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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Anders S.G. Andrae, Norihiro Itsubo and Atsushi Inaba

Using two different conceptual approaches to environmental life‐cycle assessment, attributional and consequential, the purpose was to test the hypothesis that a typical…

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12508

Abstract

Purpose

Using two different conceptual approaches to environmental life‐cycle assessment, attributional and consequential, the purpose was to test the hypothesis that a typical lead free solder paste Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.7 is worse than Sn63Pb37 as far as global environmental impacts are concerned.

Design/methodology/approach

Single index weighting indices within the impact methodology Life cycle Impact Assessment Method based on Endpoint Modelling (LIME) impact methodology, were applied to the flows of three life cycle inventory models and their globally related flows. The LIME results based on three environmental impact categories, i.e. resource consumption, global warming and ozonelayer depletion are presented and discussed.

Findings

The attributional LCA (ALCA) results point towards a larger impact for Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.7 than Sn63Pb37 mostly due to the higher Sn and Ag content. This study confirms earlier similar ALCAs. The system expansion for the Consequential LCA (CLCA) did not change this conclusion.

Research limitations/implications

The present study has not included the affected microelectronics packaging parts of electronic products, nor has it included toxic effects as they are local. ALCA was considered to be equal to CLCA for Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.7, where no Ag nor Sn recycling was included.

Originality/value

For the first time a global environmental impact assessment of the shift to Pb‐free solder paste using the LIME weighting method applied to a CLCA is reported. Environmental life‐cycle investigations intended to support decisions of an ecological nature in the microelectronics packaging industry should benefit from the consequential approach.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

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40

Abstract

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Facilities, vol. 20 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 18 February 2019

Durga Prasad and S.C. Jayswal

The purpose of this paper is to develop the methodology which can facilitate the concept of reconfiguration in the manufacturing system.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop the methodology which can facilitate the concept of reconfiguration in the manufacturing system.

Design/methodology/approach

Design methodology includes the calculation of similarity matrix, formation of part family, and selection of part family. ALC algorithm has been used for part family formation and three criteria have been considered for the selection of part family. These criteria are reconfiguration effort, under-utilization cost, and floor space cost. AHP has been used to calculate the weights of criteria and reference ideal method has been used for the selection of alternatives.

Findings

In the manufacturing system, machines should be grouped on the basis of reconfiguration cost. When the time period is less, light machines and Group 1 machines are added and removed. In the case study, the concept of reconfiguration is useful for families (A, B, C, D). Machines can be reused by adding/removing some modules of machines. The concept of reconfiguration becomes more useful when it is implemented with lean manufacturing. Lean manufacturing techniques Jidoka and Poka-yoke are used to increase the diagnosability of the system.

Practical implications

Industrial case study has been considered.

Social implications

Market competition is increasing rapidly and it increases the demand and variety of products, due to which manufacturing enterprises are forced to adapt a manufacturing system which can adjust its capacity and functionality quickly at low cost. To reconfigure manufacturing system from one product/product family to another product/product family, changes can be done in hardware and/or software components in response to sudden changes in the market or in regulatory requirements.

Originality/value

An integrated approach for reconfiguration has been proposed considering the industrial application. It includes weighted Jaccard function, ALCA, AHP, RIM. The methodology for calculation of reconfiguration effort, under-utilization cost, and floor space cost has been presented for industrial case.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

A. Subash Babu, K.N. Nandurkar and Austin Thomas

The concept of virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) is finding acceptance among researchers and practitioners as an extension to group technology. This paper is…

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1189

Abstract

The concept of virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) is finding acceptance among researchers and practitioners as an extension to group technology. This paper is related to a research work which resulted in designing and developing VCMS, which by virtue of its abilities proves to be attractive to manufacturing organisations fitting into the category of SMEs. VCMS consists of enterprise modeller (EM), cell design manager (CDM), cell operation manager (COM), simulator (SIM), performance evaluator (PE) and report generator (REP). The “cell design manager” is a very important constituent of the VCMS, as this module helps to generate a number of cell configurations using different algorithms. A new algorithm styled as “Better alternative to ROC (BETROC)”, which possesses many distinct features to generate a number of alternative solutions, has been developed and reported in this paper.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

D.E. Santos‐Reyes and T. Lawlor‐Wright

The demand for more stringent environmental regulation on product end‐of‐life and production processes is enhanced by customer concerns for environmental protection. This…

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5835

Abstract

The demand for more stringent environmental regulation on product end‐of‐life and production processes is enhanced by customer concerns for environmental protection. This has increased the need for industry to address environmental issues in the product design process. The emergence of international standards for environmental management, such as the ISO 14000 series, has also created a strong incentive for manufacturers to promote environmentally conscious products and processes. Considerable progress has been made in design for the environment (DFE). However, there is still a need for a structured approach to DFE that addresses environmental concerns in a coherent way. This approach should also support an environmental management system (EMS). This paper describes an organised process to address the problem of integrating environmental concerns into an early product design process that is consistent with such international standards as ISO 14001 EMS. This approach may help to improve the environmental performance of a product and to support an organisation’s EMS.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

David S. Ang

The formation of machine‐part families is an important task in the design of cellular and flexible manufacturing systems. The formation results in the creation of many…

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640

Abstract

The formation of machine‐part families is an important task in the design of cellular and flexible manufacturing systems. The formation results in the creation of many benefits for manufacturing systems. Among the many methods utilized in machine‐cells formation, the similarity coefficient method (SCM) is most widely used. When SCM is used, the rearrangement of machine and part components is required to form machine‐part families. This process of rearrangement has been considered as being subjective and difficult and may result in improper assignments to parts families, resulting in a negation of benefits promised. This paper presents an effective algorithm to identify part‐families and bottleneck‐parts, given machine groupings, rather than addressing the machine grouping problem in general.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 98 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 September 2008

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134

Abstract

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 80 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Jonathan P Doh and Barbara Kotschwar

Civil society, as represented by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), is exerting increasing pressure on national governments, multinational corporations, and…

Abstract

Civil society, as represented by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), is exerting increasing pressure on national governments, multinational corporations, and international institutions. In this chapter we document the evolution of participation by civil society and NGOs in Western Hemisphere economic integration, focusing particularly on the NGO role in three important trade and investment agreements: the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Free Trade Area of the Americas process. We find that NGOs are having increasing influence on the trade and investment agreements in the Hemisphere, and are poised to take on a major role in multilateral negotiations and agreements.

Details

North American Economic and Financial Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-094-4

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Wike Agustin Prima Dania, Ke Xing and Yousef Amer

This paper aims to evaluate the collaboration quality performance of sugar company Z and its stakeholders (farmers and distributors) by considering the sustainability…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the collaboration quality performance of sugar company Z and its stakeholders (farmers and distributors) by considering the sustainability aspects. This assessment shall be able to integrate qualitative and quantitative factors in the model, which is critical in sugar supply chains involving multi-stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Integration of quality function deployment (QFD), the fuzzy analytical network process (FANP) and the data envelopment analysis (DEA) is administered to assess the efficiency score of each stakeholder involved. The evaluation encompasses collaboration behaviour factors since the input of collaboration activities will result in sustainability aspects such as revenue, green house gas (GHG) emissions and social impact. The analysis has been conducted in two scenarios, those are the basic scenario by utilising original data and the extended scenario by using projection data.

Findings

The result clarifies that the most influential behaviour factor in the collaboration activities is commitment (0.116), while the least important behaviour factors are power (0.008) and adaptation (0.008). Furthermore, by using the extended scenario, the overall efficiency for each benchmarking is higher compared to the condition before the improvement (basic scenario).

Research limitations/implications

The result of this study is only relevant to the particular sugar supply chain and involving limited sustainability variables. Therefore, in a further study, more variables such as technical and financial aspects could be explored further in the assessment process.

Practical implications

The result of this study is available for each stakeholder and can be fundamental for the constant improvement in sustainable supply chain (SSC) practices. It shows that an improvement of one stakeholder will positively impact the entire system.

Social implications

Smallholders and sugarcane farmers will recognise the significance of collaboration behaviour. Thus, they can enhance their mutual benefits by using the existing resources.

Originality/value

This paper arranges for a practical contribution by implementing advanced assessment methods in the sugar supply chain by taking into account the economic, environmental and social aspects. This comprehensive assessment process in the sugar supply chain is the novelty of this paper.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Book part
Publication date: 1 April 2007

Manoranjan Dutta

Abstract

Details

European Union and the Euro Revolution
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-827-8

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