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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Morten H. Abrahamsen

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in…

Abstract

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in the sense that revisions occur to the research question, method, theory, and context as an integral part of the research process.

Changes within networks receive less research attention, although considerable research exists on explaining business network structures in different research traditions. This study analyzes changes in networks in terms of the industrial network approach. This approach sees networks as connected relationships between actors, where interdependent companies interact based on their sensemaking of their relevant network environment. The study develops a concept of network change as well as an operationalization for comparing perceptions of change, where the study introduces a template model of dottograms to systematically analyze differences in perceptions. The study then applies the model to analyze findings from a case study of Norwegian/Japanese seafood distribution, and the chapter provides a rich description of a complex system facing considerable pressure to change. In-depth personal interviews and cognitive mapping techniques are the main research tools applied, in addition to tracer studies and personal observation.

The dottogram method represents a valuable contribution to case study research as it enables systematic within-case and across-case analyses. A further theoretical contribution of the study is the suggestion that network change is about actors seeking to change their network position to gain access to resources. Thereby, the study also implies a close relationship between the concepts network position and the network change that has not been discussed within the network approach in great detail.

Another major contribution of the study is the analysis of the role that network pictures play in actors' efforts to change their network position. The study develops seven propositions in an attempt to describe the role of network pictures in network change. So far, the relevant literature discusses network pictures mainly as a theoretical concept. Finally, the chapter concludes with important implications for management practice.

Details

Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

Shunichi Maekawa

In the past, the profit from property investments was always higher than that from other assets, because of the expectation of high rates of increase in land prices…

Abstract

In the past, the profit from property investments was always higher than that from other assets, because of the expectation of high rates of increase in land prices. However, as Japan′s economic growth has been slowing down, these circumstances for property investments have changed. The income yield rate of commercial property investments in Tokyo decreased sharply from 1982 to 1987 because of the sharp increase in land prices. Though commercial land prices in Tokyo have decreased since 1992, the income yield rate is too low because of decrease of office rents. If the income yield rate does not increase, demand for commercial property investments will not recover because a high rate of increase in land prices cannot be expected in the future.

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Journal of Property Valuation and Investment, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-2712

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Drew Martin and Arch G. Woodside

Using brand netnography (analyzing consumers' first‐person on‐line stories that include discussions of their product and brand use), this article aims to probe how…

Abstract

Purpose

Using brand netnography (analyzing consumers' first‐person on‐line stories that include discussions of their product and brand use), this article aims to probe how visitors interpret the places, people, and situations that they experience while traveling in Japan.

Design/methodology/approach

Through analysis of online consumer stories about their trip experiences, Heider's balance theory is applied to visitors' trip experiences. Follow‐up contact with the consumers allows application of autodriving methodology to gather additional post‐trip insights.

Findings

The results show immediate and downstream positive and negative associations of concepts, events, and outcomes in visitors' stories. Maps of consumer stories identify kernel concepts and include descriptions of how visitors live a specific destination's unique promises (e.g. distinct cultural history). Using the kernel concepts as a basis, Holt's five‐step strategy for building icons is applied to the travel destination to show how a destination can create a brand identity.

Research limitations/implications

Bloggers reporting their travel experience may not be representative of the population of travelers. On the other hand, travel blogs potentially can influence trip planning by other visitors collecting travel information.

Practical implications

Blog reports represent an unobtrusive method of collecting emic interpretive information from consumers. Emic reporting provides deep insights about consumers' trip interpretations. Tourism and hospitality managers can use this information to improve service experiences and design communication strategies to strengthen positive iconic imagery reported by consumers.

Originality/value

Emic and etic interpretations of travel experiences create a bricolage of the travelers' experiences. Autodriving methodology is extended to tourism research to gather additional insights and to better clarify informants' interpretations. This article also expands on a revisionist proposal to Holt's five‐step strategy for building destinations as iconic brands and suggestions for tourism management.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Midori Kawabe, Hiroshi Kohno, Reiko Ikeda, Takashi Ishimaru, Osamu Baba, Naho Horimoto, Jota Kanda, Masaji Matsuyam, Masato Moteki, Yayoi Oshima, Tsuyoshi Sasaki and Minlee Yap

The purpose of this paper is to draw lessons for developing community‐university partnerships from experiences in promoting coastal education for sustainable development (ESD).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw lessons for developing community‐university partnerships from experiences in promoting coastal education for sustainable development (ESD).

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data collected from two coastal community outreach projects were analyzed.

Findings

The outreach projects improved the relationship between university and community members. It is important to conduct interviews at the early stages of the projects to understand the needs of the community and set project outcomes to meet community‐defined priorities. The most effective means for promoting an ESD program based upon community‐university partnerships is to reach out to and network with local individuals who have been active in community projects and embed the program concept into the activities of those individuals. Mediators who link the academic community with the local community are helpful in promoting the partnerships, and university students were found to be successful mediators.

Originality/value

On the basis of the experiences gained from starting an ESD program in the community, this research provides some clues to initiate service learning or community‐based research based upon community‐university partnerships.

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Joan Henderson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between global cities and international tourism with particular reference to the recent experiences of Tokyo which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between global cities and international tourism with particular reference to the recent experiences of Tokyo which has recently seen a marked increase in arrivals. It addresses questions of the standing of Tokyo as a global city and tourist destination, how the two functions are connected and why changes are occurring.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed is that of an empirical case study based on the analysis of published materials drawn from a diversity of sources.

Findings

The defining characteristics of global cities are generally conducive to their function as international tourist destinations. They possess a wealth of tourism resources and amenities which facilitate inbound tourist flows. Tokyo is a prominent example of a global city, but has tended to attract fewer visitors than others in that category. The recent significant growth in arrivals is attributed to changes in the tourism industry and wider environment, yet some challenges remain before it can catch up with its counterparts.

Originality/value

Fresh insights are afforded into the implications of global city status for tourism and the development of Tokyo as a destination which tends to have been neglected in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2006

David Rands

Osaka, with roots historically as deep as the Japanese state itself, reached what Hall refers to as a “golden age” first (Hall, 1998), only to be surpassed in the later…

Abstract

Osaka, with roots historically as deep as the Japanese state itself, reached what Hall refers to as a “golden age” first (Hall, 1998), only to be surpassed in the later 19th and 20th centuries by Tokyo, a backwater fishing village until the 17th century. Differences between Tokyo and Osaka begin with the function of each city, the physical structures, economic bases, and political practices of which all interacted to create the urban fabric into which the Korean migrants moved.

Details

Ethnic Landscapes in an Urban World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1321-1

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Book part
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Chikako Mori

Based on a case study of the pre-2020 Olympics renewal project in the city-center of Tokyo, this chapter examines the nature and impacts of urban renewal conducted by the…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on a case study of the pre-2020 Olympics renewal project in the city-center of Tokyo, this chapter examines the nature and impacts of urban renewal conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) in relation to social housing.

Methodology/approach

A qualitative case study approach is used based on interviews (with different stakeholders), and participant observation (at various local events or public assemblies) to analyze the impact of such urban renewal on social housing and its community.

Findings

The TMG has promoted urban renewal of city government-owned land in public-private partnerships by defending these projects as “win-win-win strategy among residents-business-city.” However, at the same time it has worsened the housing conditions of residents by causing their displacement or the deterioration of their housing environment.

Social implications

The chapter shows us that the TMG’s justification for the urban renewal — would produce trickle-down effects and help the residents — doesn’t reflect what is really happening to the community. This will help us to have a better understanding of the reality and to critically discuss a more just urban and housing policy.

Originality/value

The chapter provides a complex insight on the “super-residualization” of social housing in Japan, characterized not only by the decrease in its number but also urban renewal providing business services and amenities for the middle and upper classes. This provides an interesting comparison with Western societies.

Details

Social Housing and Urban Renewal
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-124-7

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Olawumi Fadeyi, Stanley McGreal, Michael McCord and Jim Berry

Office markets and particularly international financial centres over the past decade have experienced rapid financialisation, developments and indeed changes in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Office markets and particularly international financial centres over the past decade have experienced rapid financialisation, developments and indeed changes in the post-global financial crisis (GFC) landscape. Importantly, the volume and types of international capital flows have witnessed more foreign actors and vehicles entering into the investment landscape with the concentration of investment intensifying within key financial centres. This paper examines the interaction of international real estate capital flows in the London, New York and Tokyo office markets between 2007 and 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Real Capital Analytics (RCA) data comprising over 5,700 office property transactions equating to $563bn between 2007 and 2017, the direct global capital flows into the London, New York and Tokyo office markets are assessed using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. Further, Granger causality tests are examined to analyse the short-run interaction of international real estate capital flows into these three major office markets.

Findings

By assessing the relativity of internal to external investments in these three central business district (CBD) office markets, differences in market dynamics are highlighted. The London office market is shown to be highly dependent on international flows and the USA, the foremost source of cross-border investment on the global stage. The cointegration and causality analysis indicate that cross-border real estate investment flows in these markets (and financial centres) show both long- and short-run relationships and suggest that the London office market remains more distinct and the most reliant on international capital flows with a wider geographical spread of investment activities and investor types. In the case of New York and Tokyo, these markets appear to be driven by more domestic investment activity and capital seemingly due to subtle factors pertaining to investor home bias, risk aversion and diversification strategies between the markets in the aftermath of the GFC.

Originality/value

Given the importance of the CBD offices in London, New York and Tokyo as an asset class for institutional investors, this paper provides some insights as to their level of connection and the interaction of the international capital flows into these three major cities.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Nobukaza Azuma

The emergence of purely “street‐born” fashion styles in the 1990s in the young women’s casual wear market in Tokyo has revealed the limitations of the conventional…

Abstract

The emergence of purely “street‐born” fashion styles in the 1990s in the young women’s casual wear market in Tokyo has revealed the limitations of the conventional framework of quick response (QR) approaches that have long been implemented by Japanese fashion houses. They were found to be incapable of responding to the need for fresh fashion designs in the extremely volatile and fast‐moving streets of Tokyo’s casual fashion scene. This, on the other hand, has initiated a Korean‐Japanese fashion connection, in which a large number of small fashion firms in the Dongdaemun fashion industry district in Seoul play an important role in the taking‐shape of the pronto moda (fast fashion) in Tokyo style, with their organic networking of small suppliers within the agglomeration. The linkage of fashion industries between Seoul and Tokyo has also been fostering an interactive partnership in that both parties learn the uniqueness of each other’s practices. On the basis of a review of industrial agglomeration theories, highlights the relationships between the casual fashion trends in Tokyo in the 1990s and the pronto moda formula in the fashion agglomeration in the Dongdaemun district. In addition to this, an analysis of the future implication of the Korean‐Japanese fashion connection in the context of the global fashion industry is projected.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Ingyu Chiou

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the lead‐lag relationships between three major stock markets (Tokyo, London, and New York) over the period 1997‐2007, using the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the lead‐lag relationships between three major stock markets (Tokyo, London, and New York) over the period 1997‐2007, using the return‐volatility variable. The study aims to use new data to test how one national stock market affects another national stock market, which is one focus of the market integration literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs the traditional regression model because three stock markets (Tokyo, London, and New York) are in different time zones and trading takes place sequentially. Specifically, the intraday return is calculated from the daily open and close prices.

Findings

This paper finds strong evidence that three stock markets are significantly interdependent: Tokyo leads London and New York; London leads New York and Tokyo; and New York leads Tokyo and London. In particular, the tie between London and New York is the strongest. Most of the author's results are consistent with those of previous studies.

Practical implications

First, there may exist profitable investment strategies in one market by observing the performance of another market that was just closed. Second, regulators should pay close attention to not only the domestic market but also the foreign markets and be ready to deal with adverse situations accordingly. Third, achieving international diversification in portfolio management may become more challenging because of high correlations between markets.

Originality/value

This paper extends the existing literature in market integration by using return volatility to test how one market affects another market. Our new evidence confirms that there are high degrees of linkages between Tokyo, London, and New York.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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