explain and predict student banking intentions. This study fills a gap in the literature by concentrating on student banking behaviour in Australia, a substantial segment of bank customers that has received little research.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Judith Holdershaw, Philip Gendall and Malcolm Wright

The purpose of this paper is to test whether, in the context of blood donation, the predictive ability of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) extends from behavioural…

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2825

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test whether, in the context of blood donation, the predictive ability of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) extends from behavioural intention to actual donation behaviour, and whether extended versions of the TPB perform better than the standard version.

Design/methodology/approach

Intentions to donate blood predicted by the TPB are compared with an accurate measure of blood donation behaviour obtained following a mobile blood drive by the New Zealand Blood Service.

Findings

When the observed outcome is donation behaviour rather than behavioural intention, the TPB model's performance drops. Extending the variables in the model to include moral obligation and past behaviour does not improve its predictive ability, and neither does the use of belief‐based variables.

Practical implications

The TPB is much less effective in predicting blood donation behaviour than it is in predicting intentions to donate blood. But only actual donation behaviour yields medical supplies. This study suggests that to advance the goal of increasing donation rates, attention needs to turn to methods other than the TPB to identify variables that do predict donation behaviour.

Originality/value

The present study gathered one of the largest samples used for TPB blood donation research; this enabled predictions made using the TPB to be tested against actual behaviour, rather than behavioural intention, the measure typically used in blood donation studies. Because blood donation is a low‐incidence behaviour, previous studies have been hampered by small sample sizes, that inevitably contain few donors, and no measure of actual donation behaviour.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

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