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Book part

Terhi Chakhovich, Seppo Ikäheimo and Tomi Seppälä

Purpose – This research presents empirical evidence on which performance measures are perceived as short-term oriented and long-term oriented by company executives, and on…

Abstract

Purpose – This research presents empirical evidence on which performance measures are perceived as short-term oriented and long-term oriented by company executives, and on whether any perceived performance measure-related time orientation affects the time orientation of these executives. In addition, the study explores which measures impact executive time orientation, regardless of how these measures are perceived.

Methodology/approach – A survey was used to collect the perceptions of chief financial officers (CFOs) in 109 companies listed in the Nasdaq OMX, the Nordic Stock Exchange. Performance measures include: stock price, earnings, returns, cash flow, success of development programs, EVA™, sales, and balanced scorecard, and the method employed was multiple regression.

Findings – First, the CFOs perceived returns, sales, EPS, and stock price to have long time orientation. Second, the use of returns, stock price, and success of development programs as major performance measures encourage the CFOs toward long-term behavior, whereas the use of cash flow encourages short-term behavior. Third, stock price, earnings, and EPS are measures whose perceived time orientation affects the time orientation of executives. It is most likely due to this influence, that they have received major attention in public debates on the short time orientation of executives at the expense of other, more “silent” measures that also impact executive time orientation. Contextual factors strongly affect the results.

Practical implications – The study assists in designing executive performance measurement systems that encourage desired time orientation.

Originality/value – This study contributes to the fields of performance measurement and time orientation by recognizing the multidimensionality of the construct of time orientation and by showing how performance measures and their perceived time orientation influence executive time orientation.

Details

Performance Measurement and Management Control: Innovative Concepts and Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-725-7

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Article

Erdener Kaynak, Ali Kara, Clement S.F. Chow and Ali Riza Apil

The empirical, cross-national study reported here examines how time orientations influence attitudes toward advertising in two emerging Asian economies with very different…

Abstract

Purpose

The empirical, cross-national study reported here examines how time orientations influence attitudes toward advertising in two emerging Asian economies with very different background and time orientation, namely Macau and Georgia. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaire was used as an instrument to conduct a survey for the study. The questionnaire design was adapted from Rojas-Méndez et al. study. The two samples were collected through either a drop-off-and-pick-up method or street-intercept interview.

Findings

Georgians are found to be more past oriented and had had more suspicious feelings about advertising whereas Macau data indicated more future-orientation was the most dominant dimensions and they had better dispositions towards advertising.

Practical implications

With the findings, managers of different time orientation markets can consider one more factor to strike for the optimal balance in placing their promotional budget between pull and push strategy, and between above-the-line and below-the-line activities when executing the pull strategy.

Social implications

Government of different time orientation can be more informed of the effectiveness of using advertising to communicate with its citizens in its culture.

Originality/value

Studies on how time orientation relates to attitudes toward advertising are few and such relationship appears to be never compared within two Asian countries with very different background and time orientation.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article

Sunil Venaik, Yunxia Zhu and Paul Brewer

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine, theoretically and empirically, the two time orientation dimensions – long‐term orientation (LTO) and future orientation

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine, theoretically and empirically, the two time orientation dimensions – long‐term orientation (LTO) and future orientation (FO) – in the national culture models of Hofstede and GLOBE, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Following Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's past‐present‐future theoretical lens, the Hofstede LTO and GLOBE FO measures are analysed to understand the conceptual domain covered by these two dimensions. Next, the authors empirically examine the relationship of Hofstede LTO and GLOBE FO with secondary data from Hofstede, GLOBE, and the World Values Survey.

Findings

This paper shows that Hofstede LTO and GLOBE FO dimensions capture different aspects of time orientation of societies. In particular, Hofstede LTO focuses on past (tradition) versus future (thrift) aspect of societies, GLOBE FO practices capture the present versus future (planning) practices of societies, and GLOBE FO values reflect societal aspirations and preferences for planning.

Research limitations/implications

A specific implication of these findings is that the three dimensions of time orientation are not interchangeable since they represent different characteristics of societies. A wider implication for researchers is to ensure high level of precision in and congruence among construct labels, definitions and measures to avoid confusion and misapplication of cross‐cultural concepts.

Practical implications

In an increasingly globalized world, a clear understanding of societal time orientation will help managers deal more effectively with their counterparts in other countries.

Originality/value

The key contribution of this paper is in identifying and clarifying, both theoretically and empirically, the anomalies in the labels, definitions and measurement of Hofstede long‐term orientation and GLOBE future orientation national culture dimensions. It also shows a useful way forward for researchers on how to use these national culture dimensions to explain other phenomena of interest to cross‐cultural scholars.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Book part

Zhihong Wang and James E. Hunton

The purpose of the current study is to examine how employees from different cultures respond to participative budgeting when the budget planning horizon is congruent or…

Abstract

The purpose of the current study is to examine how employees from different cultures respond to participative budgeting when the budget planning horizon is congruent or incongruent with their cultural time orientation. We conducted a 2×2 quasi-experiment in which cultural time orientation (short term or long term) was measured and budget planning horizon (short term or long term) was manipulated. A total of 164 employees participated in the experiment – 87 from China and 77 from the United States, representing long-term and short-term cultural time orientations, respectively. The results indicate that satisfaction with participative budgeting was greater when cultural time orientation and budget planning horizon were congruent, relative to incongruent. Also, the differential reaction between congruence and incongruence was less extreme for the Chinese participants than the U.S. participants, which is consistent with Confucian thought of “The Doctrine of the Mean.” The results of this study contribute to participative budgeting literature and suggest that managers who operate in different countries should be cognizant of cultural differences when employing participative budgeting processes.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-086-5

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Article

Terhi Chakhovich

The temporality of performance measurement systems has been claimed to affect actors’ time orientation, such as that of listed company managers. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The temporality of performance measurement systems has been claimed to affect actors’ time orientation, such as that of listed company managers. The purpose of this paper is to explore this view.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses constructivist data gathered from executives in one listed and one non-listed company.

Findings

The study shows that the research on performance measurement is based on a linear-quantitative view on time that assumes that humans orient towards the future from one point, the present; this view excludes other time-related constructs, particularly the past, and highlights a choice between the short term and the long term, idealising the long term. It is shown that the performance measurement of non-listed company executives is constructed through past-based, present-based and future-based rationalities: executives acknowledge the past as a basis for present and future performance, present actions as shaping future performance and future plans and performance targets as bases for present actions. Listed company executives’ performance measurement is constructed predominantly through the present-based time rationality.

Research limitations/implications

“The orientation from the present” and the “short” and “long terms” could be enhanced with time rationalities.

Practical implications

The evaluation periods within performance measurement systems do not determine the time orientations of the actors subjected to those systems; time rationalities could be considered when designing such systems.

Originality/value

The paper provides a novel view on performance measurement and time.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article

Seung‐Bae Park, Namho Chung and Sang‐Cheol Woo

The purpose of this study is to propose long‐term orientation as a moderating effect on restaurant customer reward programs. Unlike in short‐term oriented and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose long‐term orientation as a moderating effect on restaurant customer reward programs. Unlike in short‐term oriented and transactional marketing, long‐term orientation is an important factor in creating new loyal customers.

Design/methodology/approach

This research shows how the moderating effect of long‐term orientation affects customer reaction to reward timing (Experiment 1) and reward type (Experiment 2). The independent variables of Experiment 1 were timing of rewards (immediate/accumulate) and long‐term orientation (high/low), with the dependent variable being customer loyalty. The independent variables of Experiment 2 were the types of rewards (monetary/nonmonetary) and long‐term orientation (high/low), with the dependent variable being customer loyalty. The treatment groups are different from each other with regard to reward type and reward timing.

Findings

Depending on the reward type and its timing, long‐term orientation has a moderating effect on customer loyalty. In customers with a high long‐term orientation, there is no difference in the effect of rewards, whether they are immediate or accumulated and monetary or nonmonetary. On the other hand, for customers with a low long‐term orientation, the effect of rewards increases for monetary rewards more than nonmonetary ones and for immediate rewards more than for accumulated ones.

Originality/value

This paper helps restaurant managers to better understand customer loyalty and the value of reward programs that take into account the long‐term orientation concept.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Book part

Chris Rowell, Robin Gustafsson and Marco Clemente

We argue that our understanding of how institutions matter has been undermined by a piecemeal approach to temporality in institutional analyses. This paper addresses this…

Abstract

We argue that our understanding of how institutions matter has been undermined by a piecemeal approach to temporality in institutional analyses. This paper addresses this shortcoming in the literature. We bring temporality to the fore by conceptualizing practices, which constitute institutions, as understood, situated, and coordinated in time by temporal structures. We elaborate an integrated framework of temporal structures that consist of three types: temporal patterns, temporal conceptions, and temporal orientations – and outline how each type contributes to the reproduction of practices. We discuss the implications of this framework for sustainability initiatives and conclude by suggesting future avenues of research on the temporal foundations of institutions.

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Book part

Caroline A Bartel and Frances J Milliken

Achieving temporal synchronization may require that work groups develop shared cognitions about the time-related demands they face. We investigated the extent to which…

Abstract

Achieving temporal synchronization may require that work groups develop shared cognitions about the time-related demands they face. We investigated the extent to which group members developed shared cognitions with respect to the three temporal perceptions: time orientation (present vs. future), time compression, and time management (scheduling and time management). We argue that group members are more likely to align their perceptions to temporal characteristics of the group or organizational context (e.g. time compression, scheduling, proper time allocation) rather than to each other’s individual time orientations. Survey data collected from 104 work groups are largely consistent with these expectations. The implications of shared cognitions on time for work group functioning and performance are discussed.

Details

Time in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-093-7

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Book part

Janet L. Sutton, Linda G. Pierce, C.Shawn Burke and Eduardo Salas

Barriers to cultural adaptability include perceptual, interpretive, and evaluative biases. Differences in culturally based perceptual patterns can be problematic given…

Abstract

Barriers to cultural adaptability include perceptual, interpretive, and evaluative biases. Differences in culturally based perceptual patterns can be problematic given that interpretation and evaluation of behavior is a critical element of teamwork. Altogether, perceptual patterns are “selective, learned, culturally determined, consistent, and inaccurate” (Adler, 1986, p. 54). Selective exposure, selective attention, and selective retention are all hallmarks of the process of perception. Bagby (1970) demonstrated how perceptual patterns become selective even in childhood. He had American and Mexican children watch a bullfight and a baseball game simultaneously using a tachistoscope. When asked what they had seen, the American children claimed to have watched a baseball game, and the Mexican children claimed to have watched a bullfight. Neither group was aware that they had been presented two stimuli simultaneously. Both groups of children selected stimuli that had meaning for their culture and ignored or forgot the stimuli that had no meaning for them. The children's culture predisposed them to notice some things and not others. Perceptual selectivity is a key barrier to cultural adaptability and influences both interpretation and evaluation.

Details

Understanding Adaptability: A Prerequisite for Effective Performance within Complex Environments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-371-6

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Article

Linda Wulf, Markus Garschall, Michael Klein and Manfred Tscheligi

The purpose of this paper is to gain deeper insights into performance differences of younger and older users when performing touch gestures, as well as the influence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain deeper insights into performance differences of younger and older users when performing touch gestures, as well as the influence of tablet device orientation (portrait vs landscape).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed a comparative study involving 20 younger (25-45 years) and 20 older participants (65-85 years). Each participant executed six gestures with each device orientation. Age was set as a between-subject factor. The dependent variables were task completion time and error rates (missed target rate and finger lift rate). To measure various performance characteristics, the authors implemented an application for the iPad that logged completion time and error rates of the participants when performing six gestural tasks – tap, drag, pinch, pinch-pan, rotate left and rotate right – for both device orientations.

Findings

The results show a significant effect of age on completion time and error rates. Means reveal faster completion times and lower error rates for younger users than for older users. In addition, a significant effect of device orientation on error rates could be stated. Means show higher error rates for portrait orientation than for landscape orientation. Qualitative results reveal a clear preference for landscape orientation in both age groups and a lower acceptance of rotation gestures among older participants.

Originality/value

In this study the authors were able to show the importance of device orientation as an influencing factor on touch interaction performance, indicating that age is not the exclusive influencing factor.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

Keywords

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