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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Pieter A. van Brakel and Martie Pienaar

Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being used for effective accessibility to spatial data. A GIS comprises much more than the mere storage of data…

Abstract

Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being used for effective accessibility to spatial data. A GIS comprises much more than the mere storage of data: spatial data of the earth is being manipulated to create new information, perform complex spatial analyses, and generate maps and reports. An automated GIS system consists of an integrated digital database containing information about geographic features (points, lines and areas); the hardware, software and people used in the analysis of the features (geographic coordinate data); and a description of features (attribute data). It also provides the ability to query, manipulate and analyse the data. However, certain problems exist in the way access is gained to geographic data. Currently geographic data sets (e.g. maps) are scattered across South Africa and the world, with no standardised method of accessing them. Data needed by a specific GIS system must be ‘ordered’ or downloaded from a remote site. No centralised index to existing geographic data exists. The results from a specific GIS analysis are not necessarily directly available to others. When downloading and thus duplicating a set of complex data from an external site, with the purpose of further manipulation, the copy gradually becomes less current when compared to the original data set. In this paper it is argued that most of these problems can be addressed effectively by making GIS data and information available via the Internet's World Wide Web. By creating hypertext links between different GIS sites, data sets could be shared between sites: a type of online atlas system with a task‐oriented user interface geared towards map creation and fact extraction could be developed. A number of experimental interfaces between GIS application software and the Web have already been developed: these and other approaches are discussed.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 1999

Myke Gluck and Lixin Yu

Abstract

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Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-876-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Severin V. Grabski and David Mendez

Effective land use management in lesser developed countries is problematic due to a variety of factors including inexperience and turnover of decision makers, lack of…

Abstract

Effective land use management in lesser developed countries is problematic due to a variety of factors including inexperience and turnover of decision makers, lack of communication among experts in functional areas, and scattered or missing data needed by managers to make informed decisions. This paper describes a “first step” approach toward the solution of these problems that was implemented in the Dominican Republic. The paper introduces a framework used to organize and facilitate the sharing of data needed for land use decision across multiple disciplines. The framework provided the basis for the development of a prototype agricultural geographic decision support system for use in the Dominican Republic. This system is unique in that it combines concepts from semantic data modeling and database design, geographic information systems, and knowledge‐based systems.

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Information Technology & People, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Bradley Wade Bishop and Lauren H. Mandel

The purpose of this research paper is to explore library research that uses geographic information systems (GIS) as a tool to measure and analyze library services and…

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2315

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to explore library research that uses geographic information systems (GIS) as a tool to measure and analyze library services and establish future directions for this research area.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews the library literature using GIS. The study searched full text for geographic information systems in two databases, Library Literature and Information Full Text and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts (LISTA). The titles and abstracts of the search results were analyzed to gather only the research that used GIS as a tool to measure and analyze library services.

Findings

This review of the literature reveals research using GIS as a tool in two ways: to analyze service area populations, including facility site location and other service and resource decision making; and to manage facilities, including in‐library use and occupancy of library study space.

Practical implications

The findings are relevant for library and information science researchers and practitioners because they summarize a specific area of research that may be confusing for the novice, but beneficial to the field. Using GIS in practice and research could benefit library services by generating maps to convey more information than tables and text alone and by allowing spatial analysis of library services inside the library as well as in a library's service areas.

Originality/value

The paper provides future directions for an emerging research area and attempts to define subdivisions within this research area to clarify the area for researchers and practitioners.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2008

Mehri‐e‐Sedighi

This article seeks to demonstrate the use of geographical information system (GIS) in cataloging of documents, such as earthquake related documents.

Abstract

Purpose

This article seeks to demonstrate the use of geographical information system (GIS) in cataloging of documents, such as earthquake related documents.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was descriptive‐analytic and its steps are summarized as follows: collecting the data, entering information into the GIS, system management and finally producing outputs.

Findings

The investigative result shows that: by using of GIS, all types of data available in the various databases can be illustrated, analyzed and reviewed simultaneously and easily. Furthermore, data geographical dispersion can be easily studied and the geographic positions from the view point of earthquake and other related issues have been studied, identified and introduced to the users for doing studies.

Practical implications

There are numerous implications for current and future use of GIS in cataloging of documents. In addition to updating and editing functions, access to available data could be tailored to the various requirements of the users.

Originality/value

The system not only provides a tool for spotting numerous capabilities and potential but is also useful for identifying research gaps in different geographic regions.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Jihong Guan, Jiaogen Zhou and Shuigeng Zhou

The rapidly emerging of Mobile Internet and the constantly increasing of wireless subscribers' number bring new opportunities and challenges to geographic information

Abstract

The rapidly emerging of Mobile Internet and the constantly increasing of wireless subscribers' number bring new opportunities and challenges to geographic information sharing and accessing. Current Web GISs, which are accessed by using connection based approaches, are very inefficient in fulfilling the requirements of GIS applications under open, dynamic, heterogeneous and distributed computing environments such as (Mobile) Internet. In this paper, we propose a new system for accessing and sharing distributed geographic information by using mobile agent and GML technologies, in which mobile agents are used to overcome the limitations of traditional distributed computing paradigms in (mobile) Internet context and GML is adopted as the common format for spatial information wrapping and mediation, while SVG is used as a web‐map publishing format that can be processed and displayed in Web browser. A prototype is implemented, which demonstrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 2 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Mark Taylor, Emma Higgins and Paulo Lisboa

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and evaluation of a geographical information system (GIS) testing framework that was used to test a fire…

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1390

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and evaluation of a geographical information system (GIS) testing framework that was used to test a fire prevention support GIS.

Design/methodology/approach

A year‐long case study was undertaken concerning the testing of a fire prevention support GIS in a UK fire and rescue service.

Findings

The GIS testing framework developed involved testing the different components of a GIS, testing their interactions, and then testing the system as a whole. Since GISs contain different components such as spatial analyses and map‐based output, this supports the adoption of a different testing framework compared to existing types of information systems.

Research limitations/implications

GISs will typically be used by organisations for decision making. Clearly if the information presented by a GIS is inaccurate, unrepresentative, or unreliable, then the decision‐making process can be undermined.

Practical implications

This is particularly important with regard to GISs used by emergency services (such as the fire and rescue service studied) where lives could potentially be put at risk by erroneous information provided by such systems.

Originality/value

Previous research had indicated that GISs may be inadequately tested. The framework developed for GISs testing provided a systematic testing approach, reducing the likelihood of errors in such systems.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Mehri Sedighi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the application of geographic information systems as a decision support system in analyzing geospatial data in the databases of an…

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1029

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the application of geographic information systems as a decision support system in analyzing geospatial data in the databases of an academic library.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, after separation, the data on control, classification and coding of the geospatial information existing in an academic library's databases were entered into a geographic information system. Then, using the ArcGIS software and its program (ArcMap), the data were shown, described and analyzed based on existing needs and various indicators.

Findings

After performing various stages of this research, the geographic information system indicates a range of features as follows: display and localization of the research done on different maps; providing a variety of descriptive information on the features available on the system maps; data analysis and evaluation, based on existing needs and various indicators such as research location, university conducting research, date of research, educational course, etc.; evaluation and comparison of universities and research centers with one another in terms of spatial distribution of their scientific geospatial information; performing various calculations to determine and analyze the spatial relationships of data, for example determining distance of research location from the university; and the possibility of reporting a variety of attribute and spatial information of the system.

Originality/value

By using the analysis functions of the system and other logical and various applications, the database can be prepared to answer the questions raised by the users and the results will be very valuable in the process of decision making and planning in academic libraries and research centers.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2007

Jonathan Raper

The purpose of this paper concerns the dimensions of relevance in information retrieval systems and their completeness in new retrieval contexts such as mobile search…

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1521

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper concerns the dimensions of relevance in information retrieval systems and their completeness in new retrieval contexts such as mobile search. Geography as a factor in relevance is little understood and information seeking is assumed to take place in indoor environments. Yet the rise of information seeking on the move using mobile devices implies the need to better understand the kind of situational relevance operating in this kind of context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper outlines and explores a geographic information seeking process in which geographic information needs (conditioned by needs and tasks, in context) drive the acquisition and use of geographic information objects, which in turn influence geographic behaviour in the environment. Geographic relevance is defined as “a relation between a geographic information need” (like an attention span) and “the spatio‐temporal expression of the geographic information objects needed to satisfy it” (like an area of influence). Some empirical examples are given to indicate the theoretical and practical application of this work.

Findings

The paper sets out definitions of geographical information needs based on cognitive and geographic criteria, and proposes four canonical cases, which might be theorised as anomalous states of geographic knowledge (ASGK). The paper argues that geographic relevance is best defined as a spatio‐temporally extended relation between information need (an “attention” span) and geographic information object (a zone of “influence”), and it defines four domains of geographic relevance. Finally a model of geographic relevance is suggested in which attention and influence are modelled as map layers whose intersection can define the nature of the relation.

Originality/value

Geographic relevance is a new field of research that has so far been poorly defined and little researched. This paper sets out new principles for the study of geographic information behaviour.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 63 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2017

Albina Kinga Moscicka

The purpose of this paper is to propose a way of using already existing archival resources in the geographic information system (GIS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a way of using already existing archival resources in the geographic information system (GIS).

Design/methodology/approach

The essence of the methodology used was to identify semantic relations of archival documents with geographical space and develop their metadata into spatially related metadata, ready to use in GIS and to join geographical names occurring in these metadata with exact places to which they were related to. Research was based on two digital collections from the Library of Contemporary History in Stuttgart on-line service. These collections were related to the First World War and they included metadata prepared in MAB standard.

Findings

As the results of the research, two sample metadata sets related to posters and ration coupons were developed. Thesauruses of coordinates of places and regions mentioned in documents metadata in different semantic context were also created. To complete the methodology, the assumptions of the GIS structure and concept of applying metadata in them, have been proposed.

Research limitations/implications

The research also presents limitations in effective implementation of the proposed solutions, which lie mainly in lack of rules and consequences in recording geographical names in metadata.

Originality/value

The value of the proposed solution is easy way of using already existing data in GIS and possibilities of gathering, managing, presenting and analyzing archives with one parameter more than in traditional databases – with spatial information. The added value and an effective use of already collected data lies in the strong recommendation of defining and implementation of rules for recording geographical names in archival documents metadata. This will help in a wide use of collected data in any spatial-based solutions as well as in automation of process of joining archives with geographical space, and finally in dissemination of collected resources.

Details

Program, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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