Search results

1 – 10 of over 23000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Christabel L. Rogalin

This chapter seeks to theoretically answer the question: under which circumstances do groups succeed under female leadership? Further, is it possible to conceptualize the…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter seeks to theoretically answer the question: under which circumstances do groups succeed under female leadership? Further, is it possible to conceptualize the engineering of groups such that group success under female leadership is a likely outcome?

Design/methodology/approach

In this chapter, I draw on identity control theory (Burke & Stets, 2009; Stets & Burke, 2005) and role congruity theory (Eagly, 2003) to discuss the implications for female leaders of the discrepancy between the female gender identity and the leader identity. Next, I draw upon status characteristics theory (Berger et al., 1972) to further illustrate the negative consequences of being a female leader. Then, drawing on group processes research, I make the explicit link between the negative expectations for female leaders on group performance through the endorsement of group members. Finally, I utilize innovative research using institutionalization of female leadership to propose a possible solution for improving group performance.

Research implications

I present nine testable hypotheses ready for empirical test.

Social implications

I propose that training materials underscoring the skills that females have as leaders can subvert the development of conflictual expectations facing female leaders, thus removing the deleterious effects on group performance. That is, if group members receive training that emphasizes the competencies and skills women bring to the group’s task and to the leadership role, then group performance will not be threatened.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-976-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 February 2018

Larissa von Alberti-Alhtaybat and Salwa Aazam

Female leadership is a still largely unexplored aspect of the higher education (HE) field. While it is known that barriers to entry exist, few studies have addressed female

Abstract

Purpose

Female leadership is a still largely unexplored aspect of the higher education (HE) field. While it is known that barriers to entry exist, few studies have addressed female leadership and have investigated what makes a female academic seek leadership, what their experiences are and how they perceive their positions and the associated responsibilities. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this lacuna as it provides a qualitative account of female academic leaders’ perceptions regarding their positions in the Middle East (ME) context. It also outlines their main tasks as administrative and academic leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection and analysis took place according to grounded theory principles, as outlined in this study. Participants were selected according to theoretical sampling principles, access and willingness to participate.

Findings

The findings illustrate a core concept, the female academic leadership mindset in the ME, and three emergent concepts that address the main shared perceptions, which are leadership experiences and expectations, differential treatment and work-life balance. The first discusses the different types of leadership and how female leaders experienced their positions, the second addresses the perceived differential treatment female leaders experience and the last addresses the dual pressure of work and home responsibilities that many female leaders have to deal with. Interestingly, several participants felt that fellow females were often unsupportive, which might also provide an explanation as to why women still experience obstacles.

Originality/value

This study provides in-depth exploratory accounts of female leaders in various Middle Eastern HE sectors, and gives insight into leadership-related perceptions. Furthermore, it explores the effect of the Middle Eastern cultural context on aspects of female leadership.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Hans‐Joachim Wolfram and Gisela Mohr

Meta‐analytic evidence exists that the numerical dominance of one gender group among employees can affect the behaviour of female and male leaders. The purpose of this…

Downloads
1605

Abstract

Purpose

Meta‐analytic evidence exists that the numerical dominance of one gender group among employees can affect the behaviour of female and male leaders. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesis that leaders will show more transformational behaviour when they hold a minority status. Transformational behaviour might help to mitigate discrepancies between male leaders' gender and the feminine context, as well as between female leaders' gender and the masculine leadership role.

Design/methodology/approach

N1=455 team members answered questionnaires about their work satisfaction and their team leaders' transformational leadership, whilst N2=142 team leaders answered questions regarding their teams' goal fulfillment.

Findings

Female and male leaders are rated more transformational in economic sectors and working groups where they hold a minority status. The paper finds a positive interrelation between transformational leadership and followers' work satisfaction for male leaders, but not for female leaders.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should compare female and male leaders from extremely gender‐typed economic sectors and from higher levels of the organisational hierarchy. This would provide evidence whether the findings could be generalised to other samples.

Practical implications

The findings point to the potential advantage of being a high‐transformational male leader in female‐dominated contexts. Irrespective of the numerical dominance of one gender group, followers of low‐transformational female leaders are more satisfied than those of low‐transformational male leaders.

Originality/value

The paper uses sector‐level (gender‐typicality of economic sectors) as well as group‐level data (gender‐composition of working groups) to account for the numerical dominance of female and male employees.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Janet L. Nixdorff and Theodore H. Rosen

As of 2007, there were an estimated 10.4 million businesses in the United States that were owned and operated by women. The number of women-owned firms has continued to…

Downloads
2424

Abstract

As of 2007, there were an estimated 10.4 million businesses in the United States that were owned and operated by women. The number of women-owned firms has continued to grow at around twice the rate of all firms for the past two decades (Center for Women℉s Business Research, 2008). On the other hand, women comprise only 15.4 percent of corporate officers in Fortune 500 companies (Catalyst, 2007b) and, in 2003, held only 14.8 percent of board seats in the Fortune 500 (Catalyst, 2007a).To better understand the glass ceiling faced by both female entrepreneurs and women leaders, the research on women℉s issues is examined from a number of different vantage points. Women℉s entrepreneurship and women℉s leadership research on leadership, decision-making, and gender differences was examined to discover commonalities. Then female single-sex education literature was reviewed for insights on developmental issues that might influence future women entrepreneurs and leaders. In this exploration of research, it was found that both women entrepreneurs and women leaders in the corporate environment tend toward the same leadership styles and ways of interacting with others; they also experience a lack of role models and possible lack of self-efficacy.The literature on single-sex education provides observations that young women may thrive in environments in which there are fewer male competitors, hold less stereotyped views on gender, hold higher aspirations, may have greater opportunities for training of leadership skills, and may have increased self-confidence that may be the result of exposure to successful women role models. Implications for future research are explored and suggestions are provided to meet the needs of developing women entrepreneurs.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Chin‐Chung (Joy) Chao

The present study aims at contributing to the knowledge of organizational communication and cross‐cultural leadership by examining the relationship between cultural values…

Downloads
3009

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims at contributing to the knowledge of organizational communication and cross‐cultural leadership by examining the relationship between cultural values and expected female leadership styles in non‐profit organizations in Taiwan and the US.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 307 Rotarians in Taiwan and the US completed a survey meant to reveal their cultural values and expected female leadership styles. In addition, the method of semi‐structured interviews was used to raise the participants' consciousness of and critical reflections upon social practices regarding female leadership.

Findings

The research results are threefold. First, among the three major leadership styles, Rotarians in both countries expect female leaders to display transformational leadership. Second, laissez‐faire leadership style can be better explained by the variables of cultural values and country than transformational and transactional leadership styles. Finally, to successfully confront gender discrimination, female leaders need to oftentimes behave much more progressively and actively and sometimes make necessary compromises of their female qualities to overcome the barriers just like climbing over the Himalayas.

Practical implications

The research findings imply that national culture is not the only factor to account for the expected female leadership styles. Future studies of leadership concepts and styles should include more variables such as organizational culture, political system, language, and feminine or masculine characteristics. Based on the results, the so‐called “glass‐ceiling effects” have been broken bit by bit; yet, female leaders still need to “climb over the Himalayas” and pass through a tortuous, demanding, and exhausting path in order to move upward.

Originality/value

As the first study of its kind, this study has filled the gap by expanding leadership studies to cross‐cultural contexts, thus contributing to the body of human knowledge of cross‐cultural leadership in non‐profit organizations of Rotary Clubs.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Anke Esser, Marion Kahrens, Yusra Mouzughi and Ester Eomois

The purpose of this paper is to develop a competency framework that incorporates the key leadership competencies required of female leaders working in male-dominated…

Downloads
2970

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a competency framework that incorporates the key leadership competencies required of female leaders working in male-dominated industries by putting particular emphasis on the male leaders’ point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research combines a thorough literature review on important leadership competencies with ten in-depth, semi-structured interviews with male leaders from the Telecommunication and ICT industry, two typically male-dominated industries in Germany. All the interviews were transcribed and analysed through qualitative content analysis based on Mayring.

Findings

Findings revealed that success of female leaders within male dominances is shaped by not only their exceptional professional expertise but also the complex mix of behaviours on a professional and interpersonal level.

Practical implications

This study contributes to the academic debate on why only a few women reach the top of organisations in male-dominated industries by considering the perspective of male leaders. A competency model is proposed that incorporates both professional competencies and expected behaviours on a personal and interpersonal level and therefore enables leadership professionals to better understand the male leaders point of view on the complex mix of competencies expected from female leaders operating in male-dominated industries.

Originality/value

The need for more women in leadership has become a global business imperative, yet little is known about the competencies required to succeed in environments shaped by male leadership styles and the understanding that women are less capable leaders. Assessing the point of view of male leaders, who dominate these working environments, provides new and valuable insights into the complex issue of women in leadership for the academic debate and the practitioners’ point of view.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

Uma D. Jogulu and Glenice J. Wood

The present paper is based on a cross‐cultural exploration of middle managers in two diverse cultures and aims to focus on how the leadership styles of managerial women…

Downloads
5569

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper is based on a cross‐cultural exploration of middle managers in two diverse cultures and aims to focus on how the leadership styles of managerial women are perceived and evaluated. In particular, female and male peer evaluations of leadership effectiveness in Malaysia and Australia are to be explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys from 324 middle managers from Malaysia and Australia were quantitatively analysed. The sample for the study was drawn from organisations in four industry types in both countries.

Findings

Findings suggest that evaluations of female managers' leadership styles in general, and within the respondent's own organisations, were strongly culture specific, especially in Malaysia. The results reflected the strongly held values, attitudes and beliefs of each country. While this is not unexpected, it does highlight a need to be cautious when interpreting Western research results and attempting to transplant those into other cultures. In Malaysia, female managers were not seen as effective in the leadership styles they adopted in their roles when compared to the Australian female managers' evaluations. Such an evaluation may have had little to do with an objective appraisal of the female managers' capability, but rather with a strongly held cultural belief about the appropriate role of women in society, and in organisations in particular.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that national culture manifests itself in the values, attitudes and behaviours of people. Cultural influences are therefore likely to impact on the way women and men behave in the workplace, particularly when roles of authority and power are evident, and the way in which that behaviour will be evaluated by others. Further research using different samples in different cultures are recommended. In addition, the influence of ethnicity, race or religion in plural countries such as Malaysia and Australia is also worthy of investigation.

Practical implications

This research suggests that values and attitudes are strongly culture‐specific and therefore have the ability to influence evaluations at an organisational level. Such an awareness of cultural influences should guide appropriate human resource practices, particularly within a globalized environment.

Originality/value

The inclusion of a gender comparison in the data analysis in this paper is a significant attempt to add to the extant knowledge of the cross‐cultural research. This is a unique contribution because of the omission of a gender perspective in the previous two seminal studies in culture literature (i.e. Hofstede and House et al.). In addition, the findings suggest that culture‐specific influences are important determinants that impose expectations on the role of women differently from men in society and within organisations hence, making the gender comparison of the findings more significant.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2013

Hassan Reza Zeinabadi

The purpose of this study is to investigate gender differences in transformational leadership and social exchange outcomes in public primary schools in Tehran, Iran.

Downloads
1339

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate gender differences in transformational leadership and social exchange outcomes in public primary schools in Tehran, Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

A total number of 400 teachers and 77 principals completed questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed to determine gender differences in transformational leadership dimensions including idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Also, multiple regression was used to identify the impact of dimensions on three social exchange outcomes including procedural justice, trust in principal, and organizational citizenship behaviors of teachers.

Findings

Results showed that female principals as compared to male principals obtained significantly higher scores on transformational leadership dimensions and the greater amount of transformational behaviors displayed by them has accompanied with the greater prediction of social exchange outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that there are some benefits associated with having female principals and schools could particularly benefit from developing principal training programs that focus on developing female principals qualities. Some following limitations could be avoided in future research: only relying on teacher rating of principal, possible effect of the teacher's gender on the relationship of transformational leadership with social exchange outcomes, and principal‐teacher gender mach limitation in rating principals.

Originality/value

Given the limited studies conducted on gender differences in transformational leadership and social exchange outcomes in schools and in Iran, this study provides empirical insights and extends this line of inquiry in public schools. This study confirms the results of previous studies which they have found females as more transformational than male counterparts and also provides new finding surrounding social exchange outcomes. These results could be influential in encouraging Iranian policy makers to further acknowledge women administration in public schools.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Soyeon Kim and Mannsoo Shin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of gender on the effectiveness of transformational leadership. Drawing on role congruity theory, it elucidates…

Downloads
2231

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of gender on the effectiveness of transformational leadership. Drawing on role congruity theory, it elucidates the moderating effects of leader gender, subordinate gender, and leader-subordinate gender dyad on the relationship between transformational leadership and psychological empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

Employees of companies in Korea responded to a paper-pencil survey, rating their psychological empowerment and leadership behaviors of their direct leader on a five-point Likert-type scale. The analysis includes 339 responses.

Findings

The results indicate that a leader’s gender has no significant moderating effect on psychological empowerment, but the gender of the subordinate has a significant moderating effect, with male subordinates more strongly influenced by transformational leadership than female subordinates. Notably, the findings show that the effectiveness of transformational leadership is contingent on the leader-subordinate gender dyad. Specifically, transformational leadership has as significant an effect on female leader-male subordinate dyads as on male leader-male subordinate dyads.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to leadership and gender studies in the management field by investigating the effect of gender roles on the effectiveness of transformational leadership. Future research should extend this study and explore whether these findings are generalizable.

Practical implications

The remarkable finding of the effect of female leadership on employee empowerment suggests organizations should use more female leaders.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study to shed light on gender issues in relation to transformational leadership in Korea.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Saadet Elif Esposito

A new phenomenon called “Glass Cliff” has formed claiming that women at the higher echelons of organizations are being placed in higher risk positions when compared to…

Abstract

Purpose

A new phenomenon called “Glass Cliff” has formed claiming that women at the higher echelons of organizations are being placed in higher risk positions when compared to men. The purpose of this research study is to examine whether this phenomenon occurs at the middle to upper middle management levels for women. If so, it can possibly be one of the many underlying reasons that contribute to the grounds of why the pipeline problem exists with female leadership at the top-level management positions.

Design/methodology/approach

The design considers competing hypotheses based on the emerging, contradictory research on the Glass Cliff and the more established perspective of social norms and implicit biases. The experimental study is conducted on 202 participants to examine the likelihood of occurrence of this phenomenon at middle to upper middle management levels.

Findings

Counter to the tenets pertaining to the Glass Cliff phenomenon but consistent with the implicit leadership theories, this research study revealed that when compared to the female candidate, the male candidate was more likely to be assigned to the higher risk position.

Research limitations/implications

The subjective nature of the study can be the reason for variations of each participant and their biases since it is a specific experiment dealing with perceptions, social norms and prejudice.

Originality/value

This phenomenon is mostly studied at the executive level and can contribute to the pipeline problem for women, hence this study provides insight and examines the phenomenon at the middle to upper middle management levels to examine its likelihood.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 23000