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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Morten H. Abrahamsen

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in…

Abstract

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in the sense that revisions occur to the research question, method, theory, and context as an integral part of the research process.

Changes within networks receive less research attention, although considerable research exists on explaining business network structures in different research traditions. This study analyzes changes in networks in terms of the industrial network approach. This approach sees networks as connected relationships between actors, where interdependent companies interact based on their sensemaking of their relevant network environment. The study develops a concept of network change as well as an operationalization for comparing perceptions of change, where the study introduces a template model of dottograms to systematically analyze differences in perceptions. The study then applies the model to analyze findings from a case study of Norwegian/Japanese seafood distribution, and the chapter provides a rich description of a complex system facing considerable pressure to change. In-depth personal interviews and cognitive mapping techniques are the main research tools applied, in addition to tracer studies and personal observation.

The dottogram method represents a valuable contribution to case study research as it enables systematic within-case and across-case analyses. A further theoretical contribution of the study is the suggestion that network change is about actors seeking to change their network position to gain access to resources. Thereby, the study also implies a close relationship between the concepts network position and the network change that has not been discussed within the network approach in great detail.

Another major contribution of the study is the analysis of the role that network pictures play in actors' efforts to change their network position. The study develops seven propositions in an attempt to describe the role of network pictures in network change. So far, the relevant literature discusses network pictures mainly as a theoretical concept. Finally, the chapter concludes with important implications for management practice.

Details

Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Wesley R. Teter and Libing Wang

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have transformed the global outlook for international higher education. Given the rapid shift to online learning, the Tokyo Convention…

Abstract

Purpose

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have transformed the global outlook for international higher education. Given the rapid shift to online learning, the Tokyo Convention in the Asia-Pacific entrusted to UNESCO has become an important policy framework to facilitate regional collaboration, authoritative information sharing and recognition of qualifications across diverse modes of learning. This paper examines the role of the Tokyo Convention to establish an inclusive platform for monitoring and collaborative governance of mobility and internationalization based on fair and transparent recognition policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific.

Design/methodology/approach

In August 2019, a standardized survey instrument was sent by the Secretariat of the Tokyo Convention Committee at UNESCO Bangkok to competent recognition authorities in 46 countries in the Asia-Pacific, including the eight State Parties to the Tokyo Convention that ratified the Convention as of the reporting period. In total, qualitative data from n = 27 countries/states was received and analyzed to assess implementation of the Tokyo Convention throughout the region. The research design illustrates how normative instruments such as the Tokyo Convention are monitored and assessed over time.

Findings

A multi-stakeholder approach based on collaborative governance is needed to effectively monitor implementation and implications of the Tokyo Convention for diverse higher education stakeholders in the Asia-Pacific region.

Research limitations/implications

Implications include establishing baseline data and methods for monitoring implementation of the Tokyo Convention. Based on collaborative governance theory, the paper explores potential for a multi-stakeholder approach to promote mutual accountability in the Asia-Pacific and to develop mechanisms for inclusive participation in the governance of the forthcoming Global Convention on recognition.

Originality/value

As the first systematic review of its kind, this paper includes a unique dataset and insights into UNESCO's methodology to monitor implementation of standard-setting instruments for qualifications recognition in the Asia-Pacific.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

Shunichi Maekawa

In the past, the profit from property investments was always higher than that from other assets, because of the expectation of high rates of increase in land prices…

1200

Abstract

In the past, the profit from property investments was always higher than that from other assets, because of the expectation of high rates of increase in land prices. However, as Japan′s economic growth has been slowing down, these circumstances for property investments have changed. The income yield rate of commercial property investments in Tokyo decreased sharply from 1982 to 1987 because of the sharp increase in land prices. Though commercial land prices in Tokyo have decreased since 1992, the income yield rate is too low because of decrease of office rents. If the income yield rate does not increase, demand for commercial property investments will not recover because a high rate of increase in land prices cannot be expected in the future.

Details

Journal of Property Valuation and Investment, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-2712

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Drew Martin and Arch G. Woodside

Using brand netnography (analyzing consumers' first‐person on‐line stories that include discussions of their product and brand use), this article aims to probe how…

4045

Abstract

Purpose

Using brand netnography (analyzing consumers' first‐person on‐line stories that include discussions of their product and brand use), this article aims to probe how visitors interpret the places, people, and situations that they experience while traveling in Japan.

Design/methodology/approach

Through analysis of online consumer stories about their trip experiences, Heider's balance theory is applied to visitors' trip experiences. Follow‐up contact with the consumers allows application of autodriving methodology to gather additional post‐trip insights.

Findings

The results show immediate and downstream positive and negative associations of concepts, events, and outcomes in visitors' stories. Maps of consumer stories identify kernel concepts and include descriptions of how visitors live a specific destination's unique promises (e.g. distinct cultural history). Using the kernel concepts as a basis, Holt's five‐step strategy for building icons is applied to the travel destination to show how a destination can create a brand identity.

Research limitations/implications

Bloggers reporting their travel experience may not be representative of the population of travelers. On the other hand, travel blogs potentially can influence trip planning by other visitors collecting travel information.

Practical implications

Blog reports represent an unobtrusive method of collecting emic interpretive information from consumers. Emic reporting provides deep insights about consumers' trip interpretations. Tourism and hospitality managers can use this information to improve service experiences and design communication strategies to strengthen positive iconic imagery reported by consumers.

Originality/value

Emic and etic interpretations of travel experiences create a bricolage of the travelers' experiences. Autodriving methodology is extended to tourism research to gather additional insights and to better clarify informants' interpretations. This article also expands on a revisionist proposal to Holt's five‐step strategy for building destinations as iconic brands and suggestions for tourism management.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Midori Kawabe, Hiroshi Kohno, Reiko Ikeda, Takashi Ishimaru, Osamu Baba, Naho Horimoto, Jota Kanda, Masaji Matsuyam, Masato Moteki, Yayoi Oshima, Tsuyoshi Sasaki and Minlee Yap

The purpose of this paper is to draw lessons for developing community‐university partnerships from experiences in promoting coastal education for sustainable development (ESD).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw lessons for developing community‐university partnerships from experiences in promoting coastal education for sustainable development (ESD).

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data collected from two coastal community outreach projects were analyzed.

Findings

The outreach projects improved the relationship between university and community members. It is important to conduct interviews at the early stages of the projects to understand the needs of the community and set project outcomes to meet community‐defined priorities. The most effective means for promoting an ESD program based upon community‐university partnerships is to reach out to and network with local individuals who have been active in community projects and embed the program concept into the activities of those individuals. Mediators who link the academic community with the local community are helpful in promoting the partnerships, and university students were found to be successful mediators.

Originality/value

On the basis of the experiences gained from starting an ESD program in the community, this research provides some clues to initiate service learning or community‐based research based upon community‐university partnerships.

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Joan Henderson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between global cities and international tourism with particular reference to the recent experiences of Tokyo which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between global cities and international tourism with particular reference to the recent experiences of Tokyo which has recently seen a marked increase in arrivals. It addresses questions of the standing of Tokyo as a global city and tourist destination, how the two functions are connected and why changes are occurring.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed is that of an empirical case study based on the analysis of published materials drawn from a diversity of sources.

Findings

The defining characteristics of global cities are generally conducive to their function as international tourist destinations. They possess a wealth of tourism resources and amenities which facilitate inbound tourist flows. Tokyo is a prominent example of a global city, but has tended to attract fewer visitors than others in that category. The recent significant growth in arrivals is attributed to changes in the tourism industry and wider environment, yet some challenges remain before it can catch up with its counterparts.

Originality/value

Fresh insights are afforded into the implications of global city status for tourism and the development of Tokyo as a destination which tends to have been neglected in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2022

Eduardo Russo, Ariane Roder Figueira and Leonardo José Mataruna-dos-Santos

This paper aims to understand how the sustainability theme has been incorporated into the new Olympic planning guidelines based on analysing the case of Tokyo (2020)…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand how the sustainability theme has been incorporated into the new Olympic planning guidelines based on analysing the case of Tokyo (2020), which was severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

For this, field research using the case study method was carried out that involved 21 in-depth interviews with experts from different entities affected by the event.

Findings

As a result, it was possible to identify that some characteristics already presented in the Tokyo project came to break away from the gigantism observed in the past Olympic editions in an attempt to demonstrate alignment with the new principles brought by the IOC (2020) and 2020 + 5 Agenda that had as one of its main objectives to simplify the Olympics, making the event more sustainable and accessible for future host societies.

Originality/value

At the end, some trends for the future of the Olympic Games are also presented in order to guide future studies in the area, as well as help the future host cities and their companies in planning their investments.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2006

David Rands

Osaka, with roots historically as deep as the Japanese state itself, reached what Hall refers to as a “golden age” first (Hall, 1998), only to be surpassed in the later…

Abstract

Osaka, with roots historically as deep as the Japanese state itself, reached what Hall refers to as a “golden age” first (Hall, 1998), only to be surpassed in the later 19th and 20th centuries by Tokyo, a backwater fishing village until the 17th century. Differences between Tokyo and Osaka begin with the function of each city, the physical structures, economic bases, and political practices of which all interacted to create the urban fabric into which the Korean migrants moved.

Details

Ethnic Landscapes in an Urban World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1321-1

Book part
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Chikako Mori

Based on a case study of the pre-2020 Olympics renewal project in the city-center of Tokyo, this chapter examines the nature and impacts of urban renewal conducted by the…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on a case study of the pre-2020 Olympics renewal project in the city-center of Tokyo, this chapter examines the nature and impacts of urban renewal conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) in relation to social housing.

Methodology/approach

A qualitative case study approach is used based on interviews (with different stakeholders), and participant observation (at various local events or public assemblies) to analyze the impact of such urban renewal on social housing and its community.

Findings

The TMG has promoted urban renewal of city government-owned land in public-private partnerships by defending these projects as “win-win-win strategy among residents-business-city.” However, at the same time it has worsened the housing conditions of residents by causing their displacement or the deterioration of their housing environment.

Social implications

The chapter shows us that the TMG’s justification for the urban renewal — would produce trickle-down effects and help the residents — doesn’t reflect what is really happening to the community. This will help us to have a better understanding of the reality and to critically discuss a more just urban and housing policy.

Originality/value

The chapter provides a complex insight on the “super-residualization” of social housing in Japan, characterized not only by the decrease in its number but also urban renewal providing business services and amenities for the middle and upper classes. This provides an interesting comparison with Western societies.

Details

Social Housing and Urban Renewal
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-124-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

João Rafael Santos

This paper aims to identify relevant innovations in Tokyo’s spatial articulation of infrastructure, building and public space, intertwining large-scale networks with local…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify relevant innovations in Tokyo’s spatial articulation of infrastructure, building and public space, intertwining large-scale networks with local scale urban fabrics, to inform urban management towards sustainable urban transitions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used a methodological combination of literature review, relevant case identification and analysis, on-site survey and photography, morphological interpretation through cartographic analysis and urban space and architectural redrawing and discussion under the conceptual framework.

Findings

Under Japan’s cultural construct, public/private thresholds are blurred and layered, defining a public space network which includes not only large-scale urban objects, such as railroad and commercial hubs but also small scale, hybrid and rather aweless forms of urban space, which can be of interest to the challenges of sustainable urban transition.

Research limitations/implications

Adaptations in urban management and design need to consider the multi-scalar embeddedness of urban networks in local fabrics, considering public space structure and socio-cultural specificities. Limitations to growth-oriented rationale require increasingly decentralized networks and more hybrid spatial configurations in buildings, infrastructures and public space.

Originality/value

Tokyo represents an example of how a network-dependent metropolis, accommodates highly adaptive, inconspicuous and decentralized forms of basic service provision with an impact on the perception, use and management of public space. The main argument lies in the potential that these spatial arrangements hold as references for contemporary urban management and design in what pertains to societal challenges, low-carbon transition and network optimization.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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