Search results

1 – 10 of over 6000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Maddalena Colombo and Mariagrazia Santagati

Integration is a fundamental mandate of schooling in democratic and differentiated societies. This chapter analyzes the consequences generated by an increase in number of…

Abstract

Integration is a fundamental mandate of schooling in democratic and differentiated societies. This chapter analyzes the consequences generated by an increase in number of students without Italian citizenship in Italian schools, and the development of multiethnic classrooms. When non-Italian pupils comprise >25–50% of the pupils in classrooms, it’s worth questioning: Are these classrooms segregated? Which factors affect school integration and for whom? The chapter presents the results of the first survey on classrooms with a “high density” of students with an immigrant background carried out in Italy. This study is based on a sample of 1,040 students enrolled in lower secondary education in Lombardy. We use statistical indicators related to two dimensions of integration: (a) the institutional dimension (school access and achievement), and (b) the relational dimension (well-being and absence of conflicts among peers). Data analysis included indexes and a correlation matrix between indexes, regression analysis, and cluster analysis. Results demonstrate a positive correlation between the rate of non-native students in the classroom and low degree of integration, but also the complexity of factors at stake such as gender imbalance and the high concentration of students whose families have a low Socio-Economic Status (SES), independently from citizenship. These results enabled us to de-construct the concept of school integration, identifying a plurality of integrative factors and providing suggestions for intervention.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

Maree Roche and Jarrod M. Haar

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of leaders’ life goals on their work related wellbeing. Self‐determination theory (SDT) asserts aspirations (life…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of leaders’ life goals on their work related wellbeing. Self‐determination theory (SDT) asserts aspirations (life goals) pursued in terms of personal growth, health, affiliation and community support psychological wellbeing, while aspirations of wealth, image and fame thwart wellbeing. However, little is understood about the influence of life goals towards leaders’ wellbeing at work, specifically job burnout.

Design

The study explores seven dimensions of aspirations on a sample of 386 New Zealand leaders towards emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Data were collected in two waves (1=predictors and 2=outcomes) and structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between variables.

Findings

The study found that all extrinsic aspirations were significantly and positively correlated with job burnout, while mainly the intrinsic aspirations were significantly and negatively correlated. The structural model showed that wealth and image aspirations were positively related to emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while health aspirations were negatively related. Finally, relationship aspirations were negatively related to cynicism.

Implications

This study shows the importance of life goals and the role they play towards leaders’ job burnout. Leaders focussed on extrinsic aspirations are more likely to burnout at work than those focussed on intrinsic aspirations. Hence, what leaders focus on in terms of overall life objectives matter for their workplace wellbeing.

Originality/value

Findings are significant because, for the first time, relationships between the SDT dimensions associated with (a leader's) life goal orientations and job burnout has been established.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Necati Aydin

Previous research using the Aspiration Index (AI) suggests that intrinsic goals are positively, but extrinsic/materialistic goals are negatively associated with subjective…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research using the Aspiration Index (AI) suggests that intrinsic goals are positively, but extrinsic/materialistic goals are negatively associated with subjective well-being (SWB). The purpose of this paper is to extend the scope of previous research by exploring the pursuit of different goals in conjunction with SWB in a country with a culture mixing western and traditional values. Several hypotheses regarding the effects of extrinsic, intrinsic, hedonic, and self-transcendent values on SWB were tested.

Design/methodology/approach

An extended AI survey was conducted among randomly selected cross-sectional sample of 878 Turkish adults in Istanbul. The survey data were analyzed to explore the relationship between 14 aspiration domains and SWB using both correlation coefficients and several different regression models.

Findings

The study confirms the basic assumptions of the AI research in a Muslim society with a hybrid culture of materialistic and spiritual aspirations. The study found weak supporting evidence for the contribution of two newly added domains (i.e. aesthetic appreciation as well as honesty and fairness) to SWB, whereas the evidence for the positive contribution of intellectual life was overwhelming. Paradoxically, although the evidence from both correlation and regression coefficients supported a positive relationship between household income and SWB, after dividing the sample into two groups based on their income level, the low-income earners turned out to have relatively higher life satisfaction, holding everything else constant. More importantly, the study reveals that the impact of materialistic aspirations on SWB is still negative even if they are pursued in a hybrid culture.

Research limitations/implications

The study included three new domains in the conventional AI model. Although the findings confirmed the importance of two domains, it is important that they be replicated in other studies, particularly in different cultural settings.

Originality/value

This study makes a significant contribution in terms of testing the effect of materialist and spiritual values on SWB in a Muslim country.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

Yann Truong, Rod McColl and Philip J. Kitchen

This paper seeks to test the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations on luxury brand preference. The objective is to help luxury marketers better understand and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to test the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations on luxury brand preference. The objective is to help luxury marketers better understand and anticipate the psychological needs of their customers.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a thorough review of the literature, a series of hypotheses are derived and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The final sample consists of a total of 615 participants.

Findings

The main findings show that aspirations can affect luxury brand preference depending on the type of aspirations: positive for extrinsic aspirations and negative for intrinsic ones. The findings also suggest that intrinsic aspirations play a more substantial role in luxury consumer behavior than had been previously thought.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that luxury marketers should take into consideration the duality of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations when designing marketing campaigns. Particularly, focusing advertising campaigns on extrinsic values seems restrictive and discards consumers who are intrinsically motivated.

Originality/value

Aspirations are important in social psychology research because they have a strong influence on individuals' behavior. However, little research has been done in marketing to assess the potential effects of aspirations on consumer behavior, especially within the context of luxury goods.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Soodeh Mohammadinezhad and Maryam Sharifzadeh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of academic courses on agricultural entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of academic courses on agricultural entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Modified global entrepreneurship and development index (GEDI) was used to determine entrepreneurial dimensions among 19 graduated students of agricultural colleges resided in Iran. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process was applied to understand agricultural graduates’ preferences on effectiveness of university courses (core, free elective and restricted elective).

Findings

Results suggested the importance of professional restricted elective courses to provide students with necessary skills. These courses were successful in providing a context for entrepreneurial profile.

Research limitations/implications

Innate talent or acquired skills were always the place of debate on entrepreneurial development. The paper builds on the premise that entrepreneurs are made through education and continuing reconstruction of experience, further research is required as the field develops in experience and complexity.

Practical implications

The paper provides strategies to effectively modify practical route in higher education to enhance entrepreneurial orientation among students.

Originality/value

The paper is innovative at a conceptual level in modifying GEDI elements in individual-level variables based on GEDI configuration theory. This approach is particularly useful in addressing the bottleneck problems of entrepreneurship profile and focusses on the information interpreted at weights of the individual-level data.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 59 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Erol Tekin, Veland Ramadani and Leo-Paul Dana

The aim of this study is to evaluate the entrepreneurship activity in Turkey and the Balkan countries and to show in which fields they can cooperate in the future.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to evaluate the entrepreneurship activity in Turkey and the Balkan countries and to show in which fields they can cooperate in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

Document analysis was used in the research. In this context, taking into consideration the Global Entrepreneurship Index data published in 2019, the entrepreneurial potentials of Balkan countries, its current status was examined. Therefore, Turkey’s contribution to the development of entrepreneurial activities in the Balkan countries is shown in the study.

Findings

The results of the research show that entrepreneurship activities in the Balkan countries are not at the expected levels. In addition, it is determined that Turkey is in a central position in the Balkan’s entrepreneurship ecosystem in subjects such as especially, product innovation, risk capital, the ability of entrepreneurial start-up and its enterprises show high growth. Other Balkan countries may cooperate with Turkey about the production of technological products and technology transfer issues. Partner incubation programs can be formed. Training activities related to the entrepreneurship ecosystem can be organised together.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is one of the first study that addresses the current situation of Balkan countries by analysing the entrepreneurship index scores of Turkey and Balkan countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Romania, Croatia, Serbia, northern Macedonia, Greece and Slovenia). It also formulated suggestions on establishing cooperation with Turkey.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 April 2018

László Szerb and William N. Trumbull

Using various macro-level measures of economic and political performance Shleifer and Treisman (2005) and Treisman (2014) call Russia a “normal country” implying that…

Abstract

Purpose

Using various macro-level measures of economic and political performance Shleifer and Treisman (2005) and Treisman (2014) call Russia a “normal country” implying that Russia’s economic and political development is not deviating from the other middle-income or transition countries significantly. The purpose of this paper is to challenge this proposition and investigate whether Russia is a normal country in terms of entrepreneurship by comparing Russia with other post-socialist and similarly developed countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Many studies have examined Russia’s institutional setup to explain its deficiencies in entrepreneurial activity. However, there is a lack of comprehensive research taking into account both the individual and institutional dimensions of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. The authors use the Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEI) methodology to analyze Russia’s quality-related individual as well as institutional features from a system perspective in a single model.

Findings

Russia’s performance has been poor relative to the post-socialist countries and to most of the former republics of the Soviet Union. Russia’s entrepreneurial profile is different from other transition and similarly developed non-transition countries, as well. Russia’s scores are less than the scores of other post-socialist countries in six out of the nine pillars of entrepreneurial attitudes and abilities. In sum, conditions supporting entrepreneurship in Russia lag seriously behind other post-socialist countries. Moreover, Russia’s individual scores are even lower than the institutional ones. Hence, improving the hostile environment alone would not be sufficient for entrepreneurship development.

Originality/value

Although, there have been numerous studies analyzing Russia’s macroeconomic conditions, institutional development, and entrepreneurship, there is lack of comprehensive studies. Besides common macro-level measures, the authors use a unique, GEI data set that combines institutional factors relating to entrepreneurship or new business creation with measures of individual capabilities, motivations, and attitudes about entrepreneurship. The single-model framework reveals that individual factors are even greater obstacles to entrepreneurship development in Russia than the institutional factors that most studies focus on.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Ruta Aidis and Julie Weeks

There is a growing understanding that gender-blind business support measures do not assist women’s enterprise development to the extent that they assist its male…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a growing understanding that gender-blind business support measures do not assist women’s enterprise development to the extent that they assist its male equivalent. Focusing efforts specifically on women’s enterprise development, and measuring the impact of those efforts, is paramount. This paper aims to assess the evolution of two indices that analyze high-impact female entrepreneurship development: the Gender-Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) and the 2015 Global Women Entrepreneur Leaders Scorecard. Both utilize data from reliable data sources, yet are limited by the quality and availability of sex-disaggregated data. However, they differ in terms of variable choice, methodology and results.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of two indices that analyze high-impact female entrepreneurship development. High-impact female entrepreneurship is defined as firms headed by women that are market-expanding, export-oriented and innovative. The assessment is focused on two new indices, the 2013 and 2014 Gender-GEDI and, the newly created measurement tool, the 2015 Global Women Entrepreneur Leaders Scorecard.

Findings

Both indices rely on existing data from reliable, internationally recognized data sets, yet are limited by the sex-disaggregated data that are currently available. However, they differ in terms of variable choice, methodology and results.

Originality/value

There is an increasing need by researchers and policy makers alike to consolidate existing data to better understand the existing barriers for women entrepreneurs and to be able to benchmark change. This paper assesses two indices that provide insights into the conditions for high-impact women entrepreneurs in a country comparative way.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Jeffrey T. Kullgren, Geoffrey C Williams, Kenneth Resnicow, Lawrence C An, Amy Rothberg, Kevin G Volpp and Michele Heisler

The purpose of this paper is to describe how tailoring financial incentives for healthy behaviors to employees’ goals, values, and aspirations might improve the efficacy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how tailoring financial incentives for healthy behaviors to employees’ goals, values, and aspirations might improve the efficacy of incentives.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors integrate insights from self-determination theory (SDT) with principles from behavioral economics in the design of financial incentives by linking how incentives could help meet an employee’s life goals, values, or aspirations.

Findings

Tailored financial incentives could be more effective than standard incentives in promoting autonomous motivation necessary to initiate healthy behaviors and sustain them after incentives are removed.

Research limitations/implications

Previous efforts to improve the design of financial incentives have tested different incentive designs that vary the size, schedule, timing, and target of incentives. The strategy for tailoring incentives builds on strong evidence that difficult behavior changes are more successful when integrated with important life goals and values. The authors outline necessary research to examine the effectiveness of this approach among at-risk employees.

Practical implications

Instead of offering simple financial rewards for engaging in healthy behaviors, existing programs could leverage incentives to promote employees’ autonomous motivation for sustained health improvements.

Social implications

Effective application of these concepts could lead to programs more effective at improving health, potentially at lower cost.

Originality/value

The approach for the first time integrates key insights from SDT, behavioral economics, and tailoring to turn an extrinsic reward for behavior change into an internalized, self-sustaining motivator for long-term engagement in risk-reducing behaviors.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Lars Kolvereid and Espen John Isaksen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of business growth expectations and subsequent accumulated sales revenues and employment costs. Hypotheses are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of business growth expectations and subsequent accumulated sales revenues and employment costs. Hypotheses are derived guided by the theory of planned behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors followed a sample of 207 incorporated businesses started in May/June 2002 over a ten-year period. The hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

The results suggest that the entrepreneurs’ need for social cohesion, subjective norm with regard to business growth and perceived self-efficacy with regard to opportunity recognition are positively and significantly associated with business growth expectations. These expectations, reported at the time of business registration, accurately predict subsequent short-term as well as long-term accumulated sales revenues and labour costs, but this is not the case for entrepreneurs with novel business ideas.

Practical implications

Since entrepreneurs’ attitude, subjective norm and self-efficacy are possible to change, the findings should interest policy makers and educators. Measures aimed at enhancing the antecedents of entrepreneurs’ growth expectations should be considered. The findings that growth expectations have a long-lasting effect on sales and employment stress the importance of entrepreneurs’ subjective expectations for outcomes in new businesses.

Originality/value

There is a lack of studies using a longitudinal design when investigating the link between initial business growth expectations and subsequent firm outcomes. This study contributes to the entrepreneurship literature in this regard by using high-quality secondary data to examine firm achievements.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 6000