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A methodology of structuring a garment production simulation model using a spreadsheet is described to minimize the average daily production cost through the investigation…
A methodology of structuring a garment production simulation model using a spreadsheet is described to minimize the average daily production cost through the investigation of various man‐machine combinations. The capability and usability of an easily available modern spreadsheet Excel 7.0 to simulate a simple garment production system is accessed with an attempt to demonstrate the simulation model building in a user friendly environment rather than learning and using costly simulation programming languages or simulation software packages. Simulation has evaluated the resource utilization and measured the system performance and developed strategies for taking operational decisions in a logical and better way to minimize the garment production cost. It may also assist and benefit the garment production managers to plan, design and operate their systems in an efficient manner in a competitive environment.
This chapter provides a discussion on some issues in blockchain finance that regulators are concerned about – an area which bitcoin promoters have remained silent about…
This chapter provides a discussion on some issues in blockchain finance that regulators are concerned about – an area which bitcoin promoters have remained silent about. Blockchain technology in finance has several benefits for financial intermediation in the financial system; notwithstanding, several issues persist which if addressed can make the adoption of blockchain technology in finance easier and accepted by regulators. The blockchain issues discussed in this chapter are relevant for recent debates in blockchain finance.
Financial contagion refers to the propagation of shocks that can generate widespread failures. The authors apply a financial contagion model proposed by Elliott, Golub…
Financial contagion refers to the propagation of shocks that can generate widespread failures. The authors apply a financial contagion model proposed by Elliott, Golub, and Jackson (2014) to a cross-shareholding network of firms in Ecuador. The authors use a novel dataset to study the potential channels for contagion. Although diversification is not high, results reveal enough conditions for a contagion event to occur. However, the low level of integration attenuates the effects of shocks. The authors run simulations affecting a particular firm at the time, and find that two firms coming from the finance and trade industry cause the highest contagion. In addition, when an entire industry receives a shock, trade and manufacturing industries contagion more companies than the rest. Finally, the model can assist policymakers to monitor the market and evaluate the fragility of the network in different scenarios.
In the domestic credit market creditor and debtor rights are clearly defined. In contrast, sovereign debt repayment is largely contingent on the debtor government’s…
In the domestic credit market creditor and debtor rights are clearly defined. In contrast, sovereign debt repayment is largely contingent on the debtor government’s willingness to repay as enforcement of contracts at the international level is limited. In this chapter we explore different sources of sovereign debt crises as opportunistic and myopic behavior by debtor nations, over-consumption of imported goods, credit temptation by lenders eager to allocate savings surpluses, and unexpected consequences of initially seen appropriate policies. We explore how these factors have played out in the Euro-debt crisis and outline a framework for creditor responsibility to complement debtor self-restraint.
Since the famous tapering talk of Bernanke, US Dollar (USD) made a significant appreciation on emerging market local currencies. When the stock indices are adjusted to…
Since the famous tapering talk of Bernanke, US Dollar (USD) made a significant appreciation on emerging market local currencies. When the stock indices are adjusted to USD, a negative relationship is usually the case. USD index is a natural candidate for measurement of these effects. It is seen that some emerging stock indices exhibit negative causality with USD index in Granger sense. Moreover, the authors take into account rolling correlations of USD index and the relevant stock indices and examine them on the investment horizon beginning from tapering talk. The authors deduce that Granger causality test and correlation results are coherent with each other which sheds light to the famous discussion whether causality implies correlation or vice versa.
Introduction – Emerging markets are under the influence of many external factors in global market conditions. International interest rates and price fluctuations in major…
Introduction – Emerging markets are under the influence of many external factors in global market conditions. International interest rates and price fluctuations in major stock market indices are also among these factors. The FED policies shape the international capital movements in particular, which significantly affects the emerging markets. For this reason, emerging stock markets may show different reactions especially in times of crisis.
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the BIST30 index acted in accordance with the overreaction hypothesis (ORH) against the return changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index in the process of the 2008 global financial crisis.
Methodology – The data set of the study was analysed by dividing it into two periods. The first period is the monetary expansion period between 17 August 2007, when the Federal Reserve (FED) reduced the interest rate for the first time, until 22 May 2013 when the FED announced that it would reduce the bond purchases. The second period is the monetary contraction period including the dates between 23 May 2013 and 1 June 2017. An error correction model (ECM) was established in both periods for the indices, determined as cointegrated. The validity of the ORH was tested by Cumulative Abnormal Return (CAR) Analysis.
Findings – According to the ECM, the authors identified that the effect of short-term changes in the DJIA return in the monetary expansion period on BIST30 index return was higher than that in the monetary contraction period. However, according to the findings obtained from the CAR analysis results, the BIST30 index did not generally act in accordance with the ORH against the DJIA. Findings can be appreciated as a decision-making tool especially for investment specialists and investors interested in securities investments.
The aim of this chapter is to assess the real exchange rate misalignments. A smooth transition autoregressive model (STAR) is used for Tunisian exchange market. This model…
The aim of this chapter is to assess the real exchange rate misalignments. A smooth transition autoregressive model (STAR) is used for Tunisian exchange market. This model allows us to see whether these differences are temporary or persistent over the period 1975–2012. We start by defining the exchange rate’s fundamental determinants to provide the equilibrium exchange rate value. Then, we study the observed exchange rate adjustment toward its equilibrium level. Vector autoregressive model and vector error correction model are applied to characterize the joint dynamics of variables in the long run. The results indicate a long-run relationship between variables. In order to consider the nonlinearity for better results, we will move to nonlinear smooth transition model. We found there is a high degree of exchange rate misalignment. We recognized that this difference decreases in the long run and disappears at the end.
The literature has documented evidence that economic freedom is positively associated with economic growth, investment spending, income equality, employment, gender…
The literature has documented evidence that economic freedom is positively associated with economic growth, investment spending, income equality, employment, gender equality, etc. Economic freedom is also found to be associated with a country’s rule of law and legal regime. There is, however, little studies examining how economic freedom affects a firm’s performance such as firm valuation and profitability. The evidence presented in this study shows that economic freedom strengthens a firm’s valuation and profitability. Additionally, firms headquartered in emerging markets or younger firms from countries with higher levels of economic freedom experience higher valuation and profitability. That is, economic freedom is more beneficial for firms from emerging markets and is crucial to the success of early-stage firms.
Financial integration being an increasingly important part of ongoing trade liberalization requires an in-depth analysis. This study seeks to survey all the available…
Financial integration being an increasingly important part of ongoing trade liberalization requires an in-depth analysis. This study seeks to survey all the available studies that try to measure the magnitude of cross-country integration. We see that primarily there are two types of measure available, viz De jure and De facto. These measures can be further broken down into different subparts which lay emphasis on different aspects of financial integration. We see that there is no accepted single universal index to measure financial integration, each actually having its own pros and cons and it is upon the researcher to use one or more that best fit his/her purpose.
Considering the different motivation for the creation of each of these cryptocurrencies, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether there is a dominant external…
Considering the different motivation for the creation of each of these cryptocurrencies, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether there is a dominant external factor in the cryptocurrency world. Using a novel two-step time and frequency independent methodology, the authors examine a large scope of cryptocurrencies and external factors within the same period, and analytical framework.
The examined cryptocurrencies are Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin, Monero and Dash. In total, 18 external factors from 5 factor families are selected based on the mining motivation of these cryptocurrencies. The study first examines discrete wavelet transform-based (WTB) correlations, reduce the dimension and focuson relevant pairs. Selected pairs are further examined by wavelet coherence to capture the intermittent nature of the relationships allowing the most needed “Flexibility of frequency and time domains”.
Each coin appears to operate as a unique character with the exception of Bitcoin and Litecoin. There is no prominent external driver. The cryptocurrency market is not a clear substitute for a specific factor or market. Two-step WTB filtered wavelet coherence analysis help us to analyze a large number of factor without the loss of focus. The co-movements within the cryptocurrencies spillover from Ethereum to altcoins and later to Bitcoin.
The study presents one of the first examples of two-step WTB filtered wavelet coherence analysis. The methodology suggests an approach for simultaneous examination of large number of variables. The scope of the study provides a rather holistic view of the co-movements of external factors and major cryptocurrencies.