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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Ke Wang, Zhichao Zhang, Jie Xiong, Hongwei Li, Haibo Liu and Huimin Ma

Recent studies have indicated that digital transformation can benefit an organization’s strategic renewal. However, there is little knowledge on how business executives…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent studies have indicated that digital transformation can benefit an organization’s strategic renewal. However, there is little knowledge on how business executives engage in digital transformation for this purpose, especially in the service sectors of emerging markets. Therefore, this study aims to examine how business managers accomplish strategic renewal through digital transformation in emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a longitudinal single case study of a leading business firm in China’s real estate industry, China Overseas Land & Investment Ltd. (COLI). Results of the analysis of semistructured interviews and rich secondary data allowed us to better understand how business managers react to changing customer demands by building and implementing divergent digital tools to fulfill strategic renewal.

Findings

The results showed that business executives of COLI developed the Whole Life Cycle Management System, to achieve strategic renewal. The system benefits resource allocation and potential adjustments to strategic goals. This study also helps update the organizational structure of the marketing and consumer services departments, helping better satisfy consumers’ demands and waste fewer resources. Thus, COLI accomplished structural, contextual and leadership-based ambidexterity.

Originality/value

This study provides a fresh understanding of the link between digitalization and strategic renewal by providing a fine-grained analysis of leading service providers in emerging markets. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first to investigate the role of digital transformation in strategic renewal from an ambidexterity perspective.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2021

Qinyi Zhang, Wen Cao and Zhichao Zhang

With the rapid growth of the economy, people have increasingly higher living standards, and although people simply pursued material wealth in the past, they now pay more…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid growth of the economy, people have increasingly higher living standards, and although people simply pursued material wealth in the past, they now pay more attention to material quality and safety and environmental protection. This paper discusses the lack of motivation for investing in fresh-keeping technology for agricultural products by individual members of an agricultural supply chain composed of a supplier and a retailer by means of mathematical models and data simulations and discuss the optimal price-invest strategies under different sales models.

Design/methodology/approach

First, based on the model of no investment by both sides (NN), this paper considers three models: supplier only (MN), retailer only (NR) and cooperative investment (MR). Then, the authors analyze the influence of consumer price sensitivity and freshness sensitivity on the investment motivation of agricultural products under four models. Subsequently, the paper makes a sensitivity analysis of the optimal strategies under several models, and makes a game analysis of the suppliers and retailers of agricultural products. Finally, we conduct an empirical analysis through specific values.

Findings

The results show that (a) when the two sides cooperate, the amount of investment is largest, the freshness of the agricultural products is highest, and the sales volume is greatest; however, when both sides do not invest, the freshness of agricultural products and sales volume are lowest. (b) The price and freshness sensitivity of the consumer have an impact on investment decisions. Greater freshness sensitivity corresponds to a higher investment, higher agricultural product price, greater sales volume, and greater supply chain member income and overall income; however, greater price sensitivity corresponds to a lower investment, lower agricultural product price, lower sales volume, fewer supply chain members and lower overall income. (c) The investment game between the supplier and retailer is not only related to the sensitivity to price and freshness but also to the coordination coefficients of interest. At the same time, the market position of agricultural products should be considered when making decisions. The market share of agricultural products will affect the final game equilibrium and then affect the final benefit of the supply chain and individual members.

Practical implications

These results provide managerial insights for enterprises preparing to invest in agricultural products preservation technology.

Originality/value

At present, the main problem is that member enterprises of agricultural supply chains operate based on their own benefits and are resistant to investing alone to improve the freshness of agricultural products. Instead, they would prefer that other members invest so that they may reap the benefits at no cost. Therefore, the enterprises in each node of the agricultural product supply chain are not motivated enough to invest, and competition and game states are observed among them, and such behavior is definitely not conducive to improving the freshness of agricultural products. However, the current research on agricultural products is more about price, quality and greenness, etc., and there are few studies on agricultural investment. Through the establishment of the model, this paper is expected to provide theoretical suggestions for the supply chain enterprises that plan to invest in agricultural products preservation technology.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Zhichao Zhang, Bengang Gong, Juan Tang, Zhi Liu and Xiaoxue Zheng

Under the carbon regulation mechanism, managing operational strategies is a challenging task. Green innovation is introduced into a hybrid system of manufacturing and…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the carbon regulation mechanism, managing operational strategies is a challenging task. Green innovation is introduced into a hybrid system of manufacturing and remanufacturing to handle the carbon emission constraints in a dynamic market environment. This paper aims to investigate the joint dynamic green innovation policy and pricing strategies in a hybrid manufacturing and remanufacturing system.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first considers a monopolistic manufacturer who offers brand-new products and remanufactured items at the same price to consumers. Subsequently, the authors extend their analyses to distinct pricing strategies for both newly manufactured products and refurnished ones in such a hybrid system. Two different cases are considered: a loose carbon emission constraint and a binding carbon emission constraint. By solving the dynamic optimization problem, the differential game and Pontryagin’s maximum principle are used to obtain the joint green innovation and pricing strategies.

Findings

The retail price first increases then declines over a single period. The green innovation diminishes in the same pricing decision model, while it first increases then declines in a distinct pricing decision model over a single planning horizon. The green innovation investment as well as the retail price are discouraged by an emission cap and recycling fraction. The distinct retail price fluctuates violently, and they are, in descending order of the highest peak price as follows: the newly manufactured product, the same pricing product and the repaired product. Carbon emission caps that are either too high or too low decrease the revenue of the manufacturer. A small emission constraint margin benefits the manufacturer. The recycling policy, as well as other parameters, affects whether the hybrid system attains the carbon emission constraint or not, which suggests that the recycling policy is complementary to the carbon emission constraint mechanism in the hybrid system.

Practical implications

These results offer managerial implications to the hybrid system in terms of green innovation, pricing strategies and recycling policy.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first papers to research the joint dynamic green innovation policy and pricing strategies with/without a carbon emission constraint in a hybrid manufacturing and remanufacturing system with a differential game. Moreover, this paper presents a potential way of investigating other common resource constraints by a differential game in a manufacturing/remanufacturing system or closed loop supply chain.

Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Qinyi Zhang, Wen Cao, Yongmei Liu and Zhichao Zhang

As one of the omnichannel sales models, “buy online and pick up in store” (BOPS) not only is used in the commercial field but also has gradually attracted many scholars…

Abstract

Purpose

As one of the omnichannel sales models, “buy online and pick up in store” (BOPS) not only is used in the commercial field but also has gradually attracted many scholars’ interests. However, although there are numerous research ideas, most of the current work is still limited to theoretical and empirical research, and few scholars study BOPS through models. This paper aims to discuss the best market conditions and opportunities for the implementation of BOPS against the backdrop of omnichannel by means of mathematical models and data simulations and discuss the optimal price–service strategies under different sales models.

Design/methodology/approach

First, from the perspective of different consumer shopping types, this paper separately divides consumers into different groups in traditional “dual channel” and BOPS models. Then, the authors analyze the impact of company market size, consumer service sensitivity and the scale of BOPS on companies’ strategies and the profit of the supply chain. Subsequently, they conduct an empirical analysis through specific values. Finally, the authors further expand the model on the basis of the original research, and discuss the retailer’s fairness concerns and unit compensation strategy to ensure that the research content is more rigorous.

Findings

It is observed that whether companies adopt BOPS depends on consumers’ service sensitivity degree and the scale of BOPS consumers and online retailers: when the sensitivity and the proportion of online consumers are high or the number of BOPS consumers is large, it is more advantageous for companies to implement BOPS. Moreover, companies should not only consider the market scale and production cost but also have a precise orientation of consumers’ experience sensitivity and willingness to engage in extra consumption when making price and service strategies. At the same time, the compensation strategy of companies and the peer-regarding fairness concern behavior of offline retailers will affect the optimal price and service strategy in the BOPS model.

Social implications

These results provide managerial insights for companies preparing to implement BOPS and promote the development of relevant theories in the channel field.

Originality/value

At present, most of the research on BOPS is based on empirical reviews. However, this paper analyzes the applicability and feasibility of implementing BOPS by using specific models, and it will provide some reference for companies preparing to implement BOPS. In addition, this paper also discusses the unit compensation strategy and peer-regarding fairness concern behavior in the BOPS model, which have not been studied by relevant scholars.

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2022

Fei Yan, Hong-Zhuan Chen and Zhichao Zhang

Industry practice has shown that technology licensing has an important effect on the R&D cooperation between firms. Different licensing methods will significantly impact a…

Abstract

Purpose

Industry practice has shown that technology licensing has an important effect on the R&D cooperation between firms. Different licensing methods will significantly impact a supply chain member's cooperative and price R&D decisions. However, there is scant literature investigating the decision on technology licensing and its impact on a supply chain member's price and cooperative R&D decisions. To address this gap, the authors investigate the R&D cooperation and the technology licensing in a supply chain formed of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), a contract manufacturer (CM), and a third-party manufacturer which will compete with the OEM when the technology licensing occurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors investigate two licensing patterns, royalty licensing, fixed fee licensing together with the no licensing, within the R&D cooperative supply chain by developing two three-stage and a two-stage Stackelberg models.

Findings

Compare to the no licensing strategy, technology licensing always benefits to the OEM and the society especially when the technology efficiency and the brand power of the third-party manufacturer are more significant; the royalty licensing benefits to the OEM more when the technology efficiency and the brand power of the third-party manufacturer are higher; the fixed fee licensing benefits to the OEM more when the technology efficiency and the brand power of the third-party manufacturer are lower.

Practical implications

The royalty licensing is more effective for mitigating price competition intensity and helping firms to maintain higher sales margins; the fixed fee licensing induces firms' lower sales margins but increases the firms' sales quantities; in most cases, the fixed fee licensing is optimal from the perspectives of consumer and society, however, the CM's investment intention to the R&D technology with the fixed fee licensing is lower.

Originality/value

So far, different licensing models under the R&D cooperation have not been investigated, and the authors propose two three-stage Stackelberg models with considering the competition caused by technology licensing under the R&D cooperation to deal with the cooperative R&D and technology licensing issues.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Xinhui Cheng, Weifeng Zhao, Zhichao Zhang and Qing Zhang

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has now been paid notable attention by a large number of firms. The aim of this paper is to investigate a better way to implement CSR…

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has now been paid notable attention by a large number of firms. The aim of this paper is to investigate a better way to implement CSR in a socially responsible supply chain with different channel leaderships.

Design/methodology/approach

Started from measuring CSR by purely taking consumer surplus into account, a stylized centralized channel and two different decentralized channels are first developed and examined for equilibria in the socially responsible chain. Furthermore, this paper extends to a socially irresponsible supply chain and a broader practice of CSR by simultaneously incorporating environmental externality and consumer surplus into CSR.

Findings

With the analytical studies, several interesting and important results and managerial insights are clearly revealed. For example, but not limited to, it is found that: (1) Compared with the leader, the follower can effectively implement CSR for a better performance in both pure and socially responsible profits in the decentralized channel; (2) undertaking socially responsible concerns does not always mean reducing the economic profit and conversely being socially irresponsible does not always induce an increase in economic profit for the socially responsible member(s); (3) CSR concern level plays a key role in both the pure and socially responsible profit. An increase in CSR concern level clearly increases the socially responsible profit and poses an ambiguous impact on pure profit depending on different channel leaderships: it decreases the centralized channel in pure profit but increases the pure profit with the decentralized channel under certain conditions; and (4) interestingly, the authors find that decentralization can outperform centralization regarding on both pure and socially responsible channel profits by properly implementing CSR concern levels.

Practical implications

The results derived in this paper provide novel managerial implications to the socially responsible members in terms of pricing decisions, order quantity and CSR practice. In addition, this paper assists the socially responsible supply chain in determining the optimal channel leadership to undertake CSR. That is, decentralization may achieve a better performance than integration under certain market conditions.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to explore the interactive of the CSR practice and channel leadership in a socially responsible supply chain.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Zhichao Zhang, Haiyan Xu, Zhi Liu and Yinhai Fang

Members in a supply chain account for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in different ways. This paper considers a socially responsible supply chain in which the…

Abstract

Purpose

Members in a supply chain account for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in different ways. This paper considers a socially responsible supply chain in which the manufacturer innovates in a sustainable product while the retailer exhibits CSR concerns. This paper aims to investigate how socially responsible behavior, namely, sustainable innovations or CSR concerns, affects the pure profit, environmental impact and social welfare, in such a socially responsible supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first constructs an integrated case as a benchmark and then develops a Manufacturer-Stackelberg game in a decentralized scenario. The pure profit, environmental impact and social welfare are confirmed and analyzed in centralized and decentralized cases. Moreover, two unique coordinating contracts, i.e. wholesale price discount contract and revenue-sharing contract, are used in this socially responsible supply chain.

Findings

Analytical analysis shows that, under certain conditions, the optimal CSR strategies hold for maximizing pure channel profit, minimizing environmental impact and maximizing social welfare. Whether the performance in a centralized case outnumbers that in a decentralized case depends on the CSR concerns level and environment-friendly degree of the product. In addition, it is found that a wholesale price discount contract is better for the retailer whereas a revenue-sharing contract is better for the manufacturer in pure profit to improve coordinating efficiency.

Practical implications

These results can offer managerial implications to the socially responsible supply chain in terms of pricing decisions, CSR strategies and sustainability innovations. Specifically, under certain conditions, placing more CSR concerns level increases pure channel profit and the social welfare. A balance between the pure profit and the social welfare is hereby achieved for the two socially responsible individuals by designing a proper contract.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is among the first studies so far to combine the CSR concerns strategy and sustainability innovation into a socially responsible supply chain.

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Wei Li and Zhichao Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to explore in depth the impact and transmission mechanism of different international capital flows on domestic employment and wages in China…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore in depth the impact and transmission mechanism of different international capital flows on domestic employment and wages in China within a systematic framework; also to reveal whether the empirical results can confirm the basic model inferences.

Design/methodology/approach

Using dynamic economic model and empirical experiment, this study designs and conducts the analysis within a systematic framework. The authors acquire the needed and credible empirical data.

Findings

The international capital inflows will increase the average wage level, and the international capital outflows will significantly reduce the level of domestic wages. The unofficially recorded capital flows would appear negatively related to the domestic wages. Due to the complexities of relevant elements, the impact of different international capital flows on domestic employment is of insignificance. It is noteworthy that the impact of international capital flows on the average wage changes of different provinces will tend to converge to a certain extent.

Practical implications

The results have reflected that the capital flows between the different provinces have no obvious frictions and barriers.

Originality/value

The paper explores in depth the impact and transmission mechanism of different international capital flows on domestic employment and wages within a systematic framework. The empirical analysis related to the China different provinces is an exploratory experiment.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2014

Nan Shi, Xin Sun and Fan Zhang

The interbank market in China experienced remarkable squeezes in liquidity in 2013. In particular, the overnight Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate reached a historical high…

Abstract

The interbank market in China experienced remarkable squeezes in liquidity in 2013. In particular, the overnight Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate reached a historical high in June. Banks were unprepared, facing the occurrence of various liquidity demands simultaneously. Effects of the liquidity squeeze spread across markets, and concerns were expressed about the health of the banking sector in the world’s second largest economy. Yet the central bank of China maintained an unswerving view that the tightness of liquidity was only structural, and could be overcome by the commercial banks themselves. While it may be too early to judge whether the central bank was correct, or whether there is systematic liquidity risk in the banking sector, markets received a clear signal from the People’s Bank of China. The central bank stopped acting as a ‘perpetual put option’ for commercial banks and refused to take responsibility to satisfy liquidity needs in the interbank market. Its intention is clear; that is, to adjust monetary policy and support economic reform in China. The new Chinese government seems determined to steer a new course away from the previous growth episode. Its resolution has been published and actions have been taken. Among them, the central bank’s changes to monetary policy have received responses from the markets, and the People’s Bank of China is now in the vanguard of a battle to squeeze liquidity. It is difficult to predict what further actions the government will take. However, it should be aware that the driving force of economic reform in China comes from structural change and productivity improvement. Without follow-up policies, complication in the financial system could undermine the central bank’s effort and international capital flows may quickly substitute the opening position of the central bank in the interbank market. More wisdom is required if China is to win the battle for deleveraging and structural reform.

Details

Risk Management Post Financial Crisis: A Period of Monetary Easing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-027-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Peng Zhang, Zhichao Hu, Huanxiong Xie, Gwang-Hee Lee and Chul-Hee Lee

This paper aims to study the different infill, printing direction against sliding direction and various load condition for the friction and wear characteristics of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the different infill, printing direction against sliding direction and various load condition for the friction and wear characteristics of polylactic acid (PLA) under reciprocating sliding condition.

Design/methodology/approach

The tests were performed by applying the load of 1, 5, 15 and 10 N with sliding oscillation frequency of 10 Hz for the duration of 10 min at room temperature.

Findings

The results show that the friction and wear properties of PLA specimen change with a different infill density of printed parts. The oscillation frequency is 10 Hz and the infill density of plate is 50 per cent that shows the best friction and wear properties.

Originality/value

The potential of this research work is to investigate the tribological characteristics of three-dimensional printing parts with different infill percentage to provide a reference for any parts in contact with each other to improve friction and wear performance. There will be many opportunities exist for further research and the advancement of three-dimensional printing in the field of tribology.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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