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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Stewart Falconer and Malcolm Pettigrew

This paper examines the extent to which the softer or transferable skills that are apparently sought by firms are developed through work‐based learning. The study is a…

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2278

Abstract

This paper examines the extent to which the softer or transferable skills that are apparently sought by firms are developed through work‐based learning. The study is a pilot study, as it is restricted to the experience of students and graduates of a single degree programme at Napier University, Edinburgh. However, the results indicate a positive contribution of work‐based learning to the development of the transferable skills of those involved in the programme. The paper concludes that these tentative positive results drawn from the pilot study need to be tested across a broader sample of students and graduates from a wide range of programmes and institutions. This would enable an effective evaluation of the role of work‐based learning in skilling the firm.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2021

Vidmantas Tūtlys and Georg Spöttl

This paper aims to disclose the implications of the 4th Industrial Revolution for vocational and professional qualifications and their systems. It also seeks to enhance…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to disclose the implications of the 4th Industrial Revolution for vocational and professional qualifications and their systems. It also seeks to enhance more active discussion of experts and researchers about the change of vocational and professional qualifications created by the advent of the 4th Industrial Revolution.

Design/methodology/approach

Research is based on the case studies of the design and development of vocational and professional qualifications focused on the skills requirements of the 4th Industrial Revolution. There are analyzed and compared two cases of the international (EU) projects aiming to design and implement new qualifications in the metalworking industry and the case of introduction of additional qualifications in Germany. The main research methods include content analysis of the qualifications descriptors and vocational education and training (VET) curricula, a meta-analysis of the research on the implications of Industry 4.0 for VET.

Findings

The choices of the structure and contents of qualifications and VET curricula in the context of the 4th Industrial Revolution are defined by the specific state of technologies and work organizations in the enterprises, limitations of VET providers, individual skills needs of learners, national and sectoral policies in the field of qualifications and curricula. It requires compromises between the concept of solid qualifications based on the holistic orientation to work processes and the trends toward flexible curriculum; between the design of new qualifications and adjustment of the existing ones, as well as between the individualistic and collective approaches to qualifications.

Research limitations/implications

The research is focused on the development of qualifications in the manufacturing sector (metalworking and engineering industry). The paper contributes to the theoretical discussions and research of qualifications, competence, VET and human resource development by suggesting a theoretical framework for the analysis of the development of qualifications in the context of the 4th Industrial Revolution, as well as by stressing the importance of holistic view to this development which should comprise both policies and practices of the design of qualifications, curriculum design, education and training and assessment of learning outcomes.

Originality/value

The paper provides insight into the implications of the 4th Industrial Revolution to the key processes of the national systems of qualifications by referring to the cases of current efforts to adjust qualifications in the metalworking sector and engineering industry. It also suggests possible scenarios for the future development of vocational and professional qualifications in the context of the 4th Industrial Revolution.

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European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

Deborah Anne Delaney, Marty Fletcher, Craig Cameron and Kerry Bodle

The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate the implementation of an online self and peer assessment model (SPARKPLUS) to assess team work skills of accounting…

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1863

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate the implementation of an online self and peer assessment model (SPARKPLUS) to assess team work skills of accounting students.

Design/methodology/approach

This study describes the background and implementation of SPARKPLUS and employs a survey questionnaire administered to students enrolled in an undergraduate company accounting subject before and after the implementation of the model. The survey results and selected qualitative data are used to evaluate students' attitudes to group work and the impact of SPARKPLUS.

Findings

The study suggests that students understand the benefits of group work activities in developing their technical knowledge in company accounting. However, students do not appreciate the value of group work activities in developing generic skills or how SPARKPLUS supports group work activities.

Practical implications

Professional and accreditation bodies require evidence of teaching and learning activities and assessment of team work skills during the students' undergraduate accounting degree. This study demonstrates that students require significant teaching and learning activities in relation to team work skills and the assessment model for successful implementation.

Originality/value

This study makes an original contribution to the accounting education literature pertaining to assessment of team work skills in two respects. First, the study outlines the design, implementation and preliminary evaluation of an online self and peer assessment model in an undergraduate company accounting course. Second, preliminary evidence concerning the impact of this model on group work activities and team work skills is provided.

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Accounting Research Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2007

Rucker C. Johnson

I use data from employers and longitudinal data from former/current recipients covering the period 1997 to early 2004 to analyze the relationship between job skills, job…

Abstract

I use data from employers and longitudinal data from former/current recipients covering the period 1997 to early 2004 to analyze the relationship between job skills, job changes, and the evolution of wages. I analyze the effects of job skill requirements on starting wages, on-the-job training opportunities, wage growth prospects, and job turnover. The results show that jobs of different skill requirements differ in their prospects for earnings growth, independent of the workers who fill these jobs. Furthermore, these differences in wage growth opportunities across jobs are important determinants of workers’ quit propensities (explicitly controlling for unobserved worker heterogeneity). The determinants and consequences of job dynamics are investigated. The results using a multiplicity of methods, including the estimation of a multinomial endogenous switching model of wage growth, show that job changes, continuity of work involvement, and the use of cognitive skills are all critical components of the content of work experience that leads to upward mobility. The results underscore the sensitivity of recipients’ job transition patterns to changes in labor market demand conditions.

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Aspects of Worker Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-473-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Karen Legge

The monograph analyses (a) the potential impact of informationtechnology (IT) on organisational issues that directly concern thepersonnel function; (b) the nature of…

Abstract

The monograph analyses (a) the potential impact of information technology (IT) on organisational issues that directly concern the personnel function; (b) the nature of personnel’s involvement in the decision making and activities surrounding the choice and implementation of advanced technologies, and (c) their own use of IT in developing and carrying out their own range of specialist activities. The monograph attempts to explain why personnel’s involvement is often late, peripheral and reactive. Finally, an analysis is made of whether personnel specialists – or the Human Resource Management function more generally – will play a more proactive role in relation to such technologies in the future.

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Personnel Review, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

Krista Loogma, Meril Ümarik and Raivo Vilu

Information technology (IT) is a new service sector characterised by an intensive dynamic that puts high demands of learning, flexibility and mobility on IT specialists…

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1387

Abstract

Information technology (IT) is a new service sector characterised by an intensive dynamic that puts high demands of learning, flexibility and mobility on IT specialists. This article identifies two features that are decisive for the formation of work identities of employees working in the sector: first, an “entrepreneurial” employment model that transfers responsibilities for skills acquisition, professional development and risk management to the individual; and second, a conflict between a strong identification with IT‐related technology and flexibility requirements. The article analyses the implications these features have in terms of the role of initial and continuing vocational training, skills demands and the professional development of employees working in the sector. It also discusses how boundaryless career paths, characterised by ambiguity and uncertainty, influence work‐related identities of IT specialists.

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Career Development International, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Ana Cláudia Valente, Isabel Salavisa and Sérgio Lagoa

– The purpose of this paper is to understand further the role played by work-based cognitive skills in the growth dynamics in Europe.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand further the role played by work-based cognitive skills in the growth dynamics in Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

Work-based cognitive skills are studied using a factor analysis on data from the European Work Conditions Survey (Eurofound) referring to work cognitive requirements. This and other measures of education quality and quantity indicators are used to estimate growth regression models for 28 European countries, in order to test for the significance of work-based skills.

Findings

The results corroborate the hypothesis that work-based cognitive skills have been a powerful predictor of economic growth over the last decades. Countries where workplaces require and foster advanced cognitive skills tend to exhibit higher economic growth.

Research limitations/implications

The Eurofound Survey on work-based skills, a major source of this study, only began in 1990 so is quite recent and covers few countries.

Social implications

The results indicate that the mobilisation of the full intellectual potential of workers in their work context is essential to achieve high-economic performances. Boosting workers interactive learning and autonomy should become a key policy and organisational aim.

Originality/value

The authors bring a deeper approach to the way human capital is addressed by testing the relevance of work-based cognitive skills on economic performance. Hence the authors build a bridge between economic growth literature, which focuses largely on the role of formal education, and innovation studies where the emphasis is placed on the relevance of learning processes.

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European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Consists of a series of nine articles under the same title. Each article provides a different slant on the hiring process. Outlines the legal position when hiring…

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6728

Abstract

Consists of a series of nine articles under the same title. Each article provides a different slant on the hiring process. Outlines the legal position when hiring employees and concentrates on providing a framework for managers. Covers areas including job analysis and descriptions, where to advertise and recruit, selection criteria, the interview, testing, negotiating the offer of employment and references. Briefly describes trends in employment practices and ways to minimize potential litigation through best practice.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Meena Chavan and Leanne Carter

The purpose of this paper is to explore the expectations and reality perspectives accrued in a preliminary management course and understand if they impart and embed…

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1465

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the expectations and reality perspectives accrued in a preliminary management course and understand if they impart and embed real-world skills and develop work readiness.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data collected for the research were qualitative. A total of six focus groups were conducted with a total of 52 students enrolled at a large metropolitan university in Australia. NViVO was used to code and analyse the data.

Findings

The study found that at the commencement of university studies, the expectations were simple like, making new friends, getting around the campus and settling well into the university culture, which over time extended to getting a part-time job, securing internships, memberships of associations, desire to participate in exchange programs and get work-ready by the close of the first year. The research outcomes show that those who held a part-time job while studying demonstrated a better understanding of the preliminary management subject matter taught in class and obtained better grades. Primarily, the preliminary management course did not specifically impart work-ready skills and it would be fitting to embed employability skills in the management curriculum from the commencement of their programs in the first year.

Research limitations/implications

Qualitative research is used to comprehend a research problem from the outlook perspectives of the local population it involves. The limitations of this methodology includes no objectively verifiable result, adept interviewing skills for interviewers, slow and time consuming during interviewing process and intensive category process also as qualitative inquiry is normally open-ended, the participants have more control over the content of the data collected.

Practical implications

The lack of skill mismatch and graduates who are not work-ready incurs significant economic and social costs. A number of policy implications emerge due to university-labour market links and skills mismatches and the impact on students and the labour market. The rise in unemployment and the skills mismatch seen after the economic crisis requires immediate attention. Job creation is crucial but so is the need to develop graduate with appropriate matching skills and qualities to do the job. Mandatory internships, apprenticeships and on-the-job training for university students would help. Governments can provide financial incentives and subsidies to organisations providing the above services and working cooperatively with the universities to get students work-ready. Universities must raise the educational requirements over time as jobs become more complex. Universities can build communities of practice with the assistance of this scheme to enable students to interact with the industry professionals. An additional year of vocational training could be recommended for the graduating students. This would help the young graduates to get work-related skills. Wheelahan et al. (2015) state that building better links between education and work can help provide a more rational approach to vocational development. They propose the use of vocational streams and productive capabilities in the education system and labour market to achieve this.

Social implications

This requires a combined effort from all stakeholders. A systematic approach needs to be adopted. First, the gap between the knowledge provided by the universities and the skills required by the employers need to be reduced. Second, the employers and the universities should keep a watch on the labour market and develop strategies to meet the dynamic requirements of the labour market collaboratively. Third, career guidance will help inform students make a career choice to match the labour market opportunities. This should be a part of the policy agenda for responding to the lack of work-ready graduates in the labour market.

Originality/value

Learning and teaching activities must include industry interface and engagement right from the first year at university. The main findings from this research indicated the need for better understanding of first-year students’ expectations. The two significant student expectations that emerged were “need for collaborations” and “industry interface”.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2019

Maryna Tverdostup and Tiiu Paas

The purpose of this paper is to address the role of cognitive skills and extent of skill use at work in explaining the immigrant–native wage gap in Europe. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the role of cognitive skills and extent of skill use at work in explaining the immigrant–native wage gap in Europe. The study targets immigrant–native disparities in literacy and numeracy cognitive skills, as important, yet not exhaustive factor behind immigrants’ wage penalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The research relies on the Program of International Assessment of Adult Competencies data for 15 European countries. The empirical analysis employs multivariate regression analysis and incorporates the full set of plausible values for each skill domain, to correctly measure cognitive skills. To estimate standard errors, the authors employ Jackknife replication methodology with 80 replication weights and final population weight.

Findings

The authors document that, on average, immigrants achieve substantially worse scores in literacy and numeracy test domains. Only highly educated immigrants tend to improve their skills over time in host countries. The results of wage gap analysis indicate that having cognitive skills, demographic profile and occupation category comparable to natives does not yield comparable wage rate. The remaining wage gap results from the systematic differences in skills application at work, as immigrants use their skills to lower extent, relative to natives.

Originality/value

The research employs a novel measure of productive human capital, which accounts for cognitive skills in literacy and numeracy domains, and frequencies of skill use at work. It allows to more precisely evaluate the immigrant–native disparity in human capital application and its reflection on the wage rate.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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