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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2004

John B Kirkwood

This is the first paper in a volume devoted exclusively to antitrust law and economics. It summarizes the other papers and addresses two issues. First, after showing that the…

Abstract

This is the first paper in a volume devoted exclusively to antitrust law and economics. It summarizes the other papers and addresses two issues. First, after showing that the federal courts generally view consumer welfare as the ultimate goal of antitrust law, it asks what they mean by that term. It concludes that recent decisions appear more likely to equate consumer welfare with the well-being of consumers in the relevant market than with economic efficiency. Second, it asks whether a buyer must possess monopsony power to induce a price discrimination that is not cost justified. It concludes that a buyer can often obtain an unjustified concession simply by wielding bargaining power, but the resulting concession may frequently – though not always – improve consumer welfare.

Details

Antitrust Law and Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-115-6

Article
Publication date: 27 December 2022

Vivian Ta-Johnson, Joel Suss and Brian Lande

Few studies have tested the efficacy of instruction based on cognitive load theory in police use-of-force (UoF) training due to limitations of existing cognitive load measures…

Abstract

Purpose

Few studies have tested the efficacy of instruction based on cognitive load theory in police use-of-force (UoF) training due to limitations of existing cognitive load measures. Although linguistic measures of cognitive load address these limitations, they have yet to be applied to police UoF training. This study aims to discuss the aforementioned issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Officers’ verbal behavioral data from two UoF de-escalation projects were used to calculate cognitive load and assess how it varied with officer experience level (less-experienced, experienced). The verbal data were further analyzed to examine specific thinking patterns that contributed to heightened cognitive load across officer experience levels.

Findings

Across both studies, responses from less-experienced officers contained greater usage of cognitive language than responses from experienced officers. Specific cognitive processes that contribute to cognitive load in specific situations were also identified.

Originality/value

This paper enables police trainers to facilitate the development of adaptive training strategies to improve police UoF training via the reduction of cognitive load, and also contributes to the collective understanding of how less-experienced and experienced officers differ in their UoF decision-making.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

T. Fischer, J. Hähnlein, W. Haas and V. Landes

Legislation in Germany and in many other countries states that electronic devices should be protected against fire. In accordance with this, most electronic and electrical…

Abstract

Legislation in Germany and in many other countries states that electronic devices should be protected against fire. In accordance with this, most electronic and electrical products contain substances which are flame retarding, but have harmful environmental implications. Thus, the protection of the environment makes it necessary to eliminate these harmful substances. The described base material consists of silicone filled with alumina. Silicone is a non‐toxic material. The filler increases the thermal conductivity of the material. As a result of its good thermal properties, the material does not need flame retarding substances, but is still able to satisfy the fire protection requirements. The properties of the material itself and the construction allow the building of an excellent, non‐flame retarded and therefore environmentally friendly 3D‐circuit board.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1981

Now established as the worldwide meeting place for all those engaged in the efficient and economic operation of international and national airports and military airbases, AIRPORT…

Abstract

Now established as the worldwide meeting place for all those engaged in the efficient and economic operation of international and national airports and military airbases, AIRPORT '81 will present the most comprehensive display of products and services to date.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 53 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1964

AT the present time leisure is a subject which does not attract much serious attention. Sporadic discussions break out now and again among small groups; or it provides a topic for…

Abstract

AT the present time leisure is a subject which does not attract much serious attention. Sporadic discussions break out now and again among small groups; or it provides a topic for the popular press during the ‘silly season’. There is, however, a distinct possibility that in the measurable future an Institute of Leisure Study will be needed.

Details

Work Study, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1979

Over 180 exhibiting companies engaged in airport planning and construction, maintenance and equipment will be on display at the 5th International Airport Construction & Equipment…

Abstract

Over 180 exhibiting companies engaged in airport planning and construction, maintenance and equipment will be on display at the 5th International Airport Construction & Equipment Exhibition when it opens on 15 October for four days at the Palais des Expositions, Nice. This will be the largest exhibition in the series with more exhibitors than ever before, occupying a larger area to show a greater diversity of products and services for civil and military airports. National group displays represent the suppliers from France, Italy, Britain, Canada and Finland. The Airport 79 exhibition once again runs concurrently with the Annual Congress of the International Civil Airports Association which, taking ‘Airport Design & Construction’ as the conference theme, will take place within the same exhibition centre.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 51 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Mounir Bensalah, Abdelmajid Elouadi and Hassan Mharzi

The authors will give an overview of the railway market, with a focus on Morocco, before seeing the challenges to face, before listing some benefits of rail links in terms of…

9386

Abstract

Purpose

The authors will give an overview of the railway market, with a focus on Morocco, before seeing the challenges to face, before listing some benefits of rail links in terms of development, ecology, security, space management, etc. The authors will then give an overview of the development of BIM, its benefits, risks and issues. The purpose of this paper is to verify that the BIM can provide the railway with the tools to face some of its challenges and improve its productivity.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is part of our research project on the integration of BIM in railway, which is the result of a partnership between Colas Rail Maroc and the ENSAK of the Ibn Tofail University of Kenitra. The objective of this paper is mainly to confirm that the integration of BIM with the railway, through a theoretical and practical study, can have positive impacts. To do this, our methodology consists in studying briefly the development of the railway, the need to improve the budgets and schedules of the projects, to increase the productivity, before showing the advantages of the BIM in the sector of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC). The study of feedback from railway projects (chosen for their date of completion – beyond 2014, their size, their geographical situation in several countries and for the availability of literature in a new field) will confirm the initial hypotheses. Among the projects studied will be a project that has been the subject of an article written by the authors of this paper. In the discussion of the results, the authors will focus on the benefits, risks and limitations of integrating BIM into the railway. In conclusion, the authors are laying the groundwork for future research in the field.

Findings

The cases study discussed in this paper and previous research confirms the hypotheses of the literature. The integration of BIM into railway projects can have several advantages: collaboration, time saving, cost optimization, prevention of conflicts between networks, construction before construction, optimization of facility management, improvement of the quality of works, prefabrication. They also allowed us to illustrate the risks (status and appropriation of the BIM model, lack of standardization of versions or software and lack of understanding of the basics of schedules and specifications) and limitations (lack of feedback, lack of adaptability and convergence of tools). These experiences have also shown that the use of BIM is not just a technological transition, but a revolution in the project management process, which requires several key success factors (participation of all, commitment, change management and adoption of the collaborative approach). Visualization, collaboration and conflict elimination are the three main chapters where the benefits of BIM can be organized. In fact, there is a lot of intersection between these chapters, but they have been chosen as the main ideas around which all the benefits can be better understood. Visualization primarily addresses the benefits to an individual and improving one’s personal understanding as a result of using BIM. The collaboration refers to the cooperative action of several team members, which is encouraged and facilitated by BIM. Conflict elimination mainly concerns project-related benefits, such as conflict reduction, waste, risks, costs and time. For railway infrastructure projects, the main purpose of using BIM is to improve the design integration process, internal project team communication and collision detection to eliminate risk of rehabilitation.

Research limitations/implications

The application of the BIM process in railway infrastructure requires constant improvement. This concerns the development of libraries and the models available to all users in order to encourage the development of this methodology and, consequently, its use of information throughout the life cycle of an infrastructure work.

Practical implications

The case study of real projects incorporating BIM confirms the results of the literature review. The benefits of integrating BIM into rail projects are multiple and proven: cost control, decision support, avoids extra work due to design errors, improves detection of interface problems, improves planning of vision, help with prefabrication and facility management, etc. Finally, the BIM process is able to overcome delays in procedures slowing the development of the construction industry in many countries, especially in Morocco, because of the slowness of design (or downright bad design).

Social implications

The integration of BIM into rail is becoming a global trend. This integration requires government decisions and a maturation of technology and tools. The authorities of some developed countries studied (Sweden, UK, France, Germany) in the railways, at different stages of implementation, are adopting BIM in the process of setting up new railway projects. This political impulse is still behind in southern countries, such as Morocco. The trend and the data collected indicate an adoption between 2020 and 2030 of BIM in all/some AEC projects in developed countries. This will have an impact on other countries that will soon be doing the same, especially in the railway sector to adopt the BIM.

Originality/value

As part of the realization of this paper, we proceeded to the implementation of an electrical substation as part of the project to build 40 electric traction substations built by Colas Rail on behalf of ONCF.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Abstract

Many jurisdictions fine illegal cartels using penalty guidelines that presume an arbitrary 10% overcharge. This article surveys more than 700 published economic studies and judicial decisions that contain 2,041 quantitative estimates of overcharges of hard-core cartels. The primary findings are: (1) the median average long-run overcharge for all types of cartels over all time periods is 23.0%; (2) the mean average is at least 49%; (3) overcharges reached their zenith in 1891–1945 and have trended downward ever since; (4) 6% of the cartel episodes are zero; (5) median overcharges of international-membership cartels are 38% higher than those of domestic cartels; (6) convicted cartels are on average 19% more effective at raising prices as unpunished cartels; (7) bid-rigging conduct displays 25% lower markups than price-fixing cartels; (8) contemporary cartels targeted by class actions have higher overcharges; and (9) when cartels operate at peak effectiveness, price changes are 60–80% higher than the whole episode. Historical penalty guidelines aimed at optimally deterring cartels are likely to be too low.

Details

The Law and Economics of Class Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-951-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 March 2022

Kjersti Berge Evensen and Vibeke Hervik Bull

Prisoners’ oral health is an often overseen, yet important aspect of the general health of prisoners. To develop effective measures to improve the situation, it is important to…

Abstract

Purpose

Prisoners’ oral health is an often overseen, yet important aspect of the general health of prisoners. To develop effective measures to improve the situation, it is important to get an overview of existing research. The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse existing research on oral health of prisoners and provide a thorough understanding of prisoners’ oral health and related factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to relatively few scientific papers on prisoners’ oral health, an integrative review was chosen. Integrative reviews allow for the inclusion of diverse methodologies. A literature search was conducted, followed by an assessment of the quality of the studies by using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the studies.

Findings

The few studies addressing European prisoners’ oral health in the last 21 years differ in design and methodology. The results from this review indicate that prisoners’ oral health is a complex phenomenon and should be understood from both individual and organisational perspectives. More research is needed to bridge the gap in the literature on prisoners’ oral health.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first literature review on European prisoners’ oral health.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2022

Yunus Emre Topcu

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the global competitiveness of the top ten wooden furniture exporting countries with several approaches and to test the effect of export…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the global competitiveness of the top ten wooden furniture exporting countries with several approaches and to test the effect of export prices (EXPRs) on the global competition.

Design/methodology/approach

Countries' competitiveness levels were measured with revealed comparative advantage (RCA), normalised RCA (NRCA), revealed symmetric comparative advantage (RSCA) and trade balance index. Furthermore, panel regression analysis techniques were used to test the effects of EXPR on RCA, NRCA and RSCA in the wooden furniture industry (WFI).

Findings

Although the comparative advantage approaches give different results, the global competitiveness of Poland and Vietnam is at a high level in all approaches. Canada has been the country with the weakest global competitiveness in all approaches. According to the results of the analysis, EXPRs positively affect all the competitive advantage indexes. As a result, the competitiveness of the WFI is affected by the non-price factors instead of the EXPR.

Research limitations/implications

The framework allows us to measure and illustrate the export competitiveness of the WFI and permits a global comparison. Similar analyses can be made for different labour-intensive sectors. In addition, analysis can be made to identify non-price factors for the WFI sector. Thus, more specific inferences can be made.

Practical implications

This study is useful for policymakers, government officials, the industry associations and the company executives to assess their export competitiveness in the WFI. Thus, they can determine whether to shift scarce resources to this industry or other industries. In addition, this study may affect the price competition policy of the sector representatives in the global market.

Originality/value

This study deals with the competitiveness of the WFI with different approaches. And this study determines the importance of price for global competition in this sector.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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