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Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Etiënne A. J. A. Rouwette and L. Alberto Franco

This chapter focuses on techniques and technologies to aid groups in making decisions, with an emphasis on computer-based support. Many office workers regularly meet…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on techniques and technologies to aid groups in making decisions, with an emphasis on computer-based support. Many office workers regularly meet colleagues and clients in virtual meetings using videoconferencing platforms, which enable participants to carry out tasks in a manner similar to a face-to-face meeting. The development of computer-based platforms to facilitate group tasks can be traced back to the 1960s, and while they support group communication, they do not directly support group decision making. In this chapter we distinguish four technologies developed to provide support to group decisions, clustered into two main traditions. Technologies in the task-oriented tradition are mainly concerned with enabling participants to complete tasks to solve the group's decision problem via computer-supported communications. Group Decision Support Systems and social software technologies comprise the task-oriented tradition. Alternately, in the model-driven tradition, participants use computers to build and use a model that acts as a referent to communicate, mostly verbally, about the group's decision problem. System modeling and decision-modeling technologies constitute the model-driven tradition. This chapter sketches the history and guiding ideas of both traditions, and describes their associated technologies. The chapter concludes with questioning if increased availability of online tools will lead to increased use of group decision support technologies, and the differential impact of communication support versus decision support.

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The Emerald Handbook of Group and Team Communication Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-501-8

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Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Wang Liao, Natalya N. Bazarova, Y. Connie Yuan and Poppy L. McLeod

The changing technological landscape has brought about new forms of groups and grouping that span across computing and communication devices, space, time, institutions…

Abstract

The changing technological landscape has brought about new forms of groups and grouping that span across computing and communication devices, space, time, institutions, cultures, realities (physical, virtual, and augmented), and intelligence (natural and artificial intelligence). This chapter utilizes a series of publication and keyword analyses to identify trends in group and technology research in the fields of communication, management, and computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) between 2008 and 2019. The results reveal prominent research areas, and recent shifts and emergent questions in the study of groups and technology, highlighting a complex entanglement of technology with collaborative social practices. The chapter concludes with a discussion of novel key areas and trends suggested by the analyses, with the goal of contributing toward a research agenda for future study of groups and technology.

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The Emerald Handbook of Group and Team Communication Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-501-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

M. Lynne Markus

Identifies a set of expectations about information technology (IT)adoption and usage in work groups, based on prior theory. Describes alongitudinal study on the adoption…

Abstract

Identifies a set of expectations about information technology (IT) adoption and usage in work groups, based on prior theory. Describes a longitudinal study on the adoption and usage of asynchronous technologies in small face‐to‐face groups. Compares observations with expectations. Concludes that expectations were generally supported except in one case, where file transfer was used synchronously to support face‐to‐face interaction. Observed one use of asynchronous technology to maintain social distance because of poor relationships. Discusses the implications of the findings. Offers possible areas of future research.

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Information Technology & People, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

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E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Gail L. Rein and Clarence A. Ellis

Reinterprets data from an empirical study conducted in 1987 –the Nick Experiment – concerned with the interaction betweentechnology, team and task. Combines data with…

Abstract

Reinterprets data from an empirical study conducted in 1987 – the Nick Experiment – concerned with the interaction between technology, team and task. Combines data with anecdotal evidence. Reports gains in meetings quality and effectiveness. Comments on the potential effectiveness of the messaging facility on the electronic workstations and the electronic blackboard. Comments strongly on the value of field experiments and case studies – as opposed to controlled experiments – to obtain realistic data.

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Office Technology and People, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0167-5710

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2005

Andrew Nelson and Thomas Byers

Both entrepreneurship education and commercialization of university research have witnessed remarkable growth in the past two decades. These activities may be…

Abstract

Both entrepreneurship education and commercialization of university research have witnessed remarkable growth in the past two decades. These activities may be complementary in many respects, as when participation in an entrepreneurship program prepares a student to start a company based on university technology, or when technology transfer personnel provide resources and expertise for an entrepreneurship course. At the same time, however, the activities are distinct along a number of dimensions, including goals and mission, influence of market conditions, time horizon, assessment, and providers and constituency. We argue that this situation presents an organizational dilemma: How should entrepreneurship and technology transfer groups within a university maintain independence in recognition of their differences while still facilitating synergies resulting from overlapping areas of concern? In response to this dilemma, we draw on the organizational modularity perspective, which offers the normative prescription that such situations warrant autonomy for individual units, but also require a high degree of cross-unit awareness in order to capture synergies. To illustrate this perspective in an intra-university population of entrepreneurship and technology transfer groups, we present network images and statistics of inter-group relationships at Stanford University, which is widely recognized for its success in both activities. The results highlight that dependence between groups is minimal, such that groups retain autonomy in decision-making and are not dependent on others to complete their goals. Simultaneously, cross-unit awareness is high, such that groups have frequent formal and informal interactions and communication. This awareness facilitates mutually beneficial interactions between groups. As a demonstration of the actual functioning of this system, we present three thumbnail case studies that highlight positive relationships between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer. Ultimately, we argue that to fully realize the synergies between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer, we must also recognize differences between them and ensure the autonomy that such differences warrant.

Details

University Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-359-4

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Dawn Owens and Deepak Khazanchi

In an environment of constant technological change, the use of virtual teams (VTs) has become commonplace for many organizations. VTs bring together dispersed individuals…

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Abstract

Purpose

In an environment of constant technological change, the use of virtual teams (VTs) has become commonplace for many organizations. VTs bring together dispersed individuals with varying knowledge and skill sets to accomplish tasks. VTs rely heavily on information technology (IT) as the medium for communication and coordination of work. The issue of establishing and maintaining trust in VTs poses challenges for these dispersed workers. Previous research has established that higher trusting teams have better cooperation and experience improved outcomes. The authors hope to contribute to the literature on trust in VTs by exploring how technology can facilitate high trusting teams. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to report the results of the research addressing the following question: how does the use of technology capabilities (TCs) afforded by virtual worlds (VWs) affect the development of trust in VTs?

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case-study approach was used as the primary research design. Each case spanned a two-week period allowing for longitudinal data collection. The research was conducted within a VW setting with an emphasis on IT capabilities that are unique to three-dimensional VWs. Both qualitative and quantitative data collected during this process were analyzed at the group level.

Findings

The authors found that communication, rendering and interaction TCs allowed participants to use the technology to assess individual capabilities. While this paper answers some questions about how TCs can help develop trust in VTs, it also raises many questions. This study offers a model and framework for further work on this topic and encourages researchers to investigate other social and behavioral issues faced by VTs in a VW setting.

Research limitations/implications

While this paper answers some questions about how various TCs can help develop trust in VTs, it also raises many questions. The study results may not be generalizable if the respondents who visit an immersive VW are different from those who do not have sufficient VW experience. However, the authors believe that the relationships between the constructs would remain. Another potential limitation has to do with how often trustfulness/trustworthiness were measured in the study. Measuring trustfulness/trustworthiness at additional points in the study would help determine specific points where these constructs changed. Finally, the study suffers from the common criticisms of case study research. Case research requires direct observation which includes cost, time and access hurdles. However, many of these challenges were addressed by using various data collection methods. Another difficulty is the need for multiple methods for triangulation and lack of controls. Again, the study addressed these difficulties by combining qualitative and quantitative data sources.

Practical implications

This research provides deeper insight for organizations using VTs in terms of how TCs can be used to engender trust. This has implications for how we design collaboration technologies.

Social implications

The fundamental societal implication of this research is the conclusion that human behavior in the present world can potentially carry over in the VW and that TCs can be adapted and used to influence trust in VTs. This has implications for how we design collaboration technologies.

Originality/value

This paper offers practical implications for developing trust in VTs, specifically, how the use of TCs can facilitate trust development. The goal was not to recommend a specific technology platform, but rather explore how unique TCs impact behaviors in VTs. The study identified interesting findings relating to how people use TCs to complete tasks and collaborate on a team. These findings may be used to help develop guidelines and recommendations for using technology to enhance work practices in VTs.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1985

The librarian and researcher have to be able to uncover specific articles in their areas of interest. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume IV, like Volume III…

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Abstract

The librarian and researcher have to be able to uncover specific articles in their areas of interest. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume IV, like Volume III, contains features to help the reader to retrieve relevant literature from MCB University Press' considerable output. Each entry within has been indexed according to author(s) and the Fifth Edition of the SCIMP/SCAMP Thesaurus. The latter thus provides a full subject index to facilitate rapid retrieval. Each article or book is assigned its own unique number and this is used in both the subject and author index. This Volume indexes 29 journals indicating the depth, coverage and expansion of MCB's portfolio.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Cristina Orsolin Klingenberg, Marco Antônio Viana Borges and José Antônio Valle Antunes Jr

The purpose of this paper is to identify current technologies related to Industry 4.0 and to develop a rationale to enhance the understanding of their functions within a…

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1294

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify current technologies related to Industry 4.0 and to develop a rationale to enhance the understanding of their functions within a data-driven paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review of 119 papers published in journals included in the Journal Citation Report (JCR) was conducted to identify Industry 4.0 technologies. A descriptive analysis characterizes the corpus, and a content analysis identifies the technologies.

Findings

The content analysis identified 111 technologies. These technologies perform four functions related to data: data generation and capture, data transmission, data conditioning, storage and processing and data application. The first three groups consist of enabling technologies and the fourth group of value-creating technologies. Results show that Industry 4.0 publications focus on enabling technologies that transmit and process data. Value-creating technologies, which apply data in order to develop new solutions, are still rare in the literature.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework serves as a structure for analysing the focus of publications over time, and enables the classification of new technologies as the paradigm evolves.

Practical implications

Because the technical side of the new production paradigm is complex and represents an evolving field, managers benefit from a simplified and data-driven approach. The proposed framework suggests that Industry 4.0 should be approached by looking at how data can create value and at what role each technology plays in this task.

Originality/value

The study makes a direct link between Industry 4.0 technologies and the key resource of this revolution, i.e. data. It provides a rationale that not only establishes relationships between technologies and data, but also highlights their roles as enablers or creators of value. Beyond showing the current focus of Industry 4.0 publications, this paper proposes a framework that is useful for tracking the evolution of the paradigm.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Arthur Kearney, Denis Harrington and Tazeeb Rajwani

This paper aims to investigate the interaction of the relationships between group behaviour, group process and learning outcomes in online executive education.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the interaction of the relationships between group behaviour, group process and learning outcomes in online executive education.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of literature in the relevant conceptual domains is performed.

Findings

A framework is proposed from the systematic review and proposes a dynamic classroom environment where instructor capability interacts with group process and behaviour to generate new learning outcomes. The impact of institutional context and technology infrastructure are highlighted as drivers of both the classroom and instructor effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The systematic review highlights several future research trajectories posing the questions: How disruptive innovation impacts on instructor capability development? How alternative theories explain the routines underpinning instructor capability? What is the role of external partners in the development of learning in context? What is the nature of instructor innovation capability? and How does instructor technology capability impact on learning outcomes?

Practical implications

Human resource development practitioners are presented with insights as to their existing and potential future roles in enhancing group behaviour, process and learning outcomes in executive classrooms impacted by technological change. The subsequent potential for practitioner enabled learning innovation is highlighted.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to contemporary debates regarding the interaction of emerging technologies and the executive online classroom, specifically focusing on the area of group behaviour process and learning.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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