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In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the statistic that 1 out of every 59 children had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)…
In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the statistic that 1 out of every 59 children had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Young children with ASD have unique needs specifically related to the characteristics that impact their communication and social emotional and behavioral development. These unique needs require early and intensive intervention to minimize their lifelong impact. It is important to identify and use evidence-based interventions to help parents support their children at home, and as a continuation of the skills they are being taught in other settings. This chapter will address the prevalence of young children with ASD, the impact and need for family involvement in intervention, and service provision and potential interventions.
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a scientific method for modelling human behavior, successfully applied in the context of Autism. Recording and sharing measurable data…
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a scientific method for modelling human behavior, successfully applied in the context of Autism. Recording and sharing measurable data (on subjects’ performance) between caregivers guarantees consistency of learning programs and allows monitoring the learning enhancements. Data are usually recorded on paper, which requires considerable effort and is subject to error. The purpose of this paper is to describe a portable application developed to support ABA tutors in their work with autistic subjects. It allows gathering data from ABA sessions, giving tutors rapid access to information, also in graphical formats.
The tool was designed via participatory design. Various ABA team members were involved, in order to make the application respond perfectly to their needs. The approach aims to ensure maximum usability, while minimizing errors and ambient interference.
The use of mobile devices (i.e. tablets or smartphones) allows mobility and ease of interaction, enabling efficient data collection and processing. Data plotting allows one to easily interpret gathered data.
The proposed application, free open source software, can be a valuable aid for supporting the ABA intervention and favor the inclusion of children with autism.
Available software to assist tutors during therapy sessions is often proprietary, and research prototypes are not freely available, so paper forms are still widespread. Besides, without attention to usability requirements, assisting tools would be comparable in efficiency with data insertion on paper. Our software was specifically designed following ABA principles and favors efficient data entry allowing natural interaction with touch screen interfaces: drag and drop, taps and gestures. Furthermore, it is shared in the public domain.
Child psychiatrist Leo Kanner (pronounced “Konner;” Feinstein, 2010, p. 19) published a ground-breaking paper in 1943 that introduced the world to the present-day concept…
Child psychiatrist Leo Kanner (pronounced “Konner;” Feinstein, 2010, p. 19) published a ground-breaking paper in 1943 that introduced the world to the present-day concept of autism (Fombonne, 2003; Goldstein & Ozonoff, 2009; Roth, 2010). Prior to Kanner, however, several physicians described the condition of autism without identifying it as such. A textbook published in 1809, titled Observations on Madness and Melancholy, contained a description of a boy whose symptoms fit the modern definition of autism (Feinstein, 2010; Vaillant, 1962). The book's author, Dr. John Haslam, wrote about a 5-year-old male who was admitted to the Bethlem Asylum in 1799 with a medical history that included a case of measles when he was 1 year old. The boy's mother claimed that at age 2 years, her son became harder to control. She also indicated that he did not begin to walk until he was 2½ years of age and did not talk until he was 4 years old. Once hospitalized, the boy cried only briefly upon separation from his mother and was “constantly in action” (Vaillant, 1962, p. 376), suggesting that he was hyperactive. Hyperactivity is a characteristic commonly found in children with ASDs (APA, 2000; Wicks-Nelson & Israel, 2009). Although this child watched other boys at play in the hospital, he never joined them and played intently with toy soldiers by himself. The boy could not learn to read and always referred to himself in the third person (Vaillant, 1962). Grammatical errors in speech can be observed among individuals with ASDs (Roth, 2010; Wicks-Nelson & Israel, 2009).
This chapter presents the personal perspectives of the author on issues related to methodology in teaching children with learning disabilities and to the role of…
This chapter presents the personal perspectives of the author on issues related to methodology in teaching children with learning disabilities and to the role of methodology in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Additionally, problems schools have had in implementing IDEA are highlighted and proposals offered to alleviate those difficulties.
The UK Government has set targets for its services to be available online by 2005. It is hoped that electronic public services will improve quality and efficiency of…
The UK Government has set targets for its services to be available online by 2005. It is hoped that electronic public services will improve quality and efficiency of delivery, enhance public access to essential services, and achieve cost economies. While attention initially focussed on the Internet as the key platform for online public service delivery, digital television may eventually become the platform of choice. Television's wider penetration and familiarity gives it an edge over the Internet. A number of pilot projects and initiatives have been instigated by Government to explore the potential of digital television (DTV). This paper presents a review of early evidence to emerge about DTV services and public opinion from DTV pilots. While DTV can provide wider access than the Internet in terms of demographic reach, its limited interactivity and the relearning that viewers will need to undergo may limit its initial applications and adoption. Significant problems remain with the usability of basic DTV services, resulting in certain sectors of society being excluded. This exclusion is more pronounced when considering the most complex applications of DTV, such as interactive services. Widespread acceptance of the digital switchover will require a shift in mindset of the television audience as a different paradigm of television use comes to the fore.
In this study, a mode choice model explicitly considering travel time reliability is developed. This model quantifies travelers' attitudes towards travel time variability…
In this study, a mode choice model explicitly considering travel time reliability is developed. This model quantifies travelers' attitudes towards travel time variability as well as average travel time. Data were collected from the morning commuters who have two or three alternative modes including some public transportation and private vehicles. The survey period includes both a normal period where all the transportation modes were available and an abnormal period where the main major public transportation service was closed. The model is applied to practical commuters' decision making, and one of the findings in the mode choice model is that they pay relatively large attention to the travel time variability. In this model, travel time variability is dealt with as the possibilities that the commuters arrive before or after their job starting time separately. The best-fit model indicates that the commuters pay more attention to early arrival and less to late arrival in the normal period. In the abnormal period, however, their attention shifts drastically to late arrival. This suggests that the commuters behave optimistically in the normal period and pessimistically in the abnormal period.
To offer an outline of the characteristics of radio frequency identification technology (RFID) and discuss its perceived benefits, impacts and challenges, as they apply to…
To offer an outline of the characteristics of radio frequency identification technology (RFID) and discuss its perceived benefits, impacts and challenges, as they apply to retailers in the UK. The paper draws together a range of information and intelligence about the application of RFID and reflects on the strategic planning challenges it poses to retailers.
The paper draws its material largely from trade and practitioner sources and illustrates general themes with specific retail examples.
The paper suggests that RFID has the potential to deliver a wide range of benefits throughout the supply chain, including tighter management and control, reduction in shrinkage, reduced labour costs and improved customer service. However, retail users will have to address a number of operational and strategic challenges and consumer privacy concerns before these benefits can be fully realised. The adoption of RFID may further increase structural concentration within the retail sector of the economy, and have a major impact on retail operations at shop floor level and on the customers' shopping experience.
An accessible outline of RFID developments within UK retailing, of interest to marketing professionals and academics concerned with marketing practice. A companion piece to the paper by Wyld et al. in this issue.