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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Margarida Jerónimo Barbosa, Pieter Pauwels, Victor Ferreira and Luís Mateus

Building information modeling (BIM) is most often used for the construction of new buildings. By using BIM in such projects, collaboration among stakeholders in an…

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3090

Abstract

Purpose

Building information modeling (BIM) is most often used for the construction of new buildings. By using BIM in such projects, collaboration among stakeholders in an architecture, engineering and construction project is improved. To even further improve collaboration, there is a move toward the production and usage of BIM standards in various countries. These are typically national documents, including guides, protocols, and mandatory regulations, that introduce guidelines about what information should be exchanged at what time between which partners and in what formats. If a nation or a construction team agrees on these guidelines, improved collaboration can come about on top of the collaboration benefits induced by the mere usage of BIM. This scenario might also be targeted for interventions in existing buildings. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors investigate the general content and usage of existing BIM standards for new constructions, describing specifications about BIM deliverable documents, modeling, and collaboration procedures. The authors suggest to what extent the content in the BIM standards can also be used for interventions in existing buildings. These suggestions rely heavily on literature study, supported by on-site use case experiences.

Findings

From this research, the authors can conclude that the existing standards give a solid basis for BIM collaboration in existing building interventions, but that they need to be extended in order to be of better use in any intervention project in an existing building. This extension should happen at: data modeling level: other kinds of data formats need to be considered, coming from terrestrial laser scanning and automatic digital photogrammetry tools; at data exchange level: exchange requirements should take explicit statements about modeling tolerances and levels of (un)certainty; and at process modeling level: business process models should include information exchange processes from the very start of the building survey (BIM→facility management→BIM or regular audit).

Originality/value

BIM environments are not often used to document existing buildings or interventions in existing buildings. The authors propose to improve the situation by using BIM standards and/or guidelines, and the authors give an initial overview of components that should be included in such a standard and/or guideline.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2019

Abdul Rahman Ahsan Usmani, Abdalrahman Elshafey, Masoud Gheisari, Changsaar Chai, Eeydzah Binti Aminudin and Cher Siang Tan

Three dimensional (3 D) laser scanner surveying is widely used in many fields, such as agriculture, mining and heritage documentation and can be of great benefit for as…

Abstract

Purpose

Three dimensional (3 D) laser scanner surveying is widely used in many fields, such as agriculture, mining and heritage documentation and can be of great benefit for as-built documentation in construction and facility management domains. However, there is lack of applied research and use cases integrating 3 D laser scanner surveying with building information modeling (BIM) for existing facilities in Malaysia. This study aims to develop a scan to as-built BIM workflow to use 3 D laser scanner surveying and create as-built building information models of an existing complex facility in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach was followed to develop a scan to as-built BIM workflow through four main steps: 3 D laser scanning, data preprocessing, data registration and building information modeling.

Findings

This case study proposes a comprehensive scan to as-built BIM workflow which illustrates all the required steps to create a precise 3 D as-built building information model from scans. This workflow was successfully implemented to the Eco-Home facility at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Originality/value

Scan to as-built BIM is a digital alternative to manual and tedious process of documentation of as-built condition of a facility and provides a detail process using laser scans to create as-built building information models of facilities.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Osama Moselhi and Ashutosh Bagchi

To mitigate the problems in sensor-based facility management (FM) such as lack of detailed visual information about a built facility and the maintenance of large scale…

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240

Abstract

Purpose

To mitigate the problems in sensor-based facility management (FM) such as lack of detailed visual information about a built facility and the maintenance of large scale sensor deployments, an integrated data source for the facility’s life cycle should be used. Building information modeling (BIM) provides a useful visual model and database that can be used as a repository for all data captured or made during the facility’s life cycle. It can be used for modeling the sensing-based system for data collection, serving as a source of all information for smart objects such as the sensors used for that purpose. Although few studies have been conducted in integrating BIM with sensor-based monitoring system, providing an integrated platform using BIM for improving the communication between FMs and Internet of Things (IoT) companies in cases encountered failed sensors has received the least attention in the technical literature. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to conceptualize and develop a BIM-based system architecture for fault detection and alert generation for malfunctioning FM sensors in smart IoT environments during the operational phase of a building to ensure minimal disruption to monitoring services.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes an attempt to examine the applicability of BIM for an efficient sensor failure management system in smart IoT environments during the operational phase of a building. For this purpose, a seven-story office building with four typical types of FM-related sensors with all associated parameters was modeled in a commercial BIM platform. An integrated workflow was developed in Dynamo, a visual programming tool, to integrate the associated sensors maintenance-related information to a cloud-based tool to provide a fast and efficient communication platform between the building facility manager and IoT companies for intelligent sensor management.

Findings

The information within BIM allows better and more effective decision-making for building facility managers. Integrating building and sensors information within BIM to a cloud-based system can facilitate better communication between the building facility manager and IoT company for an effective IoT system maintenance. Using a developed integrated workflow (including three specifically designed modules) in Dynamo, a visual programming tool, the system was able to automatically extract and send all essential information such as the type of failed sensors as well as their model and location to IoT companies in the event of sensor failure using a cloud database that is effective for the timely maintenance and replacement of sensors. The system developed in this study was implemented, and its capabilities were illustrated through a case study. The use of the developed system can help facility managers in taking timely actions in the event of any sensor failure and/or malfunction to ensure minimal disruption to monitoring services.

Research limitations/implications

However, there are some limitations in this work which are as follows: while the present study demonstrates the feasibility of using BIM in the maintenance planning of monitoring systems in the building, the developed workflow can be expanded by integrating some type of sensors like an occupancy sensor to the developed workflow to automatically record and identify the number of occupants (visitors) to prioritize the maintenance work; and the developed workflow can be integrated with the sensors’ data and some machine learning techniques to automatically identify the sensors’ malfunction and update the BIM model accordingly.

Practical implications

Transferring the related information such as the room location, occupancy status, number of occupants, type and model of the sensor, sensor ID and required action from the BIM model to the cloud would be extremely helpful to the IoT companies to actually visualize workspaces in advance, and to plan for timely and effective decision-making without any physical inspection, and to support maintenance planning decisions, such as prioritizing maintenance works by considering different factors such as the importance of spaces and number of occupancies. The developed framework is also beneficial for preventive maintenance works. The system can be set up according to the maintenance and time-based expiration schedules, automatically sharing alerts with FMs and IoT maintenance contractors in advance about the IoT parts replacement. For effective predictive maintenance planning, machine learning techniques can be integrated into the developed workflow to efficiently predict the future condition of individual IoT components such as data loggers and sensors, etc. as well as MEP components.

Originality/value

Lack of detailed visual information about a built facility can be a reason behind the inefficient management of a facility. Detecting and repairing failed sensors at the earliest possible time is critical to ensure the functional continuity of the monitoring systems. On the other hand, the maintenance of large-scale sensor deployments becomes a significant challenge. Despite its importance, few studies have been conducted in integrating BIM with a sensor-based monitoring system, providing an integrated platform using BIM for improving the communication between facility managers and IoT companies in cases encountered failed sensors. In this paper, a cloud-based BIM platform was developed for the maintenance and timely replacement of sensors which are critical to ensure minimal disruption to monitoring services in sensor-based FM.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2021

Ana Carolina Franco De Oliveira, Cristiano Saad Travassos do Carmo, Alexandre Santana Cruz and Renata Gonçalves Faisca

In developing countries, such as Brazil, the construction sector is consistently focused on the construction of new buildings, and there is no dissemination of the…

Abstract

Purpose

In developing countries, such as Brazil, the construction sector is consistently focused on the construction of new buildings, and there is no dissemination of the preservation, restoration and maintenance of historic buildings. Idle buildings, due to the use and lack of maintenance, present pathological manifestations, such as moisture problems that compromise specially their thermal and energy performance. With this in mind, the purpose of this work is to create a digital model using terrestrial photogrammetry and suggest retrofit interventions based on computer simulation to improve the thermal and energy performance of a historical building.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed methodology combined terrestrial photogrammetry using common smartphones and commercial software for historical buildings with building information modeling (historic building information modeling (HBIM)) and building energy modeling (BEM). The approach follows five steps: planning, site visit, data processing, data modeling and results. Also, as a case study, the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Fluminense Federal University, built in 1888, was chosen to validate the approach.

Findings

A digital map of pathological manifestations in the HBIM model was developed, and interventions considering the application of expanded polystyrene in the envelope to reduce energy consumption were outlined. From the synergy between HBIM and BEM, it was concluded that the information modeled using photogrammetry was fundamental to create the energy model, and simulations were needed to optimize the possible solutions in terms of energy consumption.

Originality/value

Firstly, the work proposes a reasonable methodology to be applied in development countries without sophisticated technologies, but with acceptable precision for the study purpose. Secondly, the presented study shows that the use of HBIM for energy modeling proved to be useful to simulate possible solutions that optimize the thermal and energy performance.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Øystein Mejlænder-Larsen

Traditionally, progress in detail engineering in construction projects is reported based on estimates and manual input from the disciplines in the engineering team…

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325

Abstract

Purpose

Traditionally, progress in detail engineering in construction projects is reported based on estimates and manual input from the disciplines in the engineering team. Reporting progress on activities in an engineering schedule manually, based on subjective evaluations, is time consuming and can reduce accuracy, especially in larger and multi-disciplinary projects. How can progress in detail engineering be reported using BIM and connected to activities in an engineering schedule? The purpose of this paper is to introduce a three-step process for reporting progress in detail engineering using building information modeling (BIM) to minimize manual reporting and increase quality and accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings of this paper are based on the studies of experiences from the execution of projects in the oil and gas industry. Data are collected from an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor and two engineering contractors using case study research.

Findings

In the first step, control objects in building information models are introduced. Statuses are added to control objects to fulfill defined quality levels related to milestones. In the second step, the control objects with statuses are used to report visual progress and aggregated in an overall progress report. In the third step, overall progress from building information models are connected to activities in an engineering schedule.

Originality/value

Existing research works related to monitoring and reporting progress using a BIM focus on construction and not on detail engineering. The research demonstrates that actual progress in detail engineering can be visualized and reported through the use of BIM and extracted to activities in an engineering schedule through a three-step process.

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Marjan Sadeghi, Jonathan Weston Elliott, Nick Porro and Kelly Strong

This paper aims to represent the results of a case study to establish a building information model (BIM)-enabled workflow to capture and retrieve facility information to…

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780

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to represent the results of a case study to establish a building information model (BIM)-enabled workflow to capture and retrieve facility information to deliver integrated handover deliverables.

Design/methodology/approach

The Building Handover Information Model (BHIM) framework proposed herein is contextualized given the Construction Operation Information Exchange (COBie) and the level of development schema. The process uses Autodesk Revit as the primary BIM-authoring tool and Dynamo as an add-in for extending Revit’s parametric functionality, BHIM validation, information retrieval and documentation in generating operation and maintenance (O&M) deliverables in the end-user requested format.

Findings

Given the criticality of semantics for model elements in the BHIM and for appropriate interoperability in BIM collaboration, each discipline should establish model development and exchange protocols that define the elements, geometrical and non-geometrical information requirements and acceptable software applications early in the design phase. In this case study, five information categories (location, specifications, warranty, maintenance instructions and Construction Specifications Institute MasterFormat division) were identified as critical for model elements in the BHIM for handover purposes.

Originality/value

Design- and construction-purposed BIM is a standard platform in collaborative architecture, engineering and construction practice, and the models are available for many recently constructed facilities. However, interoperability issues drastically restrict implementation of these models in building information handover and O&M. This study provides essential input regarding BIM exchange protocols and collaborative BIM libraries for handover purposes in collaborative BIM development.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2019

Manish K. Dixit, Varusha Venkatraj, Mohammadreza Ostadalimakhmalbaf, Fatemeh Pariafsai and Sarel Lavy

The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that impede the integration of facilities management (FM) into building information modeling (BIM) technology. The use…

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2925

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that impede the integration of facilities management (FM) into building information modeling (BIM) technology. The use of BIM technology in the commercial construction industry has grown enormously in recent years. Its application to FM, however, is still limited. The literature highlights issues that hinder BIM–FM integration, which are studied and discussed in detail in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of literature is conducted to identify and categorize key issues hampering the application of BIM to FM. This paper has also designed a questionnaire based on a literature review and surveyed FM professionals at two industry events. Using the collected responses, these issues are analyzed and discussed using non-parametric statistical analyses.

Findings

A total of 16 issues are identified through the literature review of 54 studies under the four categories of BIM-execution and information-management, technological, cost-based and legal and contractual issues. The results of the survey of FM professionals (with 57 complete responses) reveal that the single most important issue is the lack of FM involvement in project phases when BIM is evolving.

Originality/value

The findings of this study could assist the construction industry (e.g. building-material and equipment manufacturers, design professionals, general contractors, construction managers, owners and facility managers) with creating guidelines that would help in BIM–FM integration. BIM is a virtual database that contains important design and construction information, which can be used for effective and efficient life cycle management if building data are captured completely and accurately with a facility manager’s involvement.

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Zeynep Birgonul

The heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are responsible for a significant proportion of the energy consumption of the built environment, on which the…

Abstract

Purpose

The heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are responsible for a significant proportion of the energy consumption of the built environment, on which the occupant's pursuit of thermal comfort has a substantial impact. Regarding this concern, current software can assess and visualize the conditions. However; integration of existing technologies and real-time information could enhance the potential of the solution proposals. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to explore new possibilities of how to upgrade building information modeling (BIM) technology to be interactive; by using existing BIM data during the occupation phase. Moreover, the research discusses the potential of enhancing energy efficiency and comfort maximization together by using the existing BIM database and real-time information concomitantly.

Design/methodology/approach

The platform is developed by designing and testing via prototyping method thanks to Internet of things technologies. The algorithm of the prototype uses real-time indoor thermal information and real-time weather information together with user's body temperature. Moreover, the platform processes the thermal values with specific material information from the existing BIM file. The final prototype is tested by a case study model.

Findings

The outcome of the study, “Symbiotic Data Platform” is an occupant-operated tool, that has a hardware, software and unique Revit-Dynamo definition that implies to all BIM files.

Originality/value

The paper explains the development of “Symbiotic Data Platform”, which presents an interactive phase for BIM, as creating a possibility to use the existing BIM database and real-time values during the occupation phase, which is operated by the occupants of the building; without requiring any prior knowledge upon any of the BIM software or IoT technology.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Majid Parchami Jalal, Tayebe Yavari Roushan, Esmatullah Noorzai and Maryam Alizadeh

This study aims at introducing a claim management model based on building information modeling (BIM) for claims that can be visualized in BIM models.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at introducing a claim management model based on building information modeling (BIM) for claims that can be visualized in BIM models.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the results of a questionnaire survey, 10 claims were identified as claims that can be visualized in BIM models (named hard claims in this study). Then, a BIM-based claim management model was developed and used in a case study.

Findings

A BIM-based claim management model is represented. The claim management process through this model consists of four steps: (1) extracting project information, identifying conditions prone to claim and storing them into a relational database, (2) automatically connecting the database to building information model, (3) simulation of the claims in building information model and (4) final calculations and report.

Practical implications

The proposed model can provide benefits to parties involved in a claim, such as early identification of potential claims, large space for data storage, facilitated claim management processes, information consistency and improved collaboration.

Originality/value

There are a few studies on providing solutions to claim management based on BIM process. Hence, the original contribution of this paper is the attempt to set a link between BIM and claim management processes.

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Esa Halmetoja

This paper aims to describe how building information model (BIM) and big data can be combined in the same interface for providing new value to stakeholders, such as the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe how building information model (BIM) and big data can be combined in the same interface for providing new value to stakeholders, such as the property owner and user, as well as property service and workplace service companies. The research presents a new concept, which shows how the BIM can be exploited efficiently during maintenance.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, existing facility management (FM) processes were investigated to find out how to digitize them and identify bottlenecks. Second, BIM’s data content was explored to identify the information that could be used to streamline FM processes. Third, the potential of the active data measured in the building was evaluated. Finally, research was undertaken to find out how constantly fluctuating information can be combined with BIM objects and what kind of added value that combination could offer. The literature review was used to support the primary contribution. In addition, the research problems were described and the basics of the research were obtained by interviews. The author has interviewed 27 professionals from several stakeholders.

Findings

The first finding is that the BIM can serve as a platform for building use, various services and management when it has been adequately generated during the planning and construction phases and enriched before being commissioned. The other essential finding is the theory of conditions data model (CDM), which is a technical environment that combines active data with BIM. The most important advantages of BIM in FM are as follows: • Building owner attains better user satisfaction, acquires better quality and smarter services, saves energy, ensures better indoor conditions and improves building profitability. • Service providers can develop and offer new services, speed up operations, save resources and generate more profits. • The occupant gets a better user experience, faster and higher quality services and better indoor conditions.

Research limitations/implications

The CDM enables to generate for the real estate and construction (RE&C) sector a novel BIM-based ecosystem with standard rules, instead of every individual operator developing his/her own unique solution for BIM use in FM. This will have an impact on the entire RE&C sector’s operating methods and will have significant financial implications in the near future. Application of this research is limited to office buildings where indoor condition measuring is undertaken continuously and where the knowledge of the use cases of spaces is available. In addition, the proper BIM in the Industry Foundation Classes format must exist. The evaluation of the validity of big data is not discussed in this article. Visualization of data and content of user interfaces will be the topic of another article by the author. This article does not deal with intricate technical details, but crucial issues are defined.

Originality/value

The article presents a unique method for BIM use in FM. The theory of CDM (how to combine active data with BIM) is completely new and a similar solution has not been presented earlier. The theory of the presented method will be the crucial key for BIM use and will lead worldwide commissioning. Currently, the theory is under test in the practical pilot project. The results of the project will be published in the next article.

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