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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Christina S. Hagen, Leila Bighash, Andrea B. Hollingshead, Sonia Jawaid Shaikh and Kristen S. Alexander

Organizations and their actors are increasingly using video surveillance to monitor organizational members, employees, clients, and customers. The use of such technologies

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Abstract

Purpose

Organizations and their actors are increasingly using video surveillance to monitor organizational members, employees, clients, and customers. The use of such technologies in workplaces creates a virtual panopticon and increases uncertainty for those under surveillance. Video surveillance in organizations poses several concerns for the privacy of individuals and creates a security-privacy dilemma for organizations to address. The purpose of this paper is to offer a decision-making model that ties in ethical considerations of access, equality, and transparency at four stages of video surveillance use in organizations: deployment of cameras and equipment, capturing footage, processing and storing data, and editing and sharing video footage. At each stage, organizational actors should clearly identify the purpose for video surveillance, adopt a minimum capability necessary to achieve their goals, and communicate decisions made and actions taken that involve video surveillance in order to reduce uncertainty and address privacy concerns of those being surveilled.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes a normative model for ethical video surveillance organizational decision making based on a review of relevant literature and recent events.

Findings

The paper provides several implications for the future of dealing with security-privacy dilemmas in organizations and offers structured considerations for corporation leaders and decision makers.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for organizations to approach video surveillance with ethical considerations for stakeholder privacy while balancing security demands.

Originality/value

This paper offers a framework for decision-makers that also offers opportunities for further research around the concept of ethics in organizational video surveillance.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Sebastian Weydner-Volkmann and Linus Feiten

The purpose of this paper is to defend the notion of “trust in technology” against the philosophical view that this concept is misled and unsuitable for ethical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to defend the notion of “trust in technology” against the philosophical view that this concept is misled and unsuitable for ethical evaluation. In contrast, it is shown that “trustworthy technology” addresses a critical societal need in the digital age as it is inclusive of IT-security risks not only from a technical but also from a public layperson perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

From an interdisciplinary perspective between philosophy andIT-security, the authors discuss a potential instantiation of a “trustworthy information and communication technology (ICT)”: a solution for privacy respecting video surveillance. Here, strong data protection measures address grave concerns such as the threat of bulk biometric tracking of citizens. In a logical argument, however, the authors show that this technical notion of “trust” needs to be complemented by interlocking trust relations to justify public trust.

Findings

Based on this argument, the authors demonstrate that the philosophical position considering “trust in technology” to denote either “reliability” or “interpersonal trust” is too limited as it fails to address critical aspects of IT-security. In a broader, socio-technical sense, however, it is shown that several distinct accounts of trust – technical, interpersonal and institutional – should meaningfully interlock, to address concerns with ICTs.

Originality/value

This conceptual study demonstrates the potential of “trust in technology” for a more comprehensive evaluation of ICTs within the context of operation. Furthermore, it adds to the discussion of trust in IT-security by highlighting the layperson’s challenge of judging a technology’s trustworthiness. Vice versa, it contributes to Ethics of Technology by highlighting crucial IT-security needs.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2020

Parul Gupta and Madhusudhan Margam

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential and adoption of closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance-based security system (hereafter “CCTV”) for enhancing…

378

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential and adoption of closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance-based security system (hereafter “CCTV”) for enhancing the security of library materials in academic libraries of universities (central, state, deemed and private) and prestigious institutions such as Indian Institutes of Technology and Indian Institutes of Management in a developing country, i.e. India. The study also overviewed the CCTV policies of the studied libraries of universities/institutions as they relate to the ethical aspects of the surveillance system.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured questionnaire was designed and distributed among librarians of 24 academic libraries covering each zone of India in October 2019 in both physical and online manner. All 24 filled-in questionnaires were collected personally and online by the investigator were found valid eliciting a response rate of 100%. All the 24 filled-in questionnaires were included in the analysis of the interpretation of data. The response to 18 questions was analyzed in the form of tables and figures using descriptive statistical methods.

Findings

The study reveals that librarians’ found CCTV useful for security by controlling theft, unethical losses and missing items. It also helped to curb mutilation and vandalism, procurement of the rare material via the latest camera devices and night vision capturing, besides improving the service efficiency of the patron, as well as staff. The quantitative study surveyed security professionals to assess how each university/institution developed, deployed and integrated CCTV policies related to securing video data, safeguarding privacy and prevention of the potential for the unethical use of surveillance cameras. The analysis of the survey responses determined that more than 50% of the universities/institutions participating had a written CCTV policy. Further, library professionals find that the future of libraries lies in a CCTV system, so the cost should be brought down to improve return on investment by the mass adoption of this technology in a developing country such as India.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study showed that the potential uses of CCTV in Indian libraries are slow compared to that of the libraries of developed countries and some of the developing countries. Many of the CCTV policies that universities/institutions did have failed to include mandated training of personnel or provisions ensuring that their policies remained up-to-date. It is suggested that universities and institutions understudy should realize the benefits of CCTV systems and incorporate-related updated tools in the security and multi-purpose uses in the libraries to enhance the services for the users and security for the materials or collections.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for libraries and their professionals to approach CCTV systems with ethical considerations for procurement of library collections, which help to detect mutilation/theft, observe the misbehavior of users, as well as staff and deployment, should not be decided merely while balancing security demands.

Social implications

The study is significant because it represents one of the earliest works to shed light on the current level of the use of CCTV system by librarians of studied libraries of universities/institutes in developing country such as India and how they are providing CCTV-based security and services, which are currently in its primitive nature. The study also suggested that select libraries are required to weigh up and balance many competing desires, demands and objectives.

Originality/value

This paper provides a concise overview of the various applications/area and uses of CCTV system including its procedures during implementation, merits and demerits while using the system described above in libraries and recommends this technology to other libraries for faster and better services for their users and security to their library materials in today’s technological advancement. It provides a set of issues that should be considered before system adoption or deployment.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 70 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Nehemia Sugianto, Dian Tjondronegoro, Rosemary Stockdale and Elizabeth Irenne Yuwono

The paper proposes a privacy-preserving artificial intelligence-enabled video surveillance technology to monitor social distancing in public spaces.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper proposes a privacy-preserving artificial intelligence-enabled video surveillance technology to monitor social distancing in public spaces.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes a new Responsible Artificial Intelligence Implementation Framework to guide the proposed solution's design and development. It defines responsible artificial intelligence criteria that the solution needs to meet and provides checklists to enforce the criteria throughout the process. To preserve data privacy, the proposed system incorporates a federated learning approach to allow computation performed on edge devices to limit sensitive and identifiable data movement and eliminate the dependency of cloud computing at a central server.

Findings

The proposed system is evaluated through a case study of monitoring social distancing at an airport. The results discuss how the system can fully address the case study's requirements in terms of its reliability, its usefulness when deployed to the airport's cameras, and its compliance with responsible artificial intelligence.

Originality/value

The paper makes three contributions. First, it proposes a real-time social distancing breach detection system on edge that extends from a combination of cutting-edge people detection and tracking algorithms to achieve robust performance. Second, it proposes a design approach to develop responsible artificial intelligence in video surveillance contexts. Third, it presents results and discussion from a comprehensive evaluation in the context of a case study at an airport to demonstrate the proposed system's robust performance and practical usefulness.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2004

Philip Brey

This essay examines ethical aspects of the use of facial recognition technology for surveillance purposes in public and semipublic areas, focusing particularly on the…

4604

Abstract

This essay examines ethical aspects of the use of facial recognition technology for surveillance purposes in public and semipublic areas, focusing particularly on the balance between security and privacy and civil liberties. As a case study, the FaceIt facial recognition engine of Identix Corporation will be analyzed, as well as its use in “Smart” video surveillance (CCTV) systems in city centers and airports. The ethical analysis will be based on a careful analysis of current facial recognition technology, of its use in Smart CCTV systems, and of the arguments used by proponents and opponents of such systems. It will be argued that Smart CCTV, which integrates video surveillance technology and biometric technology, faces ethical problems of error, function creep and privacy. In a concluding section on policy, it will be discussed whether such problems outweigh the security value of Smart CCTV in public places.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Kuotsai Tom Liou

The purpose of this paper is to examine critical issues and challenges that are related to the application of technology to improve the management of police organizations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine critical issues and challenges that are related to the application of technology to improve the management of police organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the study reviews the background of the police service model, the development of police-related technology and the relationship between these technologies and police performance measures. Based on the analysis of managerial concepts, the study provides discussions about risks of technology and human factors, resource limitation, professional attitude and culture, privacy concerns, citizen video and social media, and public trust.

Findings

The study concludes with suggestions to examine police technology application from a broad perspective to address not only technology operational issues but also related organization, management, community and policy concerns.

Originality/value

Findings of this study contribute to the understanding of technology application, contribution and limitation in public management.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2018

Xiaoli Yan and Young-Chan Kim

The purpose of this paper is to timely control of a construction collapse accident effectively during its development process by constructing a stage model and then…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to timely control of a construction collapse accident effectively during its development process by constructing a stage model and then aligning IT with each stage to help provide the information for decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

Through comprehensive literature review, this paper first identifies the various IT applications in on-site construction monitoring and analyzes the existed disaster/crisis stage models, also the stage models are compared with the causation models to illustrate the strengths. Then, a three-step methodology was conducted to develop and apply the conceptual framework, including the construction of the four-stage model; the establishment of the conceptual framework of information technology (IT) support for management of construction accidents (ITSMCA); and a building collapse accident used to illustrate the proposed framework.

Findings

The accident is divided into four stages, which are incubation stage, outbreak stage, spreading stage and final stage. The real-time staged information to support decision making, such as the contributing factors of on-site workers, materials, equipment and workplace, can be provided by emerging IT. Therefore, IT is aligned with the variations of contributing factors’ attributes in the four stages and ITSMCA is constructed to help accidents management.

Research limitations/implications

The focus of the framework presented in this paper is that the stage model is effective for it catches the variations of the attributes whose values can be provided by IT rather than research on the practical application of the IT system. The construction and application of the IT system will be the research focus in the future.

Originality/value

This paper presents a stage model of a building collapse accident and gives a comprehensive conceptual framework of ITSMCA, which align the IT with different stages of the collapse accident. The ITSMCA proposes a feasible ideology and practical method for real-time management of the collapse accident during the process.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Alfred Ogle and David Lamb

Purpose: An examination of the uptake and application of Robotic, Artificial Intelligence and Service Automation (RAISA) technologies by the events industry.…

Abstract

Purpose: An examination of the uptake and application of Robotic, Artificial Intelligence and Service Automation (RAISA) technologies by the events industry.

Design/methodology/approach: Academic and practitioner literature review and analysis pertaining to the relevance of RAISA in events.

Findings: The events industry has tended to rely on automation in staging and event production and the application of RAISA in events has been limited but holds great potential for the future. Whereas, in the hospitality and tourism industries RAISA has been applied across a range of service functions. For example, in such industries, artificial intelligence, machine learning and service robotics technologies have become commonplace. Nonetheless, the same level of adoption of RAISA in events is less evident particularly in front-of-house operation, due largely to the incompatibility with the raison d'être of event attendance – the purposive congregation of people seeking an event experience.

Research limitations/implications: The findings are the views of the authors and are therefore reliant upon existing events management literature on RAISA and their interpretation of this information and its application to the events industry.

Practical implications: RAISA has the capacity to play a crucial technical function in the events industry. However, it needs to be acknowledged that an event is essentially an experiential product which is simultaneously delivered and consumed in a particular setting/venue. RAISA applications and techniques avail event management immense sustainability and growth potential.

Social implications: Events are expressions of human social interactions and activities. Given the recent trend in sports media consumption as a substitute for live event attendance compounded by barriers to event attendance such as heightened terrorism threat and high expense/cost, there is a real risk of degradation of the social significance of the events industry. The prudent uptake of RAISA has the potential to emolliate the barriers to attendance while facilitating effective marketing and industry sustainability.

Originality/value: This chapter provides a new perspective in focusing on the potential applicability of RAISA in event management practice.

Details

Robots, Artificial Intelligence, and Service Automation in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-688-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Jinchao Huang

Multi-domain convolutional neural network (MDCNN) model has been widely used in object recognition and tracking in the field of computer vision. However, if the objects to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Multi-domain convolutional neural network (MDCNN) model has been widely used in object recognition and tracking in the field of computer vision. However, if the objects to be tracked move rapid or the appearances of moving objects vary dramatically, the conventional MDCNN model will suffer from the model drift problem. To solve such problem in tracking rapid objects under limiting environment for MDCNN model, this paper proposed an auto-attentional mechanism-based MDCNN (AA-MDCNN) model for the rapid moving and changing objects tracking under limiting environment.

Design/methodology/approach

First, to distinguish the foreground object between background and other similar objects, the auto-attentional mechanism is used to selectively aggregate the weighted summation of all feature maps to make the similar features related to each other. Then, the bidirectional gated recurrent unit (Bi-GRU) architecture is used to integrate all the feature maps to selectively emphasize the importance of the correlated feature maps. Finally, the final feature map is obtained by fusion the above two feature maps for object tracking. In addition, a composite loss function is constructed to solve the similar but different attribute sequences tracking using conventional MDCNN model.

Findings

In order to validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed AA-MDCNN model, this paper used ImageNet-Vid dataset to train the object tracking model, and the OTB-50 dataset is used to validate the AA-MDCNN tracking model. Experimental results have shown that the augmentation of auto-attentional mechanism will improve the accuracy rate 2.75% and success rate 2.41%, respectively. In addition, the authors also selected six complex tracking scenarios in OTB-50 dataset; over eleven attributes have been validated that the proposed AA-MDCNN model outperformed than the comparative models over nine attributes. In addition, except for the scenario of multi-objects moving with each other, the proposed AA-MDCNN model solved the majority rapid moving objects tracking scenarios and outperformed than the comparative models on such complex scenarios.

Originality/value

This paper introduced the auto-attentional mechanism into MDCNN model and adopted Bi-GRU architecture to extract key features. By using the proposed AA-MDCNN model, rapid object tracking under complex background, motion blur and occlusion objects has better effect, and such model is expected to be further applied to the rapid object tracking in the real world.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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