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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Norah Ylang

This paper aims to examine demographic differences between individuals who do not take measures to protect themselves from identity theft victimization and those who do. A…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine demographic differences between individuals who do not take measures to protect themselves from identity theft victimization and those who do. A majority of the research on identity theft has focused on predictors of victimization, reporting behaviors of the victims and their health and mental outcomes. However, little remains known about the individuals who choose to take any identity-theft measures despite concerns over this fast-growing breed of crime.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by Felson and Cohen’s routine activities theoretical framework (1979), this study uses the 2014 Identity Theft Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to identify the demographic characteristics that influence the use of self-protection measures among individuals in the general population.

Findings

This study finds that these individuals are much more likely to be white, older, female and highly educated. The decision to undertake protection against identity theft is also influenced by the following factors: prior experience of misuse, possession of a bank account in the prior 12 months, current possession of at least one credit card and awareness that one is entitled to a free copy of one’s credit report.

Originality/value

This study addresses the gap in scholarship on identity theft prevention by applying the concept of guardianship in Cohen and Felson’s routine activity theory (1979) to the usage of self-protection measures in a general population. Future findings will identify the areas which agencies and researchers can focus on to inform policies that foster individuals’ own initiatives to take self-protection measures against potential identity theft.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Frank Jacob and Michael Ehret

Theories on industrial buying behavior differ fundamentally with regard to motivation and direction of industrial purchasing decisions. This becomes extremely in the case…

Abstract

Purpose

Theories on industrial buying behavior differ fundamentally with regard to motivation and direction of industrial purchasing decisions. This becomes extremely in the case of new institutional economics, highlighting administrative aspects, and market process theory, focusing on entrepreneurial aspects of buying decisions. This paper aims to challenge these approaches by setting up an experimental design. Decisions of sales and purchasing managers were investigated with respect to their motivation of self‐protection or opportunity seeking.

Design/methodology/approach

The contribution is based on an experimental design. The design is based on a prospect theory scenario. Prospect theory states that successful economic agents show a stronger tendency towards self‐protection, whereas under‐performing economic agents are willing to bear greater risks in search for opportunities.

Findings

The results suggest that indeed out‐performers show a tendency to risk avoidance and under‐performers are willing to bear more risks. The most important implication is that new institutional economics‐based approaches to buying behavior are not universally valid. However, they apply to specific situations. In that respect the contribution shows a direction for the proper application of transaction cost‐based concepts.

Practical implications

Managers are advised to take the economic performance of their customer companies into account. Outperforming companies are more responsive to measures for self‐protection. Under‐performing customers may be more tolerant towards risk if it is compensated with the expectation of better opportunities.

Originality/value

The empirical research is new in so far as it is the first to apply a prospect theory framework to a business market environment. The results show clearly that the methodology, as originally applied in prospect theory, needs refinement when transferred to a business market context.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Jose Navarro Martinez and Willy Walter Cortez-Yactayo

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of social exposure activities, risk awareness measures, individual and family characteristics and the socioeconomic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of social exposure activities, risk awareness measures, individual and family characteristics and the socioeconomic environment where the individual resides on the probability of property crime victimization.

Design/methodology/approach

A state preference model of crime is employed using victimization surveys data for several years complemented with municipality level data from population census. Logit regressions for the probability of victimization are run for males and females separately and using different specifications.

Findings

Regression estimates show that self-protection measures do not offset significantly the probability of victimization and that the likelihood of repeat victimization is highly significant. The most likely victims of property crime in Mexico do not live in highly marginalized communities. Finally, the covariates related to income are stronger predictors of victimization than the level of social exposure.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed that considers other types of crime and complements the victimization data with police resources data.

Social implications

This paper helps to obtain a better understanding of property crime in Mexico and its victims. The main results can help policy makers to allocate scarce resources more efficiently and design more efficient measures to fight property crime in Mexico.

Originality/value

The data set used combines individual and family data from several victimization surveys and complements it with municipality level characteristics from population census. The analysis of victimization is made for the entire country and not for large cities only.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1992

RECENT military conflicts have shown that aircraft and helicopters need to confront increasingly efficient and numerous defence systems. Hence the need for their self‐protection.

Abstract

RECENT military conflicts have shown that aircraft and helicopters need to confront increasingly efficient and numerous defence systems. Hence the need for their self‐protection.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 64 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Katarzyna Wodniak and Anne Holohan

The goal of this chapter was to provide an insight into rules and norms behind generation Y social media presence and inform future research through an exploration of the…

Abstract

The goal of this chapter was to provide an insight into rules and norms behind generation Y social media presence and inform future research through an exploration of the norms underpinning digitally mediated interaction and behavior among college-age students in Ireland.

The authors administered a questionnaire containing both closed- and open-ended questions among 131 first-year college students in Ireland, asking them to identify online behaviors and actions with a purpose of recognizing rules and norms that guided how they handled sharing, interaction, and mediated aspects of relationships in their use of mobile devices and social media platforms.

This study reveals that the driving force is the desire for and implementation of what can be called the norm of “Do No Harm Lest Others Do Harm to You.” This norm, rather than being driven by the Hippocratic Code of principled awareness is an expression of an acute consciousness of audience segregation and the need for self-protection in online interaction. The respondents were asked about the rules and norms that guided how they handled sharing, interaction, and mediated aspects of relationships in their use of mobile devices and social media platforms. Their responses demonstrated that millennials, in their everyday and intensive use of digitally mediated technologies, have begun to observe a new social contract of “Do No Harm Lest Others Do Harm to You” where internet becomes a space of entertainment and private messaging devoid of conflict and exchanges of opinion with others. Millennials seem to be closing down the scope of online interaction which in the long run can limit the function of internet as a social sphere where various issues, including political views, are exchanged and discussed.

The research is exploratory in nature and relied up on a relatively small sample size. For this reason, while the study produces new analytic frameworks, the findings could not be generalized. Additionally, there are certain features that appear to be specifically Irish such as a blurred line between perception of bullying and harmless having the “craic.”

This research makes explicit the harm mitigation and conflict avoidance strategies underpinning the use of social and digital media as it has been deployed and shaped by Irish millennials and discusses the consequences of their reluctance to engage in the public realm of the internet.

Details

Mediated Millennials
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-078-3

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Fawn T. Ngo

Few studies have explored the correlates of police responses to the crime of stalking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlates of nine specific police…

Abstract

Purpose

Few studies have explored the correlates of police responses to the crime of stalking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlates of nine specific police actions (no action, multiple actions, took a report, talked to perpetrator, arrested perpetrator, recommended PO or RO, recommended self-protection, referred to prosecutor’s office and referred to social services) to this type of crime. This study found three of the four incident measures (victim-offender relationship, intimidation and physical injury) and three of the four victim demographic measures (age, gender and marital status) significantly predicted seven of the nine police actions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study came from the 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The sample included stalking cases that were reported to the police and all measures were constructed using victims’ responses to survey questionnaires. Nine logistic regression models were estimated and in each model, four incident characteristic variables and four victim demographic variables were regressed on each of the nine police actions.

Findings

This study found three of the four incident characteristic measures (victim-offender relationship, intimidation, and physical injury) and three of the four victim demographic variables (age, gender and marital status) were significantly related to seven of the nine specific police actions (no action, multiple actions, arrested perpetrator, recommended PO or RO, recommended self-protection, referred to prosecutor’s office and referred to social services). None of the incident characteristic and victim demographic measures were related to two of the nine specific police actions (took a report and talked to perpetrator).

Research limitations/implications

This study possesses the same shortcomings associated with the NCVS. The current study involves cross-sectional, official data that are over 10 years old. The measures employed in the current study are victims’ perceptions of how the officers acted. The study does not include information regarding how many times the victim contacted the police or the nature of the stalking episode. The study excludes other variables (suspect’s demeanor, the presence of witnesses) that may be relevant in examining subsequent police responses to stalking.

Practical implications

Frontline offices should be required to undertake stalking training. Further, stalking training needs to be conducted independently from domestic violence training. Mandatory stalking training for law enforcement officers will lead to a greater comprehension of existing stalking statute for the officers as well as help increase the number of offenders being identified and charged with this crime by the officers.

Social implications

Police inaction to reported stalking not only dissuade victims from reporting future victimizations, it will also result in stalking being an under-reported crime. Police inaction could potentially compromise victim safety and/or offender accountability. Police inaction also undermines the legitimacy of law enforcement and attenuates the relationship between citizens and police agencies.

Originality/value

To date, only one study has examined the correlates of subsequent police responses to the crime of stalking. However, this study employed broad measures of police actions (formal and informal). The current study involves specific police actions (e.g. taking a report, referring the victim to social service agencies). Contrary to the prior study that found none of the incident and victim characteristics was related to two broad measures of subsequent police responses, this study found several incident and victim measures significantly predicted seven specific police actions.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2011

Sarah H. Matthews

Purpose – This chapter draws on tenets of the “new” sociology of childhood, which posit that children are affected by social structures in the same way that adults are, to…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter draws on tenets of the “new” sociology of childhood, which posit that children are affected by social structures in the same way that adults are, to formulate an explanation for the black–white test-score gap.

Methodology – It builds on an analysis of ethnographic fieldnotes, which recorded the experiences of early elementary school students in a racially homogeneous school in a low-income African-American neighborhood.

Findings – The case is made that the children were oppressed by adults in the school. Being in school was almost a wholly negative experience for children. Students' active strategies to protect the self were ineffective, which led to their shutting down emotionally. Like adults in similar social contexts, children's energy was devoted to self-protection rather than to being a student.

Details

The Well-Being, Peer Cultures and Rights of Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-075-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Jacqueline M. Drew

The evolution of digital technology has changed the way in which we, as a global society, socialise and conduct business. This growth has led to an increasing reliance on…

Abstract

Purpose

The evolution of digital technology has changed the way in which we, as a global society, socialise and conduct business. This growth has led to an increasing reliance on technology, much more interconnectedness and in turn, an expansion of criminal opportunities, known now as “cybercrime”. This study aims to explore the experience of victimisation, perceptions of cybercrime and use of online crime prevention strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved a survey of a representative sample of the adult Australian population. The study sample was made up of 595 Australian adult participants. The study seeks to better understand how previous victimisation, perception of cybercrime prevalence and perception of harm caused by cybercrime are related to the use of online crime prevention strategies. It seeks to contribute to a body of work that has found that crime prevention education focused on increasing knowledge is limited in its effectiveness in reducing victimisation.

Findings

This study identifies key levers, in particular perceived prevalence and harm of cybercrime, as critical in the use of online crime prevention strategies by potential victims.

Research limitations/implications

As such, this study provides an important evidence base on which to develop more effective online crime prevention education and awareness campaigns to reduce cybervictimisation.

Practical implications

The practical implications include the relationship between cybervictimisation and self-protective online strategies of potential victims and the development of more effective online crime prevention programmes.

Originality/value

The research takes a different perspective from much of the previous research, seeking to better understand how attitudinal factors (perceived prevalence of cybercrime and perceived harm of cybercrime) might motivate or influence the use of online crime prevention strategies by potential victims.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Andreas Rausch, Jürgen Seifried and Christian Harteis

This paper aims to investigate the complex relationship between emotions, coping approaches and learning in error situations in the workplace. The study also examines the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the complex relationship between emotions, coping approaches and learning in error situations in the workplace. The study also examines the influence of individual error orientation, as well as psychological safety, and team learning behaviour as contextual factors.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure emotions, coping and learning from errors in situ, a semi-standardised error diary was administered. Individual and contextual factors were measured by standard questionnaires. Totally, 22 young employees participated in the study and recorded n = 99 error situations in a three-week diary period.

Findings

Errors typically provoked negative emotions, particularly in cases of “public” errors. Negative emotions provoked emotion-focused coping. However, there was no direct effect of emotions on learning. Learning seems to depend primarily on the in-depth analysis of the error, no matter whether the original coping intention is aimed at problem-solving, self-protection or emotion regulation. A quick error correction does not necessarily result in learning. Furthermore, plausible influences of individual and contextual factors were found, but must be interpreted cautiously.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size, particularly in person-level analyses, is a major shortcoming of the study.

Originality/value

To overcome shortcomings of common retrospective self-reports such as interviews or questionnaires, this study uses the diary method as an innovative approach to investigate processes in situ.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Tareq Nail Al-Tawil

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate whether or not lenders are environmentally liable by the simple act of lending money. The concept of “lender liability” is one…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate whether or not lenders are environmentally liable by the simple act of lending money. The concept of “lender liability” is one of the more critical issues which seems to be ready to upset the “apple cart” of environmental calm, which the English law enjoyed until recently. Why should banks be held liable for pollution and clean-up costs? The banks’ responsibility should end when it has granted the loan to the borrower to carry out its commercial activities. It is argued that a lender who becomes involved in the borrower’s financial management is unlikely to incur a clean-up liability, but it will become liable to clean it up if it forecloses or takes possession of the land. Can the bank be regarded as the “owner” of the land? In some English statutes, there is no definition of the word “owner”. Does a mortgagee in possession entitle him to ownership of the property to hold him responsible for liabilities for environmental harm?

Design/methodology/approach

The development of domestic environmental liability and the Trans-Atlantic position with the USA will be examined. The “owner” concept will also be critically reviewed to see whether banks and mortgagees can be regarded as owners on possession of the property. The dilemma of the English courts with regards to lender issues and lender self-protection will also be examined. This will all be analysed and criticised in this paper.

Findings

This paper aims to demonstrate whether or not lenders are environmentally liable by the simple act of lending money. It will also discuss “owner” concept to see whether banks and mortgagees can be regarded as owners on possession of the property.

Originality/value

In this paper, the “owner” concept will be critically reviewed to see whether banks and mortgagees can be regarded as owners on possession of the property. The dilemma of the English courts with regards to lender issues and lender self-protection will also be critically analysed and compared with different legal systems.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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