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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Ohbyung Kwon, Choong‐Ryuhn Kim and Gimun Kim

The use of text‐based communications such as instant messaging or social media such as Twitter has been growing significantly as the use of mobile devices increases. Not…

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Abstract

Purpose

The use of text‐based communications such as instant messaging or social media such as Twitter has been growing significantly as the use of mobile devices increases. Not only do people share information via mobile communication, there are significant implications for advertising and marketing. Due to display limitations, however, the message senders use various conventions in addition to the text‐based message to more clearly and richly express emotions. Since users use a range of expressions to convey these emotions, it would be very useful to verify the relationships between users' emotional expressions and receivers' perceptions of the expressions. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model to examine the relationship between emotional expressions and the emotional intensity of the receivers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors formulated a series of research hypotheses and tested them using empirical survey data. The research model used is based on regression analysis with dummy variables for statistical analyses.

Findings

First, emotional intensity had a closer relationship to user acceptance than was expected. Second, the use of exclamation marks and emotional messages are far less acceptable in negative messages. Third, the high formalisation group has a more positive emotional intensity in their basic expression.

Originality/value

The authors successfully determined that emotional expressions significantly affect the message receivers' emotional intensity and hence acceptance of the message.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Sandra A. Lawrence, Ashlea C. Troth, Peter J. Jordan and Amy L. Collins

Research in industrial and organizational psychology demonstrates that the regulation of negative emotions in response to both organizational stressors and interpersonal…

Abstract

Research in industrial and organizational psychology demonstrates that the regulation of negative emotions in response to both organizational stressors and interpersonal workplace interactions can result in functional and dysfunctional outcomes (Côté, 2005; Diefendorff, Richard, & Yang, 2008). Research on the regulation of negative emotions has additionally been conducted in social psychology, developmental psychology, neuropsychology, health psychology, and clinical psychology. A close reading of this broader literature, however, reveals that the conceptualization and use of the term “emotion regulation” varies within each research field as well as across these fields. The main focus of our chapter is to make sense of the term “emotion regulation” in the workplace by considering its use across a broad range of psychology disciplines. We then develop an overarching theoretical framework using disambiguating terminology to highlight what we argue are the important constructs involved in the process of intrapersonal emotion generation, emotional experience regulation, and emotional expression regulation in the workplace (e.g., emotional intelligence, emotion regulation strategies, emotion expression displays). We anticipate this chapter will enable researchers and industrial and organizational psychologists to identify the conditions under which functional regulation outcomes are more likely to occur and then build interventions around these findings.

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The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2011

Sushanta K. Mishra

The study explores the antecedent and consequences of sales employees' authenticity of emotional expression during customer interactions. Based on a survey of 468 medical…

Abstract

The study explores the antecedent and consequences of sales employees' authenticity of emotional expression during customer interactions. Based on a survey of 468 medical sales representatives (MSRs) in India, the study found a significant effect of authenticity of emotional expression on employees' well-being and turnover intention. Organizational identification was found to be an antecedent of authenticity of emotional expression. The mediation effect of authenticity of emotional expression in explaining the relationship between organizational identification and well-being was supported. However, contrary to the hypothesis, the study found no mediation effect of authenticity of emotional expression on the relationship between organizational identification and turnover intention. The study addresses an important yet neglected issue: how authenticity might meaningfully contribute to the advancement of theory and practice in business.

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What Have We Learned? Ten Years On
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-208-1

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2007

Naomi B. Rothman and Batia M. Wiesenfeld

Past research exploring the influence of affect on group outcomes has primarily considered how the experience of single emotions and mood vary and converge across group…

Abstract

Past research exploring the influence of affect on group outcomes has primarily considered how the experience of single emotions and mood vary and converge across group members, but does not address the fact that a single group member may express multiple, conflicting emotions simultaneously (e.g., emotional ambivalence). Such complex expressions may drastically alter the way other group members perceive and respond to one another, and in turn, drastically alter the group-level dynamics. We address this gap in the literature by modeling the social consequences of expressing emotional ambivalence, thereby expanding our understanding of emotional ambivalence in group contexts. Implications for research on emotional ambivalence and research on emotions in groups are discussed.

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Affect and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1413-3

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2021

Defeng Yang, Hao Shen and Robert S. Wyer

This study aims to examine the relationship between consumers’ emotional expressions and their self-construals. The authors suggest that because an independent…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between consumers’ emotional expressions and their self-construals. The authors suggest that because an independent self-construal can reinforce the free expression of emotion, the expression of extreme emotions is likely to become associated with feelings of independence through social learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper includes five studies. Study 1A provided evidence that priming participants with different types of self-construal can influence the extremity of their emotional expressions. Study 1B showed that chronic self-construal could predict facial expressions of students who were told to smile for a group photograph. Studies 2–4 found that inducing people to either manifest or to simply view an extreme facial expression activated an independent social orientation and influenced their performance on tasks that reflect this orientation.

Findings

The studies provide support for a bidirectional causal relationship between individuals’ self-construals and the extremity of their emotional expressions. They show that people’s general social orientation could predict the spontaneous facial expressions that they manifest in their daily lives.

Research limitations/implications

Although this research was generally restricted to the effects of smiling, similar considerations influence the expression of other emotions. That is, dispositions to exhibit extreme expressions can generalize over different types of emotions. To this extent, expressions of sadness, anger or fear might be similarly associated with people’s social orientation and the behavior that is influenced by it.

Practical implications

The paper provides marketing implications into how marketers can influence consumers’ choices of unique options and how marketers can assess consumers’ social orientation based on their observation of consumers’ emotional expressions.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to demonstrate a bidirectional causal relationship between individuals’ self-construals and the extremity of their emotional expressions, and to demonstrate the association between chronic social orientation and emotional expression people spontaneously make in their daily lives.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Giuliana Isabella and Valter Afonso Vieira

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emotional contagion theory in print ads, and expand the literature of smiling to different type of smiles and gender…

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2334

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emotional contagion theory in print ads, and expand the literature of smiling to different type of smiles and gender congruency. Emotional contagion happens when an emotion is transferred from a sender to a receiver by the synchronization of emotions from the emitter. Drawing on emotional contagion theory, the authors expand this concept and propose that smiles in static facial expressions influence product evaluation. They suggest that false smiles do not have the same impact as genuine smiles on product evaluation, and the congruence between the model gender–product in a static ad and the gender of the viewer moderates the effects.

Design/methodology/approach

In Experiment 1, subjects were randomly assigned to view one of the two ad treatments to guard against systematic error (e.g. bias). In Experiment 2, it was investigated whether viewing a static ad featuring a model with a false smile can result in a positive product evaluation as was the case with genuine smiles (H3). In Experiment 3, it was assumed that when consumers evaluate an ad featuring a smiling face, the facial expression influences product evaluation, and this influence is moderated by the congruence between the gender of the ad viewer and the product H gender of the model in the ad.

Findings

Across three experiments, the authors found that the model’s facial expression influenced the product evaluation. Second, they supported the association between a model’s facial expression and mimicry synchronization. Third, they showed that genuine smiles have a higher impact on product evaluation than false smiles. This novel result enlarges the research on genuine smiles to include false smiles. Fourth, the authors supported the gender–product congruence effect in that the gender of the ad’s reader and the model have a moderating effect on the relationship between the model’s facial expression and the reader’s product evaluation.

Originality/value

Marketing managers would benefit from understanding that genuine smiles can encourage positive emotions on the part of consumers via emotional contagion, which would be very useful to create a positive effect on products. The authors improved upon previous psychological theory (Gunnery et al., 2013; Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006) showing that a genuine smile results in higher evaluation scores of products presented in static ads. The theoretical explanation for this effect is the genuine smile, which involves contraction of both zygomatic major and orbicularis oculi muscles. These facial muscles can be better perceived and transmit positive emotions (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006).

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 55 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2006

Hillary Anger Elfenbein and Aiwa Shirako

Emotional appraisal is an act of sense making: What does a particular event mean for me? It is not the event itself – but rather an individual's subjective evaluation of…

Abstract

Emotional appraisal is an act of sense making: What does a particular event mean for me? It is not the event itself – but rather an individual's subjective evaluation of the event – that elicits and shapes emotions (Scherer, 1997b). Thus, appraisal is the crucial first step in the emotion process, and describes how we attend, interpret and ascribe meaning to a given event or stimulus. First, emotional appraisal requires attention; given cognitive limits, we must prioritize which events are even worthy of our notice. Second, we must code the event, interpreting its meaning, and in particular its implications for the self (Mesquita & Frijda, 1992). If another person in a team environment is being rude, how one interprets the personal significance of this behavior may change significantly the emotional response – for example, whether the rude individual is a teammate, a customer, a supplier, or a competitor, and whether the rude behavior is directed at an innocent bystander or an instigator. Likewise, a bear approaching a campsite may elicit fear, but the same bear in a zoo could result in delight. Often the cognitive evaluation of stimuli associated with emotional appraisal occurs so quickly and automatically, before our conscious awareness, that we may be unaware of this individual component of the unfolding process. However, even in such cases, we can see the role of appraisal processes by examining, for example, how emotional reactions change over time and vary from person to person. An event that may have caused great embarrassment during youth might in adulthood leave one unfazed, and an event that makes one person angry might make another person sad. Indeed, it can be the lack of conscious awareness of the appraisal process – and the sense that appraisal is clear and lacking a subjective interpretive lens – that prevents individuals from questioning and evaluating it. This results in a particular challenge to reconciling colleagues’ often vastly differing emotional appraisals.

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National Culture and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-362-4

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Ruijuan Wu, Xiaoqian Ou and Yan Li

The objective of this study is to examine the effect of human model facial presentation (a smiling facial expression vs a neutral facial expression vs no facial…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to examine the effect of human model facial presentation (a smiling facial expression vs a neutral facial expression vs no facial presentation) on consumers' approach behavior and to determine the mechanism and boundary conditions behind such effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The research consisted of four laboratory experiments.

Findings

The results of four studies showed that a smiling facial expression led to the highest score for approach behavior. Pleasure and arousal mediated the effect of facial presentation on approach behavior. In the relationship between facial presentation and approach behavior, the moderating effects of emotional receptivity and the situation were significant. To be specific, for participants with high emotional receptivity, smiling facial expressions led to the highest approach behavior; for participants with low emotional receptivity, neutral expressions led to the highest approach behavior. In a browsing situation, the approach behavior of participants in response to a smiling facial expression was the highest. However, no significant differences were found in approach behavior under the three conditions regarding a purchasing situation.

Originality/value

This study supplements the literature on human model presentation and enriches the study of facial expressions.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

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Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2017

Neal M. Ashkanasy, Ashlea C. Troth, Sandra A. Lawrence and Peter J. Jordan

Scholars and practitioners in the OB literature nowadays appreciate that emotions and emotional regulation constitute an inseparable part of work life, but the HRM…

Abstract

Scholars and practitioners in the OB literature nowadays appreciate that emotions and emotional regulation constitute an inseparable part of work life, but the HRM literature has lagged in addressing the emotional dimensions of life at work. In this chapter therefore, beginning with a multi-level perspective taken from the OB literature, we introduce the roles played by emotions and emotional regulation in the workplace and discuss their implications for HRM. We do so by considering five levels of analysis: (1) within-person temporal variations, (2) between persons (individual differences), (3) interpersonal processes; (4) groups and teams, and (5) the organization as a whole. We focus especially on processes of emotional regulation in both self and others, including discussion of emotional labor and emotional intelligence. In the opening sections of the chapter, we discuss the nature of emotions and emotional regulation from an OB perspective by introducing the five-level model, and explaining in particular how emotions and emotional regulation play a role at each of the levels. We then apply these ideas to four major domains of concern to HR managers: (1) recruitment, selection, and socialization; (2) performance management; (3) training and development; and (4) compensation and benefits. In concluding, we stress the interconnectedness of emotions and emotional regulation across the five levels of the model, arguing that emotions and emotional regulation at each level can influence effects at other levels, ultimately culminating in the organization’s affective climate.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-709-6

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Michel Klein

The concept of emotional labor refers to the management of emotions in interaction with customers. This study aims to suggest an integrative definition of emotional labor…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of emotional labor refers to the management of emotions in interaction with customers. This study aims to suggest an integrative definition of emotional labor. It develops a conceptual framework that helps organize and synthesize key insights from the literature, in an interactional and multi-level perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This integrated framework consists in a mapping of key research themes resulting from a systematic literature review, which includes research in sales and marketing. As critical affective processes in sales have not been studied sufficiently, both in business-to-business and business-to-customer selling, this review also incorporates works in other research fields.

Findings

Sales representatives’ emotional labor must be considered as a bi-directional interaction with the customer in a multi-level perspective. Moreover, emotional labor has rather negative consequences for the salesperson (e.g. burnout and job stress), but may have positive sales and customer outcomes. Findings suggest that the expression of genuine emotions should be used during sales interactions. In addition, organizations should prevent customers’ negative behaviors (e.g. mistreatment).

Practical implications

Emotional labor key practical implications with regard to several management functions such as the recruitment, performance management and training (Ashkanasy and Daus, 2002) of the sales representatives.

Originality/value

Research on emotional labor in a sales ecosystem is scarce. It has largely covered service industry employees in contact with customers, but has not paid enough attention to sales representatives (Mikeska et al., 2015). The proposed integrated framework concerning emotional labor focuses on the bi-directional interaction between the sales representatives and their customers.

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