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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Tarek Ibrahim Eldomiaty, Ola Atia, Ahmad Badawy and Hassan Hafez

The literature on the relation between dividends and stock risks include mixed results. The related studies have reached either insignificant, or positive, or negative…

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Abstract

Purpose

The literature on the relation between dividends and stock risks include mixed results. The related studies have reached either insignificant, or positive, or negative results. The authors offer a mathematical structure that addresses potential mutual benefits of dividends signaling under conditions of stock risks (systematic and unsystematic). The mathematical structure demonstrates explicitly a case of risk transfer. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential benefits to firms and stockholders when financial managers adjust dividends per share (DPS) using percentage change in the explanatory power of systematic and unsystematic risks. This perspective is derived from a practical consideration that dividends are part of stock returns that can be adjusted to take stock risks into account.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes the specifications of the two-stage (simultaneous) regression and partial adjustment model. The sample includes quarterly data for firms listed in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and NASDAQ for the period December 31, 1989-March 31, 2011.

Findings

The authors have reached general results based on hypotheses developed from related literature. The results show that: first, benefits of risk transfer can be realized. That is, firms as well as stockholders achieve benefits when the DPS are adjusted using percentage change in the explanatory power of systematic risk only; second, dividend growth rates are affected positively by changes in systematic risks; third, the highest stock returns in the market are reached with sharp decreases in dividend growth rates; fourth, in the highest returns quartile, firm size and time do not matter but the industry type does; and fifth, the associations between dividend growth rates, systematic, unsystematic risks, and stock returns are intrinsically nonlinear.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature in terms of first, providing practical insights on the financial strategies that help in the use of dividends to convey the right signals to stockholders, and second, empirically show the potential benefits of adjusting dividends growth rates according to systematic and unsystematic stock risks in a unified mathematical structure that adds to the current literature.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Mehtap Aldogan Eklund

The purpose of this study is to examine whether chief executive officer (CEOs) are paid for the systematic and/or unsystematic risks and whether there is any optimum risk

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine whether chief executive officer (CEOs) are paid for the systematic and/or unsystematic risks and whether there is any optimum risk premium level in the executive pay.

Design/methodology/approach

Firm and year fixed effect panel data regression was used to estimate the relationship between total CEO compensation and systematic (market) and unsystematic (firm) risks.

Findings

There is no nexus between CEO pay and unsystematic (diversifiable) risk; however, the association between CEO compensation and systematic (undiversifiable) risk is positively significant in line with agency theory. Moreover, it is revealed that this positive relationship has an optimum point (curvilinear).

Research limitations/implications

This paper contributes to the controversial argument in the literature by investigating the situation in the Swiss market. Switzerland is an exemplary country because of its direct democracy (consensus) structure for executive pay. This study is limited by the fact that only total CEO compensation is analyzed.

Practical implications

As a practical implication, it is shown that after the optimal point, the higher compensation does not motivate the CEOs to take higher risks and does not provide the organizations with any additional benefit.

Originality/value

The finding of this study supports agency theory’s risk premium assumption and provides additional evidence to the contradictory results in the literature with a new country setting that has paramount importance in executive compensation phenomena. It is a comparative finding with prior literature also outlines the future research area in the risk and compensation literature.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Khaliq Lubza Nihar and Kameshwar Rao Venkata Surya Modekurti

This paper aims to undertake a comprehensive comparative analysis of Sharīʿah-compliant equity investments (SCEIs) and their non-Sharīʿah counterparts, in India…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to undertake a comprehensive comparative analysis of Sharīʿah-compliant equity investments (SCEIs) and their non-Sharīʿah counterparts, in India, conditioning for investment horizon and market volatility. Indirectly, it also investigates for time varying performance of SCEIs, and explicitly analyses the unsystematic risk and related adequacy of returns.

Design/methodology/approach

Testing for statistical significance of differences in risks and returns; analysing portfolio performance using conventional metrics, information ratio, and Jensen's Alpha; Estimating returns due to stock selection and market timing using Fama’s Net Selectivity and Treynor and Mazuy’s Models.

Findings

SCEIs in India do not significantly differ in their total risks and returns compared to their conventional counterparts. While their risk is lower in the monthly and quarterly investment horizons, their Jensen’s Alphas are positive only in the annual investment horizons. These findings hold, when market volatility is low. Market timing wipes out the superior returns that exist due to stock selection in SCEIs.

Research limitations/implications

Being Sharīʿah-compliant is beneficial only in longer investment horizons. Asset selection, not co-movement with the market, is key to excess returns to compensate for risks due to inadequate diversification. However, only cautious market timing can conserve them.

Practical implications

Though investors are not better-off in choosing ethical investments, they are not worse-off either. Being Sharīʿah-compliant is rewarding during less volatile markets.

Originality/value

This paper extends international literature on SCEIs, with evidence on the impact of investment horizon and market volatility on their returns and risks. Further, this paper is also a comprehensive analysis of Indian SCEIs, broadening the empirical evidence on a significant, non-Islamic and emerging market.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Reena Kohli

This paper aims to assess the impact of different financing strategies used in the cross-border acquisitions on the shifts in the risk profile of the acquiring companies…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the impact of different financing strategies used in the cross-border acquisitions on the shifts in the risk profile of the acquiring companies in India. The purpose is to discern which of the stated modes of payment, viz., cash, stock and earnout, enables an acquiring company in better hedging the risk of adverse selection in cross-border acquisitions.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis has been conducted by computing unsystematic (alphas, αs) and the systematic (betas, βs) risk of the acquiring companies, for three different estimation periods, that is the pre-acquisition estimation period, the post-acquisition estimation period and the pooled estimation period. The computations of αs and βs, for each company, have been done by using the market model, whereas further analysis of the average αs and average βs has been done by applying analysis of variance and paired sample t-test.

Findings

It has been found that of the three modes of payment, earnouts provide best hedge to the acquiring companies for minimizing the risk of adverse selection in cross-border acquisitions.

Research limitations/implications

The paper recommends earnouts as a prudent strategy for the acquiring companies from India as well as other emerging markets for their future global acquisitions.

Originality/value

This is the pioneering study on analyzing the impact of the different financing strategies on the shifts in the risk profile of acquiring companies.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Chu-Sheng Tai

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on how 1999–2001 dot-com crisis and 2007–2009 subprime crisis affect the gains from international…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on how 1999–2001 dot-com crisis and 2007–2009 subprime crisis affect the gains from international diversification from the perspective of US investors.

Design/methodology/approach

A conditional international CAPM with asymmetric multivariate GARCH-M specification is used to estimate international diversification gains.

Findings

The authors find that over the entire sample period, the average gains from international diversification is statistically significant and about 1.253 percent per year. During the subprime crisis period, the average gains decreases to about 0.567 percent per year, but it increases to 2.829 percent per year during the dot-com crisis.

Research limitations/implications

These research findings although confirm the conjectures that international financial turmoil tends to increase the co-movements among global financial markets, are in contrast to the conjectures that international diversification does not work during the financial crisis as evidence from the dot-com crisis. Therefore, future research on international diversification should not just focus on the correlation among international financial markets and should adopt a fully parameterized asset pricing model to study this research topic.

Practical implications

Given the empirical results found in this paper that international diversification gains may be decreasing or increasing during the financial crisis, as long as investors are not able to predict international financial crises, it is the average gains from international diversification over the longer periods that should encourage investors to diversify, regardless of potentially lower benefits over the shorter periods of time.

Originality/value

The major value of this paper is that although the increase in the conditional correlation during the financial turmoil is consistent with previous studies, the empirical results clearly show that the impact of a financial crisis on the gains from international diversification cannot be solely determined by the correlation between domestic and world stock market returns since the gains also depend on the unsystematic risk from the domestic stock market. Consequently, it is premature for previous studies to conclude that the gain from international diversification is diminishing due to an increasing correlation among international stock markets during the financial crisis.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Mehmet Emin Yildiz, Yaman Omer Erzurumlu and Bora Kurtulus

The beta coefficient used for the cost of equity calculation is at the heart of the valuation process. This study conducts comparative analyses of the classical capital…

Abstract

Purpose

The beta coefficient used for the cost of equity calculation is at the heart of the valuation process. This study conducts comparative analyses of the classical capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and downside CAPM risk parameters to gain further insight into which risk parameter leads to better performing risk measures at explaining stock returns.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducts a comparative analysis of 16 risk measures at explaining the stock returns of 4531 companies of 20 developed and 25 emerging market index for 2000–2018. The analyses are conducted using both the global and local indices and both USD and local currency returns. Calculated risk measures are analyzed in a panel data setup using a univariate model. Results are investigated in country-specific and model-specific subsets.

Findings

The results show that (1) downside betas are better than CAPM betas at explaining the stock returns, (2) both risk measure groups perform better for emerging markets, (3) global downside beta model performs better than global beta model, implying the existence of the contagion effect, (4) high significance levels of total risk and unsystematic risk measures further support the shortfall of CAPM betas and (5) higher correlation of markets after negative shocks such as pandemics puts global CAPM based downside beta to a more reliable position.

Research limitations/implications

The data are limited to the index securities as beta could be time varying.

Practical implications

Results overall provide insight into the cost of equity calculation and emerging market assets valuation.

Originality/value

The framework and methodology enable us to compare and contrast CAPM and downside-CAPM risk measures at the firm level, at the global/local level and in terms of the level of market development.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Anwar S. Al-Gasaymeh, Thair A. Kaddumi and Ghazi M. Qasaimeh

Using capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and the Z-risk index based on weekly data, this study aims to estimate yearly unsystematic, total, three systematic and insolvency…

Abstract

Purpose

Using capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and the Z-risk index based on weekly data, this study aims to estimate yearly unsystematic, total, three systematic and insolvency risks in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries for the period 2010–2018. The findings of CAPM show positive systematic market risk exposure in all GCC countries for all years, which support the contribution of stock markets to bank prices and returns. The mixed signs of systematic interest rate and exchange rate risks in GCC countries provide hedging opportunities, diversification strategies and regional cooperation, which help risk managers to hedge and stabilize their portfolios against interest rate and exchange rate fluctuations. Therefore, it is necessary that managers and policymakers develop a monitoring system on factors affecting bank insolvency risks to avoid bankruptcies and insolvencies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the three-factor CAPM and Z-risk index to measure six types of risks. The CAPM uses market information to estimate the sensitivity of banks to the fluctuations of equity markets, debt markets and foreign exchange markets. Sharpe (1964), Lintner (1965) and Treynor (1965) developed a single-factor CAPM and the coefficient of the model was called systematic market risk. The single-factor CAPM highlights stock markets as the only non-diversifiable source of systematic risks, whereas Stone (1974) and Jorion (1990) highlighted interest rate and exchange rate fluctuations as the other types of non-diversifiable systematic risks. The following functional form in equation (1) estimates five types of risks using CAPM.

Findings

The findings of CAPM show positive systematic market risk exposure in all GCC countries for all years, which support the contribution of stock markets to bank prices and returns based on CAPM theory. The mixed signs of systematic interest rate and exchange rate risks in GCC countries support hedging opportunities and diversification strategies which may help risk managers to hedge and stabilize their portfolios against the fluctuations of interest rate and exchange rate. Although, this policy may decrease the profits of banking sectors but at the same time it would stabilize the portfolios and prevent bankruptcies and big losses because of the fluctuations of interest rate. Moreover, a bank has a better chance to have more liquidity position during financial crises because of the diversifications into different regional markets.

Research limitations/implications

Therefore, this study contributes to the existing literature by using risk measurement by a three-factor CAPM and the Z-risk index as discussed further in methodology.

Originality/value

It is necessary that managers and policymakers develop a monitoring system on factors affecting bank insolvency risks to avoid bankruptcies and insolvencies.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Mohammed Shahedul Quader, Md. Mostafa Kamal and A.B.M. Enamol Hassan

This paper aims to conduct an in-depth study of any changes that small medium enterprises (SMEs) environmental performance face, in the retailing and manufacturing sector…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to conduct an in-depth study of any changes that small medium enterprises (SMEs) environmental performance face, in the retailing and manufacturing sector, as well as to identify their main drivers. Furthermore, it seeks to investigate SMEs’ perspectives regarding the environmental management systems and more specifically International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) 14001 on the one side, whether it is a positive relationship between the implementation of “ISO 14001” by SMEs and their profitability of business on the other.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a qualitative research, which combines secondary data enriched with daily articles and primary data using in-depth interviews with experts from the SME sectors, which attempts to build a sufficient “theory” by answering the research questions.

Findings

The business world has started to get widely involved with the environmental issues and even if this, in some cases, happened only for marketing purposes, it is difficult now to be changed. The SMEs have started to realise their responsibilities and act accordingly, but there is a long way to cover until their actions will be actually beneficial for the environment. However, the improvement or stability of SMEs’ environmental performance, meaning the implementation of more environmental activities, depends on the impact that those changes will have in every SME, due to the unique idiosyncrasy that each of it consists.

Originality/value

This paper reveals proper method for documenting monetary rewards to entrepreneurship through maintaining environmental issues accurately using information about profitability of SME’s. After maintaining environmental factors, the premia illustrates about the entrepreneurs concentrating not only profitability but also environmental concern.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Ranjan D’Mello and Mercedes Miranda

We investigate the impact of the creation of a new incentive structure for CEOs resulting from firms introducing equity-based compensation (EBC) as a means of paying top…

Abstract

We investigate the impact of the creation of a new incentive structure for CEOs resulting from firms introducing equity-based compensation (EBC) as a means of paying top executives on policy decisions. Contrasting a firm’s stock and operating performance in the period the CEO is compensated with EBC (EBC period) and the period when EBC is not a component of the same executive’s pay (No EBC period) leads us to conclude that awarding stock options and restricted shares to executives is not associated with improved firm performance. However, firms initiate EBC after superior performance suggesting that CEOs are awarded compensation in this form as a reward for past performance. Firms have higher unsystematic and total risk levels in the EBC period suggesting EBC influences CEOs’ risk-taking behavior and reduces agency costs arising from managerial risk aversion. While there is no change in R&D expenses and cash ratios there is a decrease in capital expenditures in the EBC period, which is consistent with reduced overinvestment agency costs. Finally, leverage and payout ratios are similar in both periods implying that firms’ financing policy is not influenced by changes in CEOs’ compensation structure.

Details

Corporate Governance in the US and Global Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-292-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Peter Byrne and Stephen Lee

This paper investigates the extent to which risk reduction can be achieved within the UK property market in high and low Beta portfolios. This issue is examined by making…

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Abstract

This paper investigates the extent to which risk reduction can be achieved within the UK property market in high and low Beta portfolios. This issue is examined by making simulations of property portfolios of increasing size using the largest sample (392) of actual property returns that is currently available, over the period 1981 to 1996. In particular it is shown that the achievable level of risk reduction is negatively related to the level of market risk of the individual assets. Thus portfolios based on individually high market risk assets require larger numbers of properties to achieve the same level of risk reduction than low Beta risk portfolios. In addition it is shown that the number of properties needed to “track” the market is prohibitively large and unlikely to be achievable for all but the very largest UK property funds. The practical implications of this are that UK property fund performance is likely to be mainly driven by stock selection, even for the largest funds. For those fund managers who wish to track the market the costs in terms of portfolio value seem prohibitively expensive. On this basis, no UK property fund, even the largest, would follow a passive investment policy.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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