Electronic HRM in the Smart Era

Cover of Electronic HRM in the Smart Era

Synopsis

Table of contents

(14 chapters)

Prelims

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Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop and empirically examine a model of cloud-based human resource information systems (HRIS) adoption by small businesses based on the technology–organization–environment model (Tornatzky & Fleischer, 1990).

Methodology/approach

This study utilized a survey of 41 small- to medium-sized enterprises in the northeastern United States to examine what HR functions were being supported by cloud-based HRIS and the relationship between three technology factors, three organizational factors, and three environmental factors, and their relationship with the adoption of cloud-based HRIS.

Findings

Findings indicated that small businesses are most likely to implement cloud-based HRIS to support day-to-day HR operations. In addition, the findings indicated that top management support (positive), vendor support (positive), and anticipated growth (negative) were each related to organizational adoption of cloud-based HRIS.

Implications

The study illustrates how the adoption of a cloud-based HRIS is motivated by different factors than those underlying the adoption of other types of information systems. Executives and small business owners will need to adapt their strategy when considering cloud-based HRIS compared to other types of systems.

Social implications

Given that small- to medium-sized organizations are the backbone of most global economies, findings from this study can help support society by helping these businesses better understand how to best consider the factors that will support the implementation of cloud-based HRIS.

Originality/value of the chapter

This chapter represents one of the first to empirically validate a model of the factors affecting adoption of cloud-based HRIS by small businesses.

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Purpose

Although a need for innovative approaches to the strategic management of human resources (HR) has been identified, many firms continue to rely solely on their HR information systems instead of adapting to the digital consumer with innovative tools and digital HR management (d-HRM). This research aims to evaluate critically the degree of digital innovation of HR practices in the Irish hotel industry.

Methodology/approach

For this qualitative study, a total of 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key personnel at both corporate and property level HR in the two largest Irish hotel groups.

Findings

Findings show an overall lack of technological innovation and most of the principal HR activities are digitalised to a very limited extent. In addition, the perception of the degree of digitalisation varies significantly between the managers in both organisations.

Practical and social implications

In order to attract digital natives and to increase their competitiveness within the sector, Irish hotel corporations will need to invest significantly in innovation within their HR departments to capitalise on the strategic and operational advantages of d-HRM. Thus, a more strategic approach towards HR innovation is needed.

Originality/value

This chapter operationalises the concept of HR innovation in the context of the hotel industry; it analyses the key HR activities in hotel operations with regard to the extent to which they are digitalised; and it develops a model of HR digitalisation that can be applied to the hotel and other industries. This research, therefore, contributes to the existing body of knowledge on HR innovation with a specific focus on the hotel industry.

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Purpose

In this chapter, we apply diffusion of innovation theory and the theory of management fashion to examine the diffusion trajectory of human resource (HR) analytics in a U.S. context. We focus on the role mass media plays in influencing the diffusion process and address two research questions. First, does the mass media on HR analytics make observable the positive outcomes of HR analytics and is this related to increasing HR analytics adoption over time? Second, does the mass media on HR analytics show evidence of management trendsetting rhetoric?

Methodology/approach

We analyze published popular trade, business press, and peer-reviewed academic articles over a decade using a big data discourse analytical technique, natural language processing.

Findings

We find preliminary evidence that suggests that although the media has broadcasted positive outcomes of HR analytics, adoption has tailed off. In concert with the tailing off of HR analytic adoptions, the media appears to be recasting HR analytics as solving newer problems such as managing talent. Whether this shift makes a difference has yet to be determined.

Practical implications

Business press appears to influence the adoption process, both by broadcasting positive outcomes and through creating management fashion trendsetting rhetoric.

Social implications

To promote the use of HR analytics, academic institutions and the HR profession need to train HR professionals in the use and benefits of HR analytics.

Originality/value

We lay the groundwork to improve our understanding of the role media plays in influencing how new HRM practices spread across organizations. We introduce the application of an emerging big data analytic technique, natural language processing, to analyze published media on HR analytics.

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Purpose

As e-HRM systems move into the ‘smart’ technology realm, expectations and capabilities for both the automational and informational features of e-HRM systems are increasing. This chapter uses the well-established DeLone and McLean (D&M) model from the information systems literature to analyze how a smart workforce management system can create value for an organization.

Methodology/approach

The chapter is based on an exploratory case study conducted with a North American industrial products firm. We review three systems-level predictors of success from the D&M model (system quality, information quality, and service quality) and evaluate the company’s systems on these attributes.

Findings

The company’s e-HRM systems fall short on the information quality dimension, which limits potential for overall system success related to smart workforce management.

Research limitations/implications

The e-HRM literature focuses on individual-level factors of system success, while the D&M model uses more macro factors. Blending these may help researchers and practitioners develop a more complete view of e-HRM systems. Conclusions from this chapter are limited due to the use of a single, exploratory case study.

Practical implications

Companies must pay attention to all three predictors of system quality when developing smart workforce management systems. In particular, implementation of a data governance program could help companies improve information quality of their systems.

Originality/value

This chapter adds to the literature on smart workforce management by using a model from the information systems literature and a practical example to explore how such a system could add value.

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Purpose

This chapter explores different strategies implemented by three companies using professional (LinkedIn) and non-professional (Facebook) social networking websites (SNWs) as a recruitment tool and investigates the influence of their perceived usability and attractiveness on job seekers’ attraction and their intention to apply.

Methodology/approach

First, a laboratory experiment involving 171 MBA students compares the effectiveness of three different social recruitment strategies. Second, a survey among 110 job seekers focuses on the most effective strategy in terms of attraction as an employer and the influence of perceived usability and attractiveness of professional SNW pages on job seekers’ intention to pursue the job.

Findings

The laboratory experiment confirms the key role of LinkedIn as an e-recruitment practice. The survey shows that the overall company image, the usability of the LinkedIn page and the interaction between the attractiveness of the page and the overall company image positively influence job seekers’ intention to pursue the job.

Social implications

The research offers insights on job seekers’ reactions to 2.0 Internet-based recruitment. Companies should focus on and invest in professional social medias, paying attention to the usability of their SNWs pages.

Originality/value of the chapter

Recruitment is a strategic HRM practice to attract talents; however, research lags behind practice and little is known about job seekers’ perceptions and reactions to Internet recruitment. This chapter sheds light on the use of social media for recruitment and identifies two features that contribute to an effective e-recruitment strategy.

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Purpose

This study aims to explore the relationship between IT and HRM in the context of manufacturing SMEs, more specifically the relationship between strategic HRM and e-HRM as well as the performance effects of this relationship. The conceptual framework is founded upon the resource-based view (RBV), specifically upon the strategic HRM and e-HRM capabilities of SMEs and upon the strategic alignment of these capabilities in the form of capability configurations or “gestalts.”

Methodology/approach

To answer the research questions, a questionnaire was constructed and mailed to 1854 manufacturing SMEs in the province of Quebec, Canada, producing 216 valid responses that were used for statistical analysis purposes. Capability configurations were identified through a cluster analysis of the e-HRM and strategic HRM capabilities developed by these firms.

Findings

Using structural equation modeling to validate the research model, a causal analysis confirmed a positive influence of the sampled SMEs’ strategic orientation upon their development of strategic HRM capabilities. More importantly, a higher level of alignment between the SMEs’ strategic HRM and e-HRM capabilities was associated to a higher level of strategic HRM performance.

Originality/value

To our knowledge, ours is the first study to show interest in the effect of the strategic alignment of HRM and IT capabilities upon HRM performance, by adopting a configurational perspective and considering organizational IT from a functional point of view. Given the specific context of SMEs, the focus was on e-HRM capabilities related to the IT infrastructure of these organizations and the IT competencies of individuals related to HRM.

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Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore e-HRM in MNC setting from various stakeholder´s perspectives. The chapter aims to understand the motives behind the implementation of e-HRM in an MNC. Second, the chapter studies the impacts e-HRM has on various stakeholders and finally aims to deliver understanding of the concept of strategic e-HRM in an MNC.

Methodology/approach

The study follows a qualitative case study method and the interviewees represented three groups: top management, HR professionals, and line managers.

Findings

Main findings suggest that the implementation was motivated by issues related to standardization and overall introduction of a strategic way of working. As an impact of e-HRM implementation, the control of subsidiaries became easier; external and internal transparency and HR image improved; HR operations gained efficiency; and the possibility for “fact based decision making” enabled strategic e-HRM realization for some stakeholders, with the exception of line managers who were considerably more skeptical about issues related to strategic e-HRM.

Practical implications

The issues of change management and system training should be transparent. The strategic benefits could be realized for the line managers and operational HR by discussing how e-HRM impacts their work and roles and how they contribute to achieving the business targets.

Social implications

The chapter highlights the need for communication in all levels of MNC, and the needs to update e-HRM regularly and taking equally into account various stakeholder’s perspectives.

Originality/value

We pioneer a multilevel perspective of e-HRM implementation and impact in an MNC setting and improve the understanding of taking account various stakeholder’s views when aiming for strategic e-HRM partnerships.

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Purpose

Little is known about actual organisational experiences and challenges with using e-HRM. The focus of this chapter is on the challenges that Australian HR professionals face in using e-HRM and achieving e-HRM outputs.

Methodology

Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with five HR professionals in different Australian organisations. Content analysis was applied to analyse the transcribed interviews.

Findings

Potential of e-HRM to bring efficiency, access to HR data, reporting, as well as contributions to the overall business strategy are thwarted by three groups of e-HRM challenges that HR professionals experience: e-HRM technical issues, HR issues, and e-HRM development issues.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are based on the five interviews with HR professionals in Australian organisations only. Line managers, employees, and managers from other business functions as well as small businesses have not been included in the research sample.

Practical implications

By addressing the e-HRM challenges, HR professionals can achieve e-HRM benefits and enhance their contribution to the overall business.

Originality/value

A major contribution is to show that the HRM literature barely considers the e-HRM challenges facing HR professionals. Another contribution is to provide an understanding of e-HRM challenges in the Australian context.

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Purpose

This chapter aims to encourage and guide smart industry HRM-related research by addressing upcoming challenges developed using a job design lens.

Methodology/approach

The challenges are constructed based on a developed overview of the existing body of work related to job design and a description of smart industry.

Research implications

The challenges are meant as an indication of the issues that arise within job design due to smart industry and, in so doing, suggest directions for future research in this specific field. Additionally, through laying out challenges for this particular example, the chapter encourages scholars to consider the possible impact of smart industry within other HRM areas.

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Purpose

This chapter addresses a lack of theory building in electronic-HRM (e-HRM) research and attempts to contribute with a (re-)conceptualisation of e-HRM as a nexus of practices and their material arrangements.

Methodology/approach

The work draws on theories from information systems research, science and technology studies, and sociology and organisation studies.

Findings

The (re-)conceptualisation indicates that future research should make further enquiries into the role of human agency and political processes in e-HRM.

Practical implications

As a methodological pathway a combination of ethnography and philosophical hermeneutics is proposed, enabling the achievement of a required pertinent sensibility in the study of social practices and human intentionality. Action research is also considered to be relevant for an engaged e-HRM scholarship.

Social implications

The social implication of this research is the advancement of theories that emphasise the importance of human agency, morality and materiality in organisational processes.

Originality/value of the chapter

The conceptualisation may thus facilitate research that reveal insights about involvement, reciprocity and power in e-HRM projects – knowledge that can direct the development of e-HRM project teams and thus facilitate strategic HRM.

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Purpose

In this chapter, we explore the changing role of social media and its increasing influence in the recruitment and selection process. Access to social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn as profiling tools both inside and outside the workplace is generating a number of potential ethical, legal, and moral dilemmas in the human resource management (HRM) field.

Methodology/approach

This is a conceptual chapter which analyzed peer-reviewed academic literature, the business press, and other media outlets.

Findings

This conceptual chapter outlines the key issues for HR academics and professionals in the area of recruitment and selection associated with the changing role of social media in the workplace, and how it indirectly affects a number of other HR practices. Certain emergent practices such as cyber-vetting and applicant data mining demonstrate a deficiency in moral, ethical, and legal frameworks. The lack of attention paid to these new HR risks highlight the skill gap within the HR profession to handle information and data security challenges, any of which can be exacerbated due to social media.

Practical implications

In order to assist HR in tackling these challenges, we conclude with a number of recommendations for HR practitioners.

Social implications

The chapter helps raise awareness and understanding of this new and emerging aspect of digital HRM.

Originality/value of the chapter

We provide a framework for a broader understanding of the issues associated with cyber-vetting and its potential impact on HRM policies and practices.

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Purpose

This chapter aims to clarify the future of the HR profession in the digital age by translating and extrapolating results of recent studies in a creative way. The main question is ‘What will be the effects of digitization on the HRM profession?’

Methodology/approach

The methodological approach is threefold. A theoretical concept of digital impact on the HRM profession is constructed based on a task-based analysis of the Ulrich roles. Second, in two sessions HRM Professionals reflect on the main question and give assessments. Third, a secondary analysis is carried out on the HRM practice monitor and five hypotheses are tested (primary role of HR, time spent in an activity cluster, typification of the HRM department).

Findings

The outcomes give no clear and unequivocal picture yet. Although the theoretical concept, actual research, professional literature and consulted professionals indicate that the HRM profession is already or will soon get more strategic due to digitization, the secondary analysis of the HRM practice monitor does not confirm that tendency.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this research comprise flaws in the HRM practice monitor, the questionable web instrument and the lack of a clear and broadly accepted definition of digitization. Follow-up research seems to be very worthwhile and has a lot of possible starting points.

Practical implications

This research offers a new way of looking at the HRM profession in transition by combining the Ulrich model with a task-based analysis. Furthermore the evidence is based on 4 years (2012–2015) of data collection.

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Index

Pages 339-353
Content available
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Cover of Electronic HRM in the Smart Era
DOI
10.1108/9781787143159
Publication date
2017-08-09
Book series
The Changing Context of Managing People
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78714-315-9