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Describes how the 1986 Financial Services Act gives the FSA power to pursue not only those breaching its rules but others who become involved in breaches by being…
Describes how the 1986 Financial Services Act gives the FSA power to pursue not only those breaching its rules but others who become involved in breaches by being “knowingly concerned”; the FSA can apply to the courts for an injunction or for a restitution order, and if the person is in fact a bank it has a new extra‐judicial power to make it disgorge the profits and/or compensate for the loss. Explains at length what “knowingly concerned” means in the context of the criminal and civil law. Shows how banks are now under significant obligation to obtain information about their clients, and this results in knowledge for the purpose of “knowingly concerned” liability; they also have to report suspicions of money laundering and generally cooperate with the FSA.
The aim of this chapter is to assess the real exchange rate misalignments. A smooth transition autoregressive model (STAR) is used for Tunisian exchange market. This model…
The aim of this chapter is to assess the real exchange rate misalignments. A smooth transition autoregressive model (STAR) is used for Tunisian exchange market. This model allows us to see whether these differences are temporary or persistent over the period 1975–2012. We start by defining the exchange rate’s fundamental determinants to provide the equilibrium exchange rate value. Then, we study the observed exchange rate adjustment toward its equilibrium level. Vector autoregressive model and vector error correction model are applied to characterize the joint dynamics of variables in the long run. The results indicate a long-run relationship between variables. In order to consider the nonlinearity for better results, we will move to nonlinear smooth transition model. We found there is a high degree of exchange rate misalignment. We recognized that this difference decreases in the long run and disappears at the end.
The fight between two nations on each other’s exportable on the basis of tariff is known as tariff war. Although an economic policy, very often motivated by nationalism…
The fight between two nations on each other’s exportable on the basis of tariff is known as tariff war. Although an economic policy, very often motivated by nationalism and politics, a nation imposes tariff on the exports of another nation which, in retaliation, again imposes tariff on the exports of its trading partner. The prime cause of such war is certainly to enhance employment opportunities in the home nation. But politics and nationalism provoke the opposite nation to follow the same policy. Effects of such tariff war, whether beneficial or harmful, are yet to be seen. In this context, we have adopted a general equilibrium model to illustrate the probable effect of the above-stated trade war in a structure consisting both H–O nugget and export sector dualism. The effect of imposition of tariff on multinational corporation (MNC) that has its own origin nation and production activities in other nation as well where it faces the war of tariff is considered. But it gets relief in the form of tax reduction in its origin nation. Under such a scenario, the study has shown the effect of tariff in the presence of full employment in the economy as well as in the presence of unemployment. It is seen that the MNC will continue its production procedure in both nations and enjoy profit, under some conditions. Further, in the presence of unemployment it is seen that if rate of tax on the MNC rises, unemployment may fall and welfare can increase under certain conditions.
The objective of this chapter is to study the symmetric and asymmetric impact of macroeconomic variables on the Indian stock prices (SPs) of the Bombay Stock Exchange…
The objective of this chapter is to study the symmetric and asymmetric impact of macroeconomic variables on the Indian stock prices (SPs) of the Bombay Stock Exchange index. This chapter further investigates whether the asymmetric impact of macroeconomic variables on SP is due to the impact of any tail events like the global financial recession. An autoregressive distribution lag and non-autoregressive distribution lag approach is used for the full sample covering the period from January 2000 to June 2019 and later this sample is further subdivided into before and after the crisis period to study the variations in result. The findings show that macroeconomic variables and SP have a symmetric relation in the long run whereas an asymmetric relationship in the short run when the whole sample is analyzed. However when data are segregated into “before and after” crisis period this relationship turns to be asymmetric in long run too, meaning that in the long run, the negative and positive changes in a macroeconomic variable do not affect SPs similarly.
Taking global economic integration into consideration, this study investigates the effects of the imposition of the tariff. For every tariff increase, a percentage of the…
Taking global economic integration into consideration, this study investigates the effects of the imposition of the tariff. For every tariff increase, a percentage of the trade volume is reduced. This means, there is a tradeoff between globalization and restricted trade. This chapter presents empirical evidence from the European Union and the Sub-Saharan Africa region using annual times series for the period, 1980–2019. Result indicates that with coefficient of 4.31 percent, the tradeoff in European Union is higher than Sub-Saharan Africa region with coefficient of 2.66 percent. Implied is that developing countries are more likely to suffer more from the negative effect of globalization due to trade restrictions than the developed countries of the world. This is an indication that whether in developed or developing countries, a tradeoff exists between globalization and restricted trade. Hence, the imposition of tariffs and counter-tariffs is capable of shutting down globalization.
This study seeks to examine the extent to which strands of inflationary related conditions (inflation expectations, inflation uncertainty and realized inflation);…
This study seeks to examine the extent to which strands of inflationary related conditions (inflation expectations, inflation uncertainty and realized inflation); macroeconomic uncertainty and the likelihood of recessionary conditions influence performance indicators in the US banking sector over a specified time period.
The study adopts seemingly unrelated regression model (SUR) advanced by Zellner (1962) in its examination of how specific strands of inflationary conditions, and other adverse macroeconomic conditions influence performance dynamics in the US banking sector.
Empirical evidence suggest that among various adverse macroeconomic conditions examined, inflation expectations and macroeconomic uncertainty tend to have significant constraining impact on key performance indicators in the US banking sector than other conditions examined. Comparatively, this study finds that inflation expectations and macroeconomic uncertainty tend to have much more constraining impact on return on equity, than on return on assets in the US banking sector. Results further suggest that among the three bank performance indicators examined, net interest margin is the least vulnerable bank performance indicator to various adverse macroeconomic conditions examined in the study.
Apart from the various empirical results noted above, this study's findings are projected to help inform strategic planning decisions among institutions in the banking sector. The various findings could, for instance, inform policies and operational strategies geared toward reducing vulnerability associated with specific performance indicators such as return on equity. This reduction could be achieved by critically examining how the various performance indicators react to individual adverse macroeconomic conditions examined in this study. The process could ultimately help in developing tailored measures/procedures aimed at reducing how susceptible key performance indicators are to the various adverse macroeconomic conditions. This study's findings could also provide the platform for more adaptive policies aimed at minimizing the effects of noted macroeconomic conditions on operational efficiency in the banking sector.
The uniqueness of this study, compared to related ones found in the literature, stems from its treatment of three variant of related strands of macroeconomic condition (different variant of inflationary conditions) in the same framework in its empirical analysis.
本研究旨在探討與通貨膨脹有關的狀況的組成部分(通脹預期 、通脹不確定性及體現了的通脹), 宏觀經濟不確定性及經濟衰退狀況的可能性、在一段特定時間內對美國銀行業的表現指數有何種程度的影響。
研究採用塞爾納 (Zellner) (1962) 提出的看似無關迴歸模型 (SUR)，去探討通脹狀況的特定組成部分及其它不利的宏觀經濟狀況如何影響美國銀行業內的績效動態。
與文獻中可見的相關研究比較，本研究的獨特性源於其實證分析，是涉及在同一個構架內處理宏觀經濟狀況相互有關的組成部分的三個變體 (通脹狀況的不同變體) 。
The significant economic weight of the Eurozone in the globe caused the contagion of the Eurozone debt crisis on the emerging markets. The Eurozone debt crisis caused the…
The significant economic weight of the Eurozone in the globe caused the contagion of the Eurozone debt crisis on the emerging markets. The Eurozone debt crisis caused the sudden plummeting of the cross-border bank credit (BC) to India causing a significant impact on bank lending in India. Essentially, the purpose of this study is to find an answer to the question: Did the decline in cross-border cross-credit from Eurozone had an impact on domestic BC in India?
Using the data for the period from 2000 to 2013 sourced from Bank for International Settlements international banking statistics consolidated data sets, the novel specification of the study captures the impact of Eurozone cross-border credit on India by developing two regression frameworks that capture the pre-Euro debt crisis period scenario and post-Euro debt crisis period scenario.
The results offer a very interesting analogy of the behavior of BC and cross-border credit during the pre and post-Eurozone crisis scenarios of analysis. During the pre-Eurozone crisis period, cross-border credit displayed a significant negative relationship with BC indicating that cross-border credit to the Indian firms indirectly benefitted the banks by creating increased demand for domestic BC. The post-Eurozone crisis period witnessed a nexus between cross-border credit and BC during the pre-Eurozone crisis period, which gradually disappeared largely because of the onset of the Eurozone crisis.
This study is a first of its kind in investigating the impact of the Eurozone crisis on an emerging economy like India. This study supports the hypothesis of the existence of the transmission of financial shocks through the balance sheets of international banks. The findings conform to the policy concerns of most of the emerging economies that international banks transmit financial shocks from their home countries. The implication for India and other emerging economies is that international credit growth deserves careful monitoring.
The purpose of the paper is to model the modern global practice of social management of human capital – at the state and corporate levels – to determine the perspectives…
The purpose of the paper is to model the modern global practice of social management of human capital – at the state and corporate levels – to determine the perspectives of its optimization and to develop the basic principles of a new methodological approach to social management of human capital, which is preferable in the conditions of social market economy.
The author uses mathematical tools, including correlation and regression analysis. These are applied to determine the influence of each of the 12 indicators for the labor market that are presented as part of The World Economic Forum's (WEF’s) ”The Global Competitiveness Report 2019” on The United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) Human Development Index. The research objects are countries from each of the four categories of nations, as distinguished by UNDP, in the Human Development Index. By unifying the 2019 data from UNDP and WEF, a data set is formed.
It is substantiated that in modern economic practice, it is impossible to achieve the “ideal” conditions necessary for applying existing methodological approaches to the social management of human capital, which reduces how effectively current approaches function. Foundation on the existing methods leads to uncertainty as to management of human capital, which is social by 95.14% in 2019. Though the achieved value of the social management of human capital is close to being optimal, it is still not enough to achieve a high level of human development, which was 0.685 on average for the global economy in 2019 and is likely to increase by 31.43% until 2025, for acknowledging the social market status of the modern economy.
It is proven that there is a need for a new, mixed, methodological approach to the social management of human capital, which would optimally combine the best practices of both state and corporate management. The principles for the practical implementation of such an approach are offered, and proposals are developed to substantiate the contribution of this approach to the achievement of the global goals of sustainable development.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamic causal relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP) and trade openness (TO) on a…
The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamic causal relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP) and trade openness (TO) on a set of five selected South Asian countries.
This study used newly developed bootstrap auto regressive distributed lags (ARDL) cointegration test to examine the long-run relationship among FDI, GDP and TO for selected South Asian countries for 1975–2016.
The economic growth (EG) is significantly related to TO for Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka and the expansion of TO is crucial for growth in these countries. The results show that all countries (except Bangladesh) found the existence of long-run cointegration between FDI, GDP and TO, whereas FDI is a dependent variable. These results concluded that FDI and TO are contributing to EG in these selected countries.
This study is one of the first attempts to investigate the causal relationship and address the short and long dynamic among FDI, GDP and TO regarding five south Asian countries such as Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.