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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2020

Siyu Liu, Yuning Wu, Ivan Sun and Feng Li

Following social disorganization theory and the process-based model of policing, the present study aims to examine how characteristics of communities are meaningful in…

Abstract

Purpose

Following social disorganization theory and the process-based model of policing, the present study aims to examine how characteristics of communities are meaningful in shaping citizens' willingness to work with the police in urban China.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on survey data from Shanghai, China, the study adopts a generalized hierarchical linear modeling (GHLM) approach to examine the effects of both individual- and neighborhood-level predictors on the outcome, while taking into consideration the unobserved additional neighborhood-level variations.

Findings

Results suggest potential need of the process-based model to be modified in a Chinese context in that while police presence matters, measures on legitimacy are nonsignificant in shaping willingness to help the police, after controlling for neighborhood characteristics. More importantly, collective efficacy at the neighborhood level is related positively to residents' willingness to work with the police. Constant attention should be paid to the promotion of a collaborative and collectively caring environment, which can contribute to better coordination with the police, and greater willingness to be part of the larger cause of public safety.

Originality/value

The paper advances the scholarship with multi-level modeling and the role of communities in building stronger relationship with the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 December 2020

Erica Ceka and Natalia Ermasova

This study investigates the relationship between police officer's willingness to use Employee Assistance Program (EAP) and their perceptions about stress and help-seeking…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the relationship between police officer's willingness to use Employee Assistance Program (EAP) and their perceptions about stress and help-seeking in policing, considering the effect of gender and ethnicity in this association.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 431 Illinois police officers is used to measure officer's perceptions about help-seeking and organizational stressors. The conditional PROCESS modeling (Hayes, 2012) was employed to analyze the hypothesized mediation model. The ANOVA test was used to determent the effect of gender and ethnicity on organizational stressors in policing.

Findings

Findings suggest police officer's willingness to use EAP is shaped by the perceived negative effect of stress on promotion through the mediator, confidence in their departments to receive adequate assistance, with noticeable gender and ethnic differences. The analysis demonstrated that female police officers feel stressed because of unfair promotional opportunities and poor relationships with supervisors. Female police officers are less willing to apply for the EAP services to mitigate stress than male police officers. The findings reveal that ethnicity is a significant predictor of the police officers' willingness to apply for EAP services to mitigate stress.

Research limitations/implications

The current study is limited by its focus on only one police department located in the Illinois, USA. This may limit the generalizability of the results. The cross-sectional nature of data used to draw conclusions and variation in departments' characteristics and compositions could influence results.

Practical implications

The research has practical implications for those who are interested to understand organizational stressors and perceptions on help-seeking in policing. This study provides suggestions for police administrators to make effort in creating more sensitive working environment to reduce stressors for female police officers and representatives of ethnic groups.

Originality/value

The research unveils the significance of officer's confidence in their departments in modifying their willingness to use EAP, revealing the effect of organizational stressors on confidence. The study adds empirical evidence to existing research on impact of gender and ethnicity on their willingness to use EAP.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Kristina Murphy, Natasha S. Madon and Adrian Cherney

Procedural justice is important for fostering peoples’ willingness to cooperate with police. Theorizing suggests this relationship results because procedural justice…

Abstract

Purpose

Procedural justice is important for fostering peoples’ willingness to cooperate with police. Theorizing suggests this relationship results because procedural justice enhances perceptions that the police are legitimate and entitled to be supported. The purpose of this paper is to examine how legitimacy perceptions moderate the effect of procedural justice policing on Muslims’ willingness to cooperate with police.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 800 Muslims in Australia are used.

Findings

This study shows Muslims’ procedural justice perceptions are positively associated with two types of cooperation: willingness to cooperate with police in general crime control efforts; and willingness to report terror threats to police. Muslims’ perceptions of police legitimacy and law legitimacy also influence willingness to cooperate. Specifically, police legitimacy is more important for predicting general willingness to cooperate with police, while law legitimacy is more important for predicting Muslims’ willingness to report terror threats. Importantly, legitimacy perceptions moderate the relationship between procedural justice and both types of cooperation. Specifically, procedural justice promotes cooperation more strongly for those who question the legitimacy of police or the legitimacy of counter-terrorism laws, but the moderation effects differ across the two cooperation contexts. The findings have implications for procedural justice scholarship and for counter-terrorism policing.

Originality/value

The current paper examines an under-explored aspect of legitimacy; it examines police legitimacy perceptions, but also examines how people view the legitimacy of laws police enforce (i.e. law legitimacy). It is argued that perceptions about law legitimacy can also impact people’s willingness to cooperate with police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2020

Kang Hu, Rong Hu, Ivan Sun and Yuning Wu

Public cooperation with the police is of great significance in the maintenance of social security and social harmony, but studies investigating the mechanisms of public…

Abstract

Purpose

Public cooperation with the police is of great significance in the maintenance of social security and social harmony, but studies investigating the mechanisms of public cooperation with the police in China are scarce. Using survey data obtained from Xiamen, China, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of social capital on willingness to cooperate with the police and their mediating mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

Data with 938 respondents were used in this study. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to test the influence of social capital on the willingness of the Chinese public to cooperate with the police and its mediating mechanisms.

Findings

The results show that associational life participation, social trust and neighborhood cohesion can all enhance public willingness to cooperate with the police by cultivating public spirit or trust in government, whereas participation in community collective resistance is negatively correlated with willingness to cooperate with the police. Theoretical explanations are offered to understand different effects of social capital elements on public cooperation with the police, and possible ways to foster such cooperation are discussed.

Originality/value

This paper takes the lead in examining the effects of social capital on willingness to cooperate with the police and their mediating mechanisms in China.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Hyeyoung Lim and John J. Sloan

The purpose of this paper is to partially replicate and extend the work of Klockars et al. and others on police integrity by examining how individual, organizational, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to partially replicate and extend the work of Klockars et al. and others on police integrity by examining how individual, organizational, and ecological factors affect police supervisors’ perceptions of police misconduct and willingness to report fellow officers’ misconduct.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys containing 17 scenarios developed by Klockars et al. (2000, 2004, 2006) were administered to 553 ranking officers attending training at the Bill Blackwood Law Enforcement Management Institute of Texas from June 1, 2009 to March 1, 2010 and employed by municipal police departments, county sheriff’s departments, and constable agencies.

Findings

Results suggest that individual and organizational factors affect supervisor willingness to blow the whistle on underling misconduct, although their effects varied by seriousness of the behavior.

Originality/value

The current project partially replicates and extends prior studies of factors affecting police integrity by surveying supervisors, measuring their willingness to whistle blow, and including variables in statistical models that prior studies have not included.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

Andrew Kakabadse and Paul Dainty

The personalities, style and job demands of top ranking police officers have never before been seriously analysed. Here, by using a management development survey, key…

Abstract

The personalities, style and job demands of top ranking police officers have never before been seriously analysed. Here, by using a management development survey, key personality characteristics and the management and interpersonal styles of top ranking officers are identified. The views of chief officers are discussed, together with an examination of the necessary qualities required. Ways in which senior officers can improve their performance through management training and development and how this can assist their professional growth and development, are emphasised.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Branko Lobnikar, Kaja Prislan, Barbara Čuvan and Gorazd Meško

For some time now, research conducted in the field of human behavior and criminology has pertained to the contemporary question as to whether there are any relevant…

Abstract

Purpose

For some time now, research conducted in the field of human behavior and criminology has pertained to the contemporary question as to whether there are any relevant differences between the genders regarding their integrity and opinions held and, if so, which of these lead to different behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there are any gender differences in willingness to report police misconduct and if so, what is the nature of these differences.

Design/methodology/approach

In spring 2011, the study was conducted on a representative sample of 408 frontline Slovenian police officers (87.3 percent were male and 12.7 percent were female). The assessment of the code of silence was conducted using the method developed by Klockars and Kutnjak Ivković (2004), and consisted of 14 hypothetical scenarios describing a range of various forms of police misconduct, from those that merely give the appearance of a conflict of interest, to incidents of bribery and theft. One of the questions explored in relation to the police code of silence was the police officer’s willingness to report misconduct.

Findings

Authors discovered significant differences in 11 of the 14 analyzed cases on the willingness to report police misconduct. Interestingly, female police officers were less willing than their male colleagues to report different forms of police misconduct. Female police officers are less willing to report police corruption in seven cases e.g. shooting runaway suspect, supervisor abusing his/her power, excessive force – punching a suspect, falsification of evidence, supervisor not prevent beating a suspect, police officer take bribes, and doing nothing when juveniles paint graffiti. The results were further analyzed from the group dynamic in Slovenian police point of view. The survey findings could be useful for police chiefs, leaders, and managers who want to achieve the main objective of every modern police organization: to prevent corruption and increase social responsibility.

Originality/value

The study analyzes, comprehensively and originally, whether the female police officers differ from their male colleagues in the level of police integrity and willingness to report the cases of police corruption and/or other forms of police misbehavior.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Igor Areh, Bojan Dobovšek and Peter Umek

The purpose of this paper is to see how citizens' opinions of police work were investigated with the aim of monitoring and evaluating the quality of police procedures…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to see how citizens' opinions of police work were investigated with the aim of monitoring and evaluating the quality of police procedures conducted in traffic stop encounters and traffic accidents.

Design/methodology/approach

Characteristics of traffic stop encounters were analyzed with data obtained with structured questionnaires gathered from 319 citizens who were stopped for exceeding the speed limit. In the second study, police procedures in traffic accidents were analyzed with data obtained from 285 participants. The methods of descriptive statistics and nonparametric test Chi‐square were used.

Findings

The findings show that police procedures were performed well but not perfectly. In traffic stop encounters, citizens think that officers were polite, fair and understandable, but that they failed to help drivers return to the flow of traffic and also did not inform people of their rights. In the case of traffic accidents, citizens were satisfied with the officers' tidiness and willingness to help. Several faults were found: citizens' satisfaction was lower with the officers' response time, officers frequently fail to inform drivers of their rights and female respondents believed their opinions were not given enough consideration.

Research limitations/implications

The interpretation of the results is limited by a sample anomaly (the poor response of males).

Practical implications

The results show what needs to be changed or improved in future training of police officers.

Originality/value

The paper should be interpreted as a monitoring instrument that gives insight into feasible quality changes of police work, which should help to improve citizens' opinions about the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Dennis P. Rosenbaum

Abstract

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Dennis P. Rosenbaum, Jon Maskaly, Daniel S. Lawrence, Justin H. Escamilla, Georgina Enciso, Thomas E. Christoff and Chad Posick

There is widespread interest in moving beyond crime statistics to measure police performance in new ways, especially the quality of police-community interactions that…

Abstract

Purpose

There is widespread interest in moving beyond crime statistics to measure police performance in new ways, especially the quality of police-community interactions that influence police legitimacy and public trust. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Police-Community Interaction Survey (PCIS) developed by the National Police Research Platform.

Design/methodology/approach

The PCIS collected data from 53 police agencies around the USA in 2013-2014. The psychometric properties of the constructs measured are presented. This study also offers a preliminary test of the effects of an alternatively specified and expanded procedural justice model on willingness to cooperate with the police, mediated through perceptions of officer trustworthiness.

Findings

Scales were developed with good reliability and validity that measure various aspects of the police-community interactions. The authors find evidence that empathy is an important addition to the procedural justice model, and that the effects of procedural justice on willingness to cooperate with the police are partially mediated through perceptions of officer trustworthiness.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to validate the measurement of police-community interactions on a large scale in the USA with policy implications at the local and national levels. The findings can help local police agencies incorporate new performance metrics at the individual, group, and agency levels. Nationally, the science of policing can be advanced by specifying the antecedents and consequences of respectful and empathic actions, including behavior that strengthens police-community relations.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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