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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Farnaz Mohseni, Silke Weidner and Michael Kloos

The historic city of Shiraz, in the south of Iran, is renowned for its monuments and its remarkable macro skyline, which has been destructively affected by the rapid urban…

Abstract

Purpose

The historic city of Shiraz, in the south of Iran, is renowned for its monuments and its remarkable macro skyline, which has been destructively affected by the rapid urban development. This research proposes a systematic historical analysis, which can discover the driving forces behind the evolution of the macro skyline of Shiraz, in the past as well as contemporary times.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed general framework of the methodology is constituted of systematic historical mapping and documentation, which is based on a desk study and field research. Moreover, by means of this methodology, different layers and driving forces of shaping the urban macro skyline are extracted.

Findings

The outcome demonstrates 12 driving forces or contributing factors behind the evolution of the urban macro skyline. Based on the results, it is concluded that there was a shift in the subject and content of driving forces during the last century that has contributed to the destructive effects on the silhouette of Shiraz in turn.

Practical implications

It is suggested that the proposed comprehensive method, which is based on the historical analysis and the field survey, can be applied as a documentation platform. It is believed that the analysis and the extraction of driving forces can facilitate future urban landscape management plans as well as possible impact assessments.

Originality/value

Many studies rely on the analysis of historical data in landscape assessment. Nevertheless, this research develops an innovative historical analysis, which identifies the driving forces behind the evolution of the urban macro skyline over time.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2019

Sanjukta Choudhury Kaul, Manjit Singh Sandhu and Quamrul Alam

The design and implementation of an interpretive framework to study historically marginalized issues in management is a distinct area of research. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The design and implementation of an interpretive framework to study historically marginalized issues in management is a distinct area of research. This paper aims to propose a multi-method interpretive framework, integrating a historiographical approach and an archival investigation, and use the case of business responses to disability in colonial and post-independence India to elucidate the proposed framework.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a summary of a proposed framework for the historical study of marginalized social issues using an interpretive paradigm. It also outlines the advantages and limitations of the proposed framework.

Findings

This paper makes a methodological contribution in multi-method interpretive research design for the historical study of socially constructed issues, neglected because of deep prejudice and social exclusion, that offer complex challenges for modern businesses seeking inclusive workplace strategies.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a research framework that contextualizes social issues in history (historiographical study) and cases of business responses to these issues (archival study) for the examination of historically marginalized issues in the business–society relationship.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Kristy A. Brugar and Annie McMahon Whitlock

The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why teachers use historical fiction in their classroom (e.g. selection and instruction) through the lenses of their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why teachers use historical fiction in their classroom (e.g. selection and instruction) through the lenses of their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1986) and pedagogical tools (Grossman et al., 1999).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors explored the following questions: In what ways do elementary school teachers, more specifically fifth grade teachers responsible for early US history as part of their social studies curriculum, use historical fiction in their classrooms? and What factors do elementary school teachers consider when they select historical fiction to use in their classrooms? In order to explore these questions, the authors interviewed eight fifth grade teachers. The authors describe the ways in which these teachers use historical fiction as part of their social studies instruction by employing collective case study (Stake, 1994).

Findings

This study has reified this notion that historical fiction is widely used by fifth grade teachers. The authors identified that these teachers are choosing texts that allow them to integrate their language arts and social studies instruction in effective and engaging ways. Many participants described choosing the texts purposefully to address social studies standards during their language arts time. Despite many of these teachers using prescribed curricula for language arts instruction and following state standards for social studies, the teachers in this study felt free to make curricular decisions related to integration. Most importantly, when given this freedom, they chose to integrate purposefully with quality texts.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitation of this research study is the small sample size (n=8). However among the eight teacher participants, there are two states are represented, varied teaching contexts (e.g. departmentalized, self-contained classrooms), and many years of classroom social studies teaching experience.

Originality/value

The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (CCSS) (Council of Chief State School Officers and the National Governors Association, 2010) have prompted teachers to present both informational text and literature in equal balance in upper elementary grades. Little research has been done in the last decade about the ways in which historical fiction addresses these standards.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2014

Alexander Bogin and William Doerner

This paper aims to describe a robust empirical approach to generating plausible historically based interest rate shocks, which can be applied to any market environment…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe a robust empirical approach to generating plausible historically based interest rate shocks, which can be applied to any market environment. These interest rate shocks can be readily linked to movements in other key risk factors, and used to measure market risk on institutions with large fixed-income portfolios.

Design/methodology/approach

Using yield curve factorization, we parameterize a time series of historical yield curves and measure interest rate shocks as the historical change in each of the model’s factors. We then demonstrate how to add these parameterized shocks to any market environment, while retaining positive rates and plausible credit spreads. Given a set of shocked interest rate curves, joint risk factor movements are calculated based upon historical, reduced form dependencies.

Findings

Our approach is based upon yield curve parameterization and requires a parsimonious yet flexible factorization model. In the process of selecting a model, we evaluate three variants of the Nelson–Siegel approach to yield curve approximation and find that, in the current low interest rate environment, a 5-factor parameterization developed by Björk and Christensen (1999) is best suited for accurately translating historical interest rate movements into plausible, current period shocks.

Originality/value

An accurate measure of market risk can help to inform institutions about the amount of capital needed to withstand a series of adverse market events. A plausible set of shocks is required to ensure market value, and cash flow projections are indicative of meaningful market sensitivities.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Roman Hohl, Ze Jiang, Minh Tue Vu, Srivatsan Vijayaraghavan and Shie-Yui Liong

Examine the usability of rainfall and temperature outputs of a regional climate model (RCM) and meteorological drought indices to develop a macro-level risk transfer…

Abstract

Purpose

Examine the usability of rainfall and temperature outputs of a regional climate model (RCM) and meteorological drought indices to develop a macro-level risk transfer product to compensate the government of Central Java, Indonesia, for drought-related disaster payments to rice farmers.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 0.5° gridded rainfall and temperature data (1960–2015) and projections of the WRF-RCM (2016–2040), the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) are calculated for Central Java over different time spans. The drought indices are correlated to annual and seasonal rice production, based on which a weather index insurance structure is developed.

Findings

The six-month SPI correlates best with the wet season rice production, which generates most output in Central Java. The SPI time series reveals that drought severity increases in future years (2016–2040) and leads to higher payouts from the weather index structure compared to the historical period (1960–2015).

Practical implications

The developed methodology in using SPI for historical and projected periods allows the development of weather index insurance in other regions which have a clear link between rainfall deficit and agricultural production volatility.

Originality/value

Meteorological drought indices are a viable alternative for weather index insurance, which is usually based on rainfall amounts. RCM outputs provide valuable insights into future climate variability and drought risk and prolong the time series, which should result in more robust weather index insurance products.

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Ferdous Farhana Huq, Rabeya Akter, Roxana Hafiz, Abdullah Al Mamun and Mashrekur Rahman

Built heritage is a unique resource, an irreplaceable expression of the richness and diversity of our past and of the generations who have gone before us. Old Dhaka has an…

Abstract

Purpose

Built heritage is a unique resource, an irreplaceable expression of the richness and diversity of our past and of the generations who have gone before us. Old Dhaka has an outstanding built heritage that is of significance not only in the local, but also in a national and regional context. But senseless urbanization and ignorance of such an important issue in the existing detailed area plan is destroying the built heritages of Dhaka. As a result, many heritage buildings of Dhaka have been destroyed and the destruction is going on unabated. Therefore, there is a need to re-examine how such destruction can be prevented. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This research aims at the identification of heritages, their assessment and classification which is utterly significant for preserving the invaluable heritages. Heritages are classified according to their present condition which will show which type of heritage needs which type of attention.

Findings

The research indicates the way how a conservation planning for heritages can be done in a systematic and logical way. It reveals the present condition of the heritage buildings which will point out the way of preservation. There is no such document available which will tell general people about the most important or rare or significant heritages, the location of these heritages, or their background information. This research addresses these all issues.

Originality/value

To date, no conservation plans were implemented for Dhaka and there are no attempts to improve Old Dhaka through an urban design. The methodological approach in this research is new and effective for conserving heritages.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

David Dunlop Williamson and Erling Rasmussen

The purpose of this paper is to present a narrative history of the birth of human resource management in the New Zealand hotel sector. This historical development is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a narrative history of the birth of human resource management in the New Zealand hotel sector. This historical development is analysed through the influence of changes in the national economic and employment relations context, the demise of national corporatist structures and individual and enterprise level agency. Thereby, the paper provides a new explanatory framework for the origins of human resource management in hotels and also presents this unique birth of human resource management as a microcosm of the wider social, political and economic “big bang” that fundamentally changed the course of employment relations in New Zealand during the 1980s and 1990s.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this paper were gathered as part of a larger historical study of employment relations in the New Zealand hotel sector from 1955 to 2000. The sources for the study included semi-structured interviews and archival research, which were interpreted using manual thematic analysis.

Findings

The paper presents an original explanation of the birth of human resource management in New Zealand hotels by drawing on historical changes in national frameworks, corporatist approaches and individual agency, and thereby, it illustrates the uniqueness and intensity associated with the implementation of human resource management in New Zealand hotels.

Originality/value

This paper makes a significant contribution to the scant literature on the historical origins of human resource management. It also explains the historical and contextual embeddedness of various employment relations approaches in New Zealand hotels.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Silvia Dorado

This chapter explores how hybrid organizations navigate the challenges (and opportunities) associated with advancing unconventional logic combinations. It draws from a…

Abstract

This chapter explores how hybrid organizations navigate the challenges (and opportunities) associated with advancing unconventional logic combinations. It draws from a study of the 180-year history of sheltered workshops in the United States. Sheltered workshops are hybrids that combine social and commercial logics to provide gainful employment to individuals with disabilities. This chapter theorizes a connection between the governance system – that is, country-based social norms and regulatory settlements – framing hybrids and the agency that allows them the discretion required to advance unconventional combinations. It introduces the term hybrid agency to describe this connection and identifies four types: upstream, midstream, downstream, and crosscurrent. Upstream agency draws from the entrepreneurial vision of charismatic founders. It allows hybrids the discretion to advance unconventional logic combinations in unsupportive times, but it also requires them to observe certain dominant cultural norms. Midstream agency draws from hybrids’ adaptation and advocacy skills and resources in periods of historical change. It allows access to resources and legitimacy for unconventional combinations. Downstream agency draws from organizational slack possible in supportive times. Slack eases tensions and tradeoffs between conflicting logics but may also fuel mission drift. Finally, crosscurrent agency also draws from hybrids’ adaptation and advocacy skills and resources. It provides hybrids with the opportunity to grapple with challenges in periods of contestation.

Details

Organizational Hybridity: Perspectives, Processes, Promises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-355-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1964

MAGDA WHITROW

As a discipline, the history of science is comparatively young. Although Baden‐Powell's Historical view of the progress of the physical and mathematical sciences from the

Abstract

As a discipline, the history of science is comparatively young. Although Baden‐Powell's Historical view of the progress of the physical and mathematical sciences from the earliest ages to the present time and Whewell's History of the inductive sciences from the earliest to the present times, both pioneer works in the field, were published in 1834 and 1837 respectively, the history of science as a subject in its own right may be said to have only come into existence in this century. Interest in the history of individual sciences, particularly mathematics and medicine, began much earlier and quite a few periodicals devoted to them were inaugurated during the last century. On the other hand, most of the periodicals dealing with the history of science as a whole were begun during the last two decades and only a few go back to the beginning of this century. The first volume of Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften was published in Leipzig in 1902; Archiv für die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik followed in 1909, and Rivista di Storia (critica) delle Scienze mediche e naturali in 1910. Isis, originally subtitled Revue consacrée à l'histoire de la science (now An international review devoted to the history of science and its cultural influences), was founded in 1912 by George Sarton, the first number appearing in March 1913. It began its life in Belgium, but after the invasion of that country moved with its first editor to the United States. Volume 2, begun in June 1914, was completed in September 1919. From the beginning an international review, it changed its ‘editorial language’, as it were, from French to English in 1920, but it continued to publish articles and papers in the main European languages. From the first issue, one of its principal features was a bibliography of the literature of the history of science.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Doug Waggle and Gisung Moon

Aims to test to determine whether the selection of the historical return time interval (monthly, quarterly, semiannual, or annual) used for calculating real estate…

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to test to determine whether the selection of the historical return time interval (monthly, quarterly, semiannual, or annual) used for calculating real estate investment trust (REIT) returns has a significant effect on optimal portfolio allocations.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a mean‐variance utility function, optimal allocations to portfolios of stocks, bonds, bills, and REITs across different levels of assumed investor risk aversion are calculated. The average historical returns, standard deviations, and correlations (assuming different time intervals) of the various asset classes are used as mean‐variance inputs. Results are also compared using more recent data, since 1988, with, data from the full REIT history, which goes back to 1972.

Findings

Using the more recent REIT datarather than the full dataset results in optimal allocations to REITs that are considerably higher. Likewise, using monthly and quarterly returns tends to understate the variability of REITs and leads to higher portfolio allocations.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study are based on the limited historical return data that are currently available for REITs. The results of future time periods may not prove to be consistent with the findings.

Practical implications

Numerous research papers arbitrarily decide to employ monthly or quarterly returns in their analyses to increase the number of REIT observations they have available. These shorter interval returns are generally annualized. This paper addresses the consequences of those decisions.

Originality/value

It has been shown that the decision to use return estimation intervals shorter than a year does have dramatic consequences on the results obtained and, therefore, must be carefully considered and justified.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 32 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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