Civil society, as represented by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), is exerting increasing pressure on national governments, multinational corporations, and international institutions. In this chapter we document the evolution of participation by civil society and NGOs in Western Hemisphere economic integration, focusing particularly on the NGO role in three important trade and investment agreements: the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Free Trade Area of the Americas process. We find that NGOs are having increasing influence on the trade and investment agreements in the Hemisphere, and are poised to take on a major role in multilateral negotiations and agreements.
Doh, J.P. and Kotschwar, B. (2004), "PARTICIPATION BY CIVIL SOCIETY AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN HEMISPHERE ECONOMIC INTEGRATION", Rugman, A.M. (Ed.) North American Economic and Financial Integration (Research in Global Strategic Management, Vol. 10), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 317-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1064-4857(04)10017-XDownload as .RIS
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