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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2007

Jonathan Raper

The purpose of this paper concerns the dimensions of relevance in information retrieval systems and their completeness in new retrieval contexts such as mobile search…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper concerns the dimensions of relevance in information retrieval systems and their completeness in new retrieval contexts such as mobile search. Geography as a factor in relevance is little understood and information seeking is assumed to take place in indoor environments. Yet the rise of information seeking on the move using mobile devices implies the need to better understand the kind of situational relevance operating in this kind of context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper outlines and explores a geographic information seeking process in which geographic information needs (conditioned by needs and tasks, in context) drive the acquisition and use of geographic information objects, which in turn influence geographic behaviour in the environment. Geographic relevance is defined as “a relation between a geographic information need” (like an attention span) and “the spatio‐temporal expression of the geographic information objects needed to satisfy it” (like an area of influence). Some empirical examples are given to indicate the theoretical and practical application of this work.

Findings

The paper sets out definitions of geographical information needs based on cognitive and geographic criteria, and proposes four canonical cases, which might be theorised as anomalous states of geographic knowledge (ASGK). The paper argues that geographic relevance is best defined as a spatio‐temporally extended relation between information need (an “attention” span) and geographic information object (a zone of “influence”), and it defines four domains of geographic relevance. Finally a model of geographic relevance is suggested in which attention and influence are modelled as map layers whose intersection can define the nature of the relation.

Originality/value

Geographic relevance is a new field of research that has so far been poorly defined and little researched. This paper sets out new principles for the study of geographic information behaviour.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 63 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

Paul Clough, Jiayu Tang, Mark M. Hall and Amy Warner

The National Archives (TNA) is the UK Government's official archive. It stores and maintains records spanning over a 1,000 years in both physical and digital form. Much of…

Abstract

Purpose

The National Archives (TNA) is the UK Government's official archive. It stores and maintains records spanning over a 1,000 years in both physical and digital form. Much of the information held by TNA includes references to place and frequently user queries to TNA's online catalogue involve searches for location. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how TNA have extracted the geographic references in their historic data to improve access to the archives.

Design/methodology/approach

To be able to quickly enhance the existing archival data with geographic information, existing technologies from Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Geographical Information Retrieval (GIR) have been utilised and adapted to historical archives.

Findings

Enhancing the archival records with geographic information has enabled TNA to quickly develop a number of case studies highlighting how geographic information can improve access to large‐scale archival collections. The use of existing methods from the GIR domain and technologies, such as OpenLayers, enabled one to quickly implement this process in a way that is easily transferable to other institutions.

Practical implications

The methods and technologies described in this paper can be adapted, by other archives, to similarly enhance access to their historic data. Also the data‐sharing methods described can be used to enable the integration of knowledge held at different archival institutions.

Originality/value

Place is one of the core dimensions for TNA's archival data. Many of the records which are held make reference to place data (wills, legislation, court cases), and approximately one fifth of users' searches involve place names. However, there are still a number of open questions regarding the adaptation of existing GIR methods to the history domain. This paper presents an overview over available GIR methods and the challenges in applying them to historical data.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 63 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 1999

Myke Gluck and Lixin Yu

Abstract

Details

Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-876-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Omar El Midaoui, Btihal El Ghali, Abderrahim El Qadi and Moulay Driss Rahmani

Geographical query formulation is one of the key difficulties for users in search engines. The purpose of this study is to improve geographical search by proposing a novel…

Abstract

Purpose

Geographical query formulation is one of the key difficulties for users in search engines. The purpose of this study is to improve geographical search by proposing a novel geographical query reformulation (GQR) technique using a geographical taxonomy and word senses.

Design/methodology/approach

This work introduces an approach for GQR, which combines a method of query components separation that uses GeoNames, a technique for reformulating these components using WordNet and a geographic taxonomy constructed using the latent semantic analysis method.

Findings

The proposed approach was compared to two methods from the literature, using the mean average precision (MAP) and the precision at 20 documents (P@20). The experimental results show that it outperforms the other techniques by 15.73% to 31.21% in terms of P@20 and by 17.81% to 35.52% in terms of MAP.

Research limitations/implications

According to the experimental results, the best created taxonomy using the geographical adjacency taxonomy builder contains 7.67% of incorrect links. This paper believes that using a very big amount of data for taxonomy building can give better results. Thus, in future work, this paper intends to apply the approach in a big data context.

Originality/value

Despite this, the reformulation of geographical queries using the new proposed approach considerably improves the precision of queries and retrieves relevant documents that were not retrieved using the original queries. The strengths of the technique lie in the facts of reformulating both thematic and spatial entities and replacing the spatial entity of the query with terms that explain the intent of the query more precisely using a geographical taxonomy.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Christopher Fleet

The article describes a project undertaken at the National Library of Wales to compare automated systems for the storage and retrieval of historic cartographic records…

Abstract

The article describes a project undertaken at the National Library of Wales to compare automated systems for the storage and retrieval of historic cartographic records. The selection and purchase of software, cataloguing of a representative sample of historic cartographic materials, system customisation and data input is outlined. Following the evaluation of systems, conclusions are drawn for future automated map catalogue development.

Details

Program, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Zoe Chao

Search engines and web applications have evolved to be more tailored toward individual user’s needs, including the individual’s personal preferences and geographic

Abstract

Purpose

Search engines and web applications have evolved to be more tailored toward individual user’s needs, including the individual’s personal preferences and geographic location. By integrating the free Google Maps Application Program Interface with locally stored metadata, the author created an interactive map search for users to locate, and navigate to, destinations on the University of New Mexico (UNM) campus. The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics of UNM map search queries, the options and prioritization of the metadata augmentation, and the usefulness and possible improvement of the interface.

Design/methodology/approach

Queries, search date/time, and the number of results found were logged and examined. Queries’ search frequency and characteristics were analyzed and categorized.

Findings

From November 1, 2012 to September 15, 2013, the author had a total 14,097 visits to the SearchUNM Maps page (http://search.unm.edu/maps/). There were total 5,868 searches (41 percent of all the page visits), and out of all the search instances, 2,297 of them (39 percent) did not retrieve any results. By analyzing the failed queries, the author was able to develop a strategy to increase successful searches.

Originality/value

Many academic institutions have implemented interactive map searches for users to find locations and navigate on campus. However, to date there is no related research on how users conduct their searches in such a scope. Based on the query analysis, this paper identifies user’s search behavior and discusses the strategies of improving searches results of campus interactive maps.

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Quoc‐Hung Ngo, Son Doan and Werner Winiwarter

This paper aims to serves two main purposes: First, it seeks to provide an overview of the location hierarchy from the highest divisions (continents) to the lowest…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to serves two main purposes: First, it seeks to provide an overview of the location hierarchy from the highest divisions (continents) to the lowest divisions (wards, villages) in reality and in the Wikipedia pages. Secondly, it aims to introduce an approach to building a geographical ontology from Wikipedia.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first reviews existing applications which extract information from Wikipedia and use it as a data resource to develop natural language processing tools. The paper also reviews the structure of Wikipedia pages which show the location's information. Based on the analysis, the paper then proposes an approach to extract location hierarchy as well as geographical characteristics for the geo‐ontology. The approach also rebuilds the relations between locations in the ontology.

Findings

Existing location name systems are mainly based on probabilistic locations, which are mined from the data and they lack the administrative relations between locations for full levels and all countries and territories. The literature review in geographical hierarchy and using Wikipedia for natural language processing tasks offers an approach to build a geographical ontology from Wikipedia pages. The proposed approach is believed to be the first which provides a full geo‐ontology for all countries.

Practical implications

The paper builds a geo‐ontology with full levels for all countries and territories. The administrative relations between locations are needed for real‐world applications.

Originality/value

The comprehensive overview on existing work on geo‐ontology provides a valuable reference for researchers and system developers in related research communities. The proposed approach to build a geographical ontology by using the Wikipedia offers a promising alternative to build a knowledge system from free online multi‐language encyclopedia.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Stefano De Sabbata, Stefano Mizzaro and Tumasch Reichenbacher

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the emerging geographic features of current concepts of relevance, and to improve, modify, and extend the framework proposed by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the emerging geographic features of current concepts of relevance, and to improve, modify, and extend the framework proposed by Mizzaro (1998). The objective is to define a new framework able to account, more completely and precisely, for the notions of relevance involved in mobile information seeking scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors formalise two new dimensions of relevance. The first dimension emphasises the spatio-temporal nature of the information seeking process. The second dimension allows us to describe how different concepts of relevance rely on different abstractions of reality.

Findings

The new framework allows: to conceptualise the point in space and time at which a given notion of relevance refers to; to conceptualise the level of abstraction taken into account by a given notion of relevance; and to include widely adopted facets (e.g. users mobility, preferences, and social context) in the classification of notions of relevance.

Originality/value

The conceptual discussion presented in this paper contributes to the future development of relevance in the scope of mobile information seeking scenarios. The authors provide a more comprehensive framework for conceptualization, development, and classification of notions of relevance in the field of information retrieval and location-based services.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 71 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Dirk Ahlers

Purpose — To provide a theoretical background to understand current local search engines as an aspect of specialized search, and understand the data sources and used…

Abstract

Purpose — To provide a theoretical background to understand current local search engines as an aspect of specialized search, and understand the data sources and used technologies.

Design/methodology/approach — Selected local search engines are examined and compared toward their use of geographic information retrieval (GIR) technologies, data sources, available entity information, processing, and interfaces. An introduction to the field of GIR is given and its use in the selected systems is discussed.

Findings — All selected commercial local search engines utilize GIR technology in varying degrees for information preparation and presentation. It is also starting to be used in regular Web search. However, major differences can be found between the different search engines.

Research limitations/implications — This study is not exhaustive and only uses informal comparisons without definitive ranking. Due to the unavailability of hard data, informed guesses were made based on available public interfaces and literature.

Practical implications — A source of background information for understanding the results of local search engines, their provenance, and their potential.

Originality/value — An overview of GIR technology in the context of commercial search engines integrates research efforts and commercial systems and helps to understand both sides better.

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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Dirk Ahlers studied computer science at the Carl-von-Ossietzky-University Oldenburg, Germany. In 2005, he started working as a research assistant at the OFFIS Institute…

Abstract

Dirk Ahlers studied computer science at the Carl-von-Ossietzky-University Oldenburg, Germany. In 2005, he started working as a research assistant at the OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Oldenburg where he conducted projects in mobility and geospatial retrieval. While working at OFFIS, he also pursued his PhD with a topic in geographic information retrieval. He is currently working at UNITEC, a private university in Tegucigalpa, Honduras where he researches potential for local search for the case of a country with little Web coverage, challenging informal address schemes, and uncertain location data. His research interests are geospatial Web information retrieval, search engines, location-based services, Web technology, mobility, and everything geo. E-mail: dirk@dhere.de

Details

Web Search Engine Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-636-2

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