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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Guangzhen Wu, David A. Makin, Yongtao Li, Francis D. Boateng and Gassan Abess

The purpose of this paper is to examine the contours of police integrity among Chinese police officers. Specifically, this study explores how Chinese police evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the contours of police integrity among Chinese police officers. Specifically, this study explores how Chinese police evaluate integrity based on official policy governing interactions, discipline governing infractions, views of seriousness, and willingness to inform when others engage in misconduct.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 353 police officers were surveyed representing those attending in-service training program at a Chinese police university in May 2015. Questionnaires containing 11 scenarios describing police misbehaviors were distributed to officers during classes.

Findings

There was a strong correlation between officers’ perceptions of rule-violation, misconduct seriousness, discipline, and willingness to report. Additionally, preliminary results suggest there exists a code of silence among Chinese officers, and that Chinese officers hold a lenient attitude toward the use of excessive force.

Research limitations/implications

This study utilizes a convenient sample, which restricts the generalizability of the results.

Practical implications

The results indicate the existence of code of silence among Chinese officers and their lenient attitude toward the use of excessive force.

Originality/value

Although there has been a growing body of research examining police integrity in both western democracies and transitional societies, China as the largest developing nation in the world and with a unique police system (falls somewhere between the centralized model and the integrated model) is understudied. This study addresses this gap in previous literature by exploring the contours of police integrity among Chinese police officers.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Doris C. Chu and Linda S.J. Hung

The purpose of this paper is to examine different aspects of Chinese immigrants' perceptions in San Francisco.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine different aspects of Chinese immigrants' perceptions in San Francisco.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data gathered from 198 Chinese immigrants were utilized to assess respondents' evaluations of the local police.

Findings

It was found that Chinese immigrants' satisfaction with police contact and perceptions imported from countries of origin were significantly associated with ratings of the police in the city. In addition, length of residence in the USA was inversely associated with evaluations of the police.

Research limitations/implications

The sampling method adopted in this study, not a probability procedure, to some extent may possibly reflect the perceptions of Chinese immigrants who were in need of cultural support and services from various social and community organizations in San Francisco. It should be noted from the descriptive statistics that the average education level for this sample is comparatively lower than it is for the overall Asian population in the USA. Also, only 11 percent of the respondents were under 24 years old. It is acknowledged that this sample may under‐represent the constituency of younger people or more established immigrants who do not need as much ethnic support or various types of services.

Originality/value

There is no other empirical research that specifically examines the Chinese community's perceptions of the police in San Francisco. The findings thus provide police administration a clear strategy to improve Chinese immigrants' perceptions of the police. Training in cultural sensitivity and communication skills, as well as professional attitudes of enforcement, may improve immigrants' satisfaction with the police during the contact, which can enhance Chinese immigrants' perceptions of the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Ivan Y. Sun, Michael A. Cretacci, Yuning Wu and Cheng Jin

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese police cadets' attitudes toward police roles and their work.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese police cadets' attitudes toward police roles and their work.

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey data collected from 182 cadets in a Chinese police college, this paper assesses the influences of cadets' characteristics and training on their attitudes toward law enforcement, order maintenance, preventive patrol, and community building.

Findings

Cadets without family members or relatives serving as police officers and with stronger physical capability are more likely to support the law enforcement role, while cadets with greater physical capability are less likely to favor order maintenance. Younger cadets and those without a Bachelor's degree are more likely to view preventive patrol as an important goal for the police. Cadets with stronger attitudes toward law enforcement are more likely to regard community building as an important police goal.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should continue to explore factors that influence officers' occupational attitudes and incorporate more attitudinal dimensions into the analysis. Future projects should also target local station officers from different departments.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the first attempts to empirically assess Chinese police cadets' work‐related attitudes. Findings of the study provide Chinese police administrators with useful references and directions to improve police training and enhance police‐community relations.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Yuning Wu and Ivan Y. Sun

This study aims to examine Chinese college students' perceptions of police.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine Chinese college students' perceptions of police.

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey data collected from over 400 college students in two cities, the study empirically analyzes the global and specific perceptions of police among Chinese college students and factors that accounted for the variation in Chinese college students' evaluations of police. The study incorporates a broader range of explanatory variables to explain Chinese college students' attitudes toward the police, including demographic characteristics, crime and criminal justice experience, perceptions of quality of life, and locality. The study reviews research on public perceptions of police published in Chinese academic journals.

Findings

College students' global satisfaction with police as well as their specific evaluations of police fairness, effectiveness, and integrity were significantly related to their crime and criminal justice experience, perceived quality of life, and locality. Students' background characteristics only had a weak effect on attitudes toward police.

Research limitations/implications

More empirical research is warranted to gauge the extent of Chinese satisfaction with police and police performance. Future research should continue incorporating crime and criminal justice factors into analysis.

Practical implications

Findings of the study provide Chinese police administrators with useful references and directions to improve police‐community relations..

Originality/value

This study represents one of the few attempts to empirically assess Chinese citizens' perceptions of police. It examines not just Chinese college students' global satisfaction with the police, but also their more specific views of various areas of police performance including fairness, effectiveness, and integrity.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Yuning Wu, Ruth Triplett and Ivan Y. Sun

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese immigrants’ contact with local police, uncovering the extent, nature, distribution, and consequences of police contact…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese immigrants’ contact with local police, uncovering the extent, nature, distribution, and consequences of police contact. Although literature on immigrants’ perceptions of the police has been accumulating during the past few years, research on immigrants’ encounters with the police remains extremely limited.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on survey data collected from approximately 350 foreign‐born Chinese immigrants residing in New York City, Philadelphia, and Delaware. Non‐probability (both purposive and convenience) sampling methods are used.

Findings

Chinese immigrants report a higher rate of police contact than the general public, with the most frequent contact occurring through traffic law violations or accidents. Immigrants who are male, older, and recent arrivals to the USA, and have vicarious experience with the police are more likely to have police contact, particularly officer‐initiated contact. The mere occurrence of contact does not affect Chinese immigrants’ global satisfaction with the police. There is, however, a significant positive link between satisfaction with recent contact and global satisfaction.

Originality/value

The paper's findings improve our understanding of police‐community relations regarding Asian Americans and also contribute to the broad literature on race/ethnicity and policing by incorporating both immigration status and ecological context into analysis.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Doris C. Chu and John Huey‐Long Song

The purpose of this paper is to assess empirically Chinese immigrants' perceptions of the police in Toronto, Canada.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess empirically Chinese immigrants' perceptions of the police in Toronto, Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were analyzed based on 293 surveys conducted with Chinese immigrants who participated in various community service organizations in Toronto, Canada, between March and May 2005. Ordinary least squares and ordered logit regressions are used for the analysis.

Findings

The paper shows that individuals who had previous contact with police rated police less favorably than those who had not had contact with police in the past. In general, people who rated police as helpful when they called them for assistance expressed a higher degree of respect for police. In addition, poor communication was a significant predictor of Chinese immigrants' perception of police prejudice. Finally, a majority of respondents expressed the concern that more bilingual police were needed in the city.

Research limitations/implications

As with any study utilizing a non‐probability sample, care must be taken to avoid generalizing the findings to all Chinese immigrants in Toronto. Since the sample was taken from participants of various community service organizations in Toronto, the findings may not be appropriate to generalize to the other constituencies in the Chinese community, such as young people.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the need for improving the quality of police services, recruiting more bilingual officers (or officers from their communities), strengthening police training in racial and cultural diversity, and reducing communication barriers to improve Chinese immigrants' evaluations of the police.

Originality/value

This research is the first to specifically examine Chinese communities' perceptions of law enforcement in Canada. Law enforcement can utilize these findings to improve their services and address the Chinese community's concerns; not only can this promote the police‐citizens relationship, but it can also encourage the Chinese community's participation in a crime reduction partnership.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Ziqiang Han, Ivan Y. Sun and Rong Hu

The purpose of this paper is to assess the influences of social trust and neighborhood cohesion on public trust in the police in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the influences of social trust and neighborhood cohesion on public trust in the police in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used survey data collected from roughly 5,600 respondents by the 2012 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS). Multivariate regression was employed to analyze the effects of two forms of social trust, generalized trust and particularized trust, and three types of neighborhood cohesion, neighbor solidary, support and interaction, on public trust in the Chinese police, controlling for personal background characteristics.

Findings

Both generalized trust and particularized trust exerted a significant positive effect on trust in the Chinese police. Greater neighborhood cohesion also enhanced public trust in the police. Elderly, women, less educated and people with rural hukou and higher perceived social class were more likely to trust the police.

Research limitations/implications

The CGSS data contained only a single item that could be used to measure public trust in the police. Future studies should consider using multiple survey items to reflect Chinese people’s trust from different conceptual dimensions, such as procedural- and outcome-based trust and police legitimacy. The CGSS data also did not contain information on some relevant predictors, such as victimization and fear of crime, personal and vicarious contact experiences with the police, and news and social media usage and exposure. Future studies, if possible, should incorporate these theoretically relevant and empirically proven variables into the analysis.

Practical implications

Improving neighborhood cohesion is a clear path to cultivate stronger public trust in the police. Policy-makers and officials must bring the neighborhood-centered approach back to local governance by working closely with police leaders and other private and parochial social institutions to launch programs that can effectively stabilize and strengthen local communities and actively promoting positive interactions and social bonds among residents. Policies and programs aimed at enhancing public trust in the police should target at younger, better educated and urban Chinese who are more likely to be critical of the police.

Originality/value

Despite their high relevance, social trust and neighborhood cohesion have received only limited attention in past research on Chinese attitudes toward the police. This study represents one of the first attempts to examine different forms of social trust and neighborhood cohesion on public trust in the police in China.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Yuning Wu, Kai Lin, Luye Li and Xiying Wang

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese police officers’ general support for police intervention into domestic violence, emphasizing adequate protection of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese police officers’ general support for police intervention into domestic violence, emphasizing adequate protection of the victims, and specific support for utilizing arrests to deal with the offenders.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on survey data collected from 1,064 police officers who worked in multiple areas in two provinces of China between June and July of 2019. OLS models were used to test whether organizational variables are significant predictors of officer attitudes toward domestic violence intervention.

Findings

Both agency endorsement and supervisory support are positively related to officers’ favorable attitudes toward police intervention into domestic violence and using arrests to handle offenders. The amount of training received from the agency on the recently promulgated Anti-Domestic Violence Law, however, has a negative influence on officer support for general intervention into domestic violence and no influence on officer attitudes toward arrests.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the first attempts to investigate the connections between organizational and managerial factors and Chinese officers’ support for both general and specific interventions into domestic violence. It contributes to the current literature that only included police cadets in the analysis of Chinese police attitudes toward domestic violence despite the fundamental differences between cadets and active-duty officers.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Shanhe Jiang, Ivan Y. Sun and Jin Wang

The purpose of this paper is to examine citizens’ satisfaction with police in Guangzhou, China and is aimed at answering two research questions: what is the general…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine citizens’ satisfaction with police in Guangzhou, China and is aimed at answering two research questions: what is the general pattern of Guangzhou citizens’ satisfaction with police; and what variables are salient in predicting satisfaction with police?

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a random sample of approximately 1,200 residents nested in 30 neighborhoods in Guangzhou, China. Hierarchical linear modeling was used for the data analysis.

Findings

First, the majority of residents in Guangzhou held generally positive attitudes toward the police. Second, demographic characteristics were weakly related to satisfaction with police. Third, perception of police legitimacy was associated with evaluations of police performance. Finally, perceived neighborhood crime problems led to lower levels of satisfaction with police.

Research limitations/implications

This research used cross‐sectional data. Thus, the relationships between independent and dependent variables examined in this study are functional but not necessarily causal.

Practical implications

Police in Guangzhou should seek ways to improve their relationship with never married residents and mitigate citizens’ negative perceptions of neighborhood crime problem through various community policing programs, such as holding routine meetings with residents to discuss crime and disorder situations in the neighborhoods. Police in Guangzhou should also continue to inform local residents about the legal right of police to issue commands and increase levels of perceptions of police legitimacy and willingness to follow police instructions.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to examine the correlates of satisfaction with Chinese police at the individual and neighborhood levels simultaneously. Using a random survey of citizens, along with methodological improvement in measurement and modeling, this paper provides readers with more accurate and representative information about public evaluations of Chinese police than previous studies.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

George Chak man Lee

There is no comparative research into the Chinese (PSB) police and the Indian police generally and none on police corruption in particular. This paper aims to show what…

Abstract

Purpose

There is no comparative research into the Chinese (PSB) police and the Indian police generally and none on police corruption in particular. This paper aims to show what police corruption and malpractices look like in China and India and offer up some suggestions as to why wide spread malpractices persists.

Design/methodology/approach

Horses’ mouth qualitative research is supported by primary public and police survey data.

Findings

There are many similarities in corruption “tricks of the trade” in both the countries, as well as in the reasons for its persistence. However, petty police corruption is more pervasive and less subtle in India. But both the forces suffer from politicization of policing, criminalization of politics, culture of tolerance towards substantive justice over procedural justice and master/servant attitude towards the public. In China, the police have administrative powers beyond criminal legislation, and Indian corruption is underscored by the culture of “Jugaad”.

Research limitations/implications

This is largely a qualitative research, so the usual arguments regarding limitations on its generalization applies. However, the insights in this article may provide some understanding of this under-researched topic and may stimulate further research in this field. It may also offer pointers to potential solutions for practitioners and policymakers.

Practical implications

By providing data on what corruption looks like and why it persists, policymakers can use the findings of this study to develop measures to address them. In so doing they would create a police service in India and China that is less prone to corruption and misconduct, thereby increasing public trust in these institutions.

Social implications

Peace and security is a prerequisite condition for economic and social modernization through the rule of law. Reform of the police is a critical success factor in this process. Therefore, by reforming the police, India and China stand a better chance of eradicating poverty and reducing inequality.

Originality/value

There is little in the way of research into the Chinese Police and none into Chinese police corruption. There is also no comparative study of the Chinese and Indian police generally and none on police corruption in particular.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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