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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1981

Dorothy Griffiths

The problem of how to weight technical expertise is familiar to anyone concerned with the design and implementation of company job evaluation schemes, and nowhere is this…

Abstract

The problem of how to weight technical expertise is familiar to anyone concerned with the design and implementation of company job evaluation schemes, and nowhere is this problem more acute than in Research and Development (R & D) departments. Here, typically, there are large numbers of highly qualified technical specialists who both deserve and demand promotion on the basis of their technical contribution. Yet, because technical staff have relatively few of the kind of responsibilities which carry high weighting on most job evaluation schemes, they rarely warrant higher grading on conventional criteria. And where they are promoted, their excellence as scientists wins them promotion into research management. In a recent study conducted by the author, concerning the reasons why R&D staff in a large UK company sought posts elsewhere in the organisation, the belief that promotion was easier to get outside R&D was one of the most important factors. A dual ladder system may offer a partial solution to this problem. By a dual ladder is meant the establishment of two parallel hierarchies within R & D: a management ladder and a ladder for technical specialists. The two ladders carry different responsibilities but equivalent rewards and status. In theory, at least, a distinction is made between responsibility for resources, located on the management ladder, and responsibility for technical merit, located on the technical ladder.

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Personnel Review, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Abstract

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-727-8

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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Alisa K. Lincoln and Wallis E. Adams

To understand how people using community public mental health services conceptualize community and their place within it within the post-deinstitutionalization era.

Abstract

Purpose

To understand how people using community public mental health services conceptualize community and their place within it within the post-deinstitutionalization era.

Methodology/approach

Two hundred ninety-four service users completed structured interviews in two urban, outpatient, public, and community mental health facilities in the Northeast. Quantitative and qualitative responses to the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, Community Ladder version, were analyzed to understand perspectives on community.

Findings

Mean subjective community status ladder score among participants was five (SD = 2.56). Participants identified four broad categories of definitions of community: geographic community; community related to social definitions; contributing to society; and mental health service-user communities. Explanations for the location of their placement on the ladder (subjective community status) include comparisons to self and others, contributions to community, and social relationships. There was also a set of explanations that spoke to the intersection of multiple marginalizations and structural constraints. Finally, we explore relationships among understandings of community and perceptions of place within community.

Originality/value

Community integration is a critical concept for community public mental health services, but little research has explored how mental health service users conceptualize their communities and their roles within them. Understandings of community are crucial to appropriately support peoples’ needs within their communities. Furthermore, participants identify mechanisms that facilitate their personal community standing, and these are areas for potential intervention.

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50 Years After Deinstitutionalization: Mental Illness in Contemporary Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-403-4

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

A. Hossein Madadi-Najafabadi and Abolfazl Masoumi

This paper aims to analyze the abrasive damage of iron ore pellets (IOP) during charge inside day-bins in iron making plants. The rock-ladder structure of day-bin is the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the abrasive damage of iron ore pellets (IOP) during charge inside day-bins in iron making plants. The rock-ladder structure of day-bin is the spotlight of this study. A numerical-analytical method is used to investigate the main geometrical features of the mentioned structure. Practical results of this study are expected to result in optimization of rock-ladder structure to reduce fine generation and lump formation during pellets downfall on the floors of rock-ladder.

Design/methodology/approach

One effective stage of pellets downfall on the floor of rock-ladder was simulated using discrete element method. A special post-process code is used to calculate parameters of pellets collisions for an analytical model which estimates fine generation during collisions. The main damaging mechanism during pellets storage inside day-bin is determined based on the comparison of the numerical-analytical results and industrial reports. Different rock-ladder designs are simulated to find optimal geometry of the rock-ladder structure.

Findings

According to the results, 85.4% of fines generation takes place during downfall of IOPs on the floors of rock ladder, and the rest of the fine debris is expected to be generated due to flow down under compressive load and vibratory discharge. The present study suggests an increase in the rock ladder floors distance from 1.63 to 2 m, but this suggestion should be confirmed by another study focusing on the breakage damage of IOPs. The idea of chamfering the floors corners not only removes lump-formation zones but also results in an approximately 5.7% reduction in the fines generation rate.

Originality/value

According to the results, introduced modification ideas for rock-ladder structure can result in lower fine generation, lower lump removal cost and lower manufacturing cost of rock-ladder structure.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1967

L.J. Sellers, L.J. Davies and L.J. Salmon

June 15, 1967 Building — Safety regulations — Technical breach — Regulation requiring top of ladder to be lashed before used — Access to top of ladder by staircase

Abstract

June 15, 1967 Building — Safety regulations — Technical breach — Regulation requiring top of ladder to be lashed before used — Access to top of ladder by staircase — Scaling of ladder by workman to lash it — Fall of ladder Whether workman solely to blame No instruction to use staircase — Whether workman would have obeyed such instruction — Liability of employers — Oil storage tank — Whether a “building” — Building (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations, 1948 (S.I. 1948, No. 1145), regs. 4, 29(4).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1985

Anthony L. Poole

The Smith Ladder Limpit Safety System has transformed the ladder from a precarious and rather limited instrument of instability to a solid, stable and safe working…

Abstract

The Smith Ladder Limpit Safety System has transformed the ladder from a precarious and rather limited instrument of instability to a solid, stable and safe working station. Its combination of effectiveness and simplicity is comparable with that of the paper clip and, like most clever designs, seems so obvious that it is surprising no one thought of it earlier — ironically, in this instance, they did. John Smith, an owner of a contractor cleaning company, concerned with improving the safety and effectiveness of the ladder, had designed his prototype many years before it was recognised, but until the establishment of the Health & Safety Executive and the British Safety Council, no one was interested in investing in safety. Both of these bodies recognised the potential of the Smith Ladder Limpit System immediately and were of great assistance during the early stages of launching the product. The Health & Safety Executive is currently monitoring the progress of the system and to date, has found nothing to question its integrity.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1969

Reid, Morris of Borth‐y‐Gest, Hodson, Upjohn and Diplock

April 29, 1969 Building — Safety regulations — Technical breach — Regulation requiring top of ladder to be lashed before use — Staircase giving access to top of ladder

Abstract

April 29, 1969 Building — Safety regulations — Technical breach — Regulation requiring top of ladder to be lashed before use — Staircase giving access to top of ladder — Scaling of ladder by workman to lash it — No instruction to use staircase — Fall of ladder causing injury to workman — Liability of employers — Whether workman wholly to blame — Whether oil storage tank a “building” — Applicability of safety regulations — Building (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations, 1948 (S.I. 1948, No. 1145), regs. 4, 29(4).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 6 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Elin Brandi Sørensen and Søren Askegaard

This paper seeks to provide a discourse‐based critique of the laddering interviewing technique, and to make academics as well as practitioners aware of some of the…

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2014

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to provide a discourse‐based critique of the laddering interviewing technique, and to make academics as well as practitioners aware of some of the limitations in applying this particular consumer interviewing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first describes the laddering interviewing technique, which traditionally has been conceptualised within a cognitively‐oriented perspective, i.e. the laddering interview is seen as a cognitive task. Then a critical discussion of some of the problems inherent in this view follows. After this, an alternative conceptualisation of the laddering interview is proposed, namely, that it is a discursive event. On the basis of insights from Wittgenstein and Austin it is suggested that the laddering interview is a room for social actions where both interviewer and interviewee are “doing things with words”. An example of applying the discursive approach to a sample sequence from a laddering interview is also provided. Finally, it seeks to evaluate the laddering interviewing technique in terms of its capacity to tap into “the voices in the marketplace”.

Findings

Finds that the laddering interviewing technique has its raison d'être as a quick and structured way of tapping into the voices and institutionalised rationales of the consumers in the marketplace. However, it is also found that the laddering interviewing technique “locks” the interviewee into one particular consumer identity; it prompts only answers that are valid with perfect strangers; it prevents the interviewee from unfolding his arguments fully; and it has a constant focus on personal preferences excluding the possible dissociations from other consumers – all of this making the data less rich and varied.

Originality/value

The unique value of this paper is that it sums up and provides a theoretically‐based critique of the laddering interviewing technique. It is believed that this critique will lead to a more appropriate appreciation of what is going on in a laddering interview and of the utterances that the consumers make in such an interview.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2009

Joan M. Phillips and Thomas J. Reynolds

This paper aims to outline the fundamental assumptions regarding the laddering methodology (Reynolds and Gutman), examine how some “hard” laddering approaches meet or…

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2642

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to outline the fundamental assumptions regarding the laddering methodology (Reynolds and Gutman), examine how some “hard” laddering approaches meet or violate these assumptions, provide a review and comparison of a series of studies using “soft” and “hard” laddering approaches to examine the hierarchical structure of means‐end theory, and assess if the discrepant conclusions from this series of studies may be attributed to violations of the fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of published empirical works using “hard” and “soft” laddering approaches, which aim to examine the hierarchical structure of means‐end theory (Gutman), are reviewed and compared to integrate research findings and to examine discrepancies. Discrepant conclusions, which appear to be attributable to violations of the assumptions underlying the laddering methodology, are explored through a reanalysis and reclassification of the content codes.

Findings

The paper validates the case for laddering and the care needed to gauge how conclusions can be affected when violations of fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology occur.

Research limitations/implications

Means‐end chain research and, more specifically, the laddering methodology are in need of investigations that assess the importance of its underlying assumptions. Additional work validating both the “hard” and “soft” laddering approaches is also needed.

Practical implications

Results of means‐end research are more interpretable and less ambiguous when the fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology are met. In practice, means‐end theory benefits managers by providing a useful structure to aid in the interpretation of laddering data.

Originality/value

This paper outlines the fundamental assumptions regarding the laddering methodology to provide methodological guidelines for laddering researchers. This paper also reviews the academic literature examining the hierarchical structure of means‐end theory and explores how violations of the fundamental assumptions of the laddering methodology may impact research findings.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Thorsten Gruber, Isabelle Szmigin and Roediger Voss

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of complaint satisfaction, specifically to examine how contact employees should behave and which qualities they should…

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3101

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of complaint satisfaction, specifically to examine how contact employees should behave and which qualities they should possess. The study also aims to explore the comparability of results obtained from two laddering methods, as the alternative techniques may lead to different sets of attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study using the means‐end approach and two laddering techniques (personal interviews and questionnaires) was conducted.

Findings

While the personal interviews produced more depth in understanding, the results of the two laddering methods are broadly similar. The research indicates that being taken seriously in the complaint encounter and the employee's listening skills and competence are particularly important.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the exploratory nature of the study and the scope and size of its student sample, the results outlined are tentative in nature.

Practical implications

If companies know what customers expect, contact employees may be trained to adapt their behavior to their customers' underlying expectations, which should have a positive impact on customer satisfaction. For this purpose, the paper gives suggestions to managers to improve active complaint management.

Originality/value

The study was the first to successfully apply the means‐end approach and two laddering techniques to the issue of complaint satisfaction. The paper has hopefully opened up an area of research and methodology that could reap considerable further benefits for researchers interested in the area of customer complaint satisfaction.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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