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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1972

James Donnelly and John Ryans

Isolates the importance of economic level and cultural level and cultural perceptions in influencing agency selection overseas by major US companies. Recounts that many…

Abstract

Isolates the importance of economic level and cultural level and cultural perceptions in influencing agency selection overseas by major US companies. Recounts that many study findings, relating particularly to the use of local or US‐based advertising agencies, are examined. Particular concern is to whether or not such factors as the advertiser's attitudes towards cultural factor importance and market area economic development, are considerations in the placing of preparing and placing non‐domestic advertising. Looks at the role of culture and statements to prove advantages and disadvantages in these. Concludes that if a firm uses either US‐based agencies for overseas representation or foreign‐based agencies, its management is displaying some concern for the cultural and other differences forced between markets.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Sally J. Messenger and Soo Mei Lin

Focus is on the extent to which international hotel companies areattempting to standardise their advertising messages as they movetowards serving a more internationally…

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1427

Abstract

Focus is on the extent to which international hotel companies are attempting to standardise their advertising messages as they move towards serving a more internationally based market. The characteristics of advertising in the hotel industry are reviewed, together with an examination of the arguments for and against standardisation in international advertising. An overview of a piece of research undertaken in Hong Kong and the UK to determine the level of standardisation is provided together with the results of the project.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Abstract

Details

Advertising in New Formats and Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-312-9

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Fernando Fastoso and Jeryl Whitelock

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the implementation of international advertising strategies by first introducing a framework of four options that…

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3214

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the implementation of international advertising strategies by first introducing a framework of four options that multinational enterprises (MNEs) can use to implement such strategies and second by drawing on contingency theory to develop and test hypotheses relating to how environmental factors and company characteristics affect such implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses are tested using web‐survey data obtained from 182 Latin American managers based in the Mercosur trading bloc.

Findings

Findings show that the choice of implementation process option is contingent on the environmental factor, cultural homogeneity and the company characteristics subsidiary size and MNE country‐of‐origin, yet not on regional economic integration.

Research limitations/implications

This exploratory study contributes to advertising theory by offering an alternative approach to the consideration of the international advertising standardization question that focuses on the implementation of strategies rather than on their development. The findings further confirm the theory of regional multinationals in the context of international advertising decisions.

Practical implications

The study presents practitioners with four distinct approaches to implementing their international advertising strategies as well as with clear guidelines as to how managers should implement those strategies depending on the specific benefits of standardization they want to achieve.

Originality/value

To the knowledge of the authors, this study is the first to specifically address the implementation of international advertising strategies.

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Jing Jiang and Ran Wei

The purpose of this research is to study creative strategy and execution as opposed to all elements of marketing and advertising standardization. It explores the…

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11745

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study creative strategy and execution as opposed to all elements of marketing and advertising standardization. It explores the standardization model (e.g. global, glocal, local, and single case strategy) by examining the international advertising strategies that multinational corporations (MNCs) from North America, Europe, and Asia used in their advertising campaigns targeting two culturally different markets: the United States and China.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of 210 print advertisements compares the extent of standardization in creative strategy and execution across product country of origin (Japan, Korea, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States). Western versus non‐Western cultural cues are also coded and examined.

Findings

Overall, MNCs are more likely to adopt the glocal strategy than any other strategies in their international campaigns. Specifically, EU‐based MNCs tend to pursue the global strategy, whereas the North America‐based MNCs seem to favor the glocal strategy and Asia‐based MNCs tend to use local strategy. Western and non‐Western cultural values are found to manifest in the American and Chinese ads similarly, indicating a trend of increasing similarity in international advertising in face of global consumer culture.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this content analysis provide a fuller picture in understanding the long‐standing issues of standardization in international advertising because of an approach to analyze creative strategy separately from execution. However, content analysis is inherently limited in inferring causality between observed patterns and mechanisms/variables that account for the patterns. Also, the time frame for sample selection, which is set as a year prior to the 2008 global financial crisis, is another limitation of the study.

Practical implications

There is an ongoing trend of using “one‐creative, multiple‐execution” strategy in international advertising. MNCs may distinguish advertising creative strategy from execution when developing their international advertising campaigns.

Originality/value

First, this study addresses the issue with a clear conceptual definition of standardization and differentiates the strategic and tactic standardization. Second, this is the first attempt to explore the standardization model using a sample of 51 multinational brands from North America, Europe, and Asia. The authors find that MNCs are practicing some standardization advertising strategy, but to varying degrees. Third, this study identifies and empirically tests two external factors – culture and convergence of external markets – that influence standardization.

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

Nikolaos Papavassiliou and Vlasis Stathakopoulos

In the international marketing literature the issue of advertising standardization has ignited a lively and heated debate among academics and managers alike. However, the…

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27958

Abstract

In the international marketing literature the issue of advertising standardization has ignited a lively and heated debate among academics and managers alike. However, the decision whether to standardize or not cannot be considered a dichotomous one. Develops a comprehensive framework to capture the relevant factors that determine the selection of the appropriate international advertising strategies and tactics. More specifically, first identifies three broad sets of factors (“local”, “firm” and “intrinsic”) which influence international advertising decisions. Then proposes that the standardization and adaptation of international advertising strategies represent the polar ends of a continuum of transitional stages. Finally, discusses the ways and the degree to which international advertising strategies can be adapted to different situations.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1977

Dean M. Peebles, John K. Ryans, Ivan R. Vernon and James R. Willis

The first part of this monograph discusses new perspectives on advertising standardisation. Until recently the controversy over the applicability of standardised…

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2239

Abstract

The first part of this monograph discusses new perspectives on advertising standardisation. Until recently the controversy over the applicability of standardised advertising themes or advertising campaigns has ignored the realistic marketing approach employed by a select group of multinational companies. The authors note that many companies take a theme or campaign that has been successful in one market, often their domestic market, and employ it in multiple markets; their approach is to make local subsidiaries operate within strict advertising parameters. Goodyear International Corporation and a few other firms, however, follow a pattern approach in which the theme or campaign is initially designed for multi‐market usage and local flexibility.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 11 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Martin Fojt

This special “Anbar Abstracts” issue of the Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing is split into seven sections covering abstracts under the following headings…

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1112

Abstract

This special “Anbar Abstracts” issue of the Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing is split into seven sections covering abstracts under the following headings: Marketing strategy; Customer service; Sales management; Promotion; Product management; Marketing research/customer behavior; Sundry.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Ali Kanso, Richard Alan Nelson and Philip James Kitchen

This study aims to explore advertising strategies by US corporations selling consumer services overseas. Attention is extended to determining the type of standardized…

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1214

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore advertising strategies by US corporations selling consumer services overseas. Attention is extended to determining the type of standardized advertising (pattern vs prototype) that US headquarters tend to use in international campaigns, identifying major obstacles that impede advertising standardization and examining linkages between the use of creative approaches (standardized vs localized) and firms ' length of business and sales volume.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a descriptive approach and rigorous sample, the authors surveyed international advertising managers of US firms selling consumer services. A 57 per cent response rate provided the basis for testing two research questions and two hypotheses.

Findings

US firm headquarters tend to lean more toward the use of prototype standardization than pattern standardization. The major impediments of standardized campaigns are perceived to be cultural differences, alternatives in consumer lifestyles, language diversity, variations in worldwide market infrastructure and government regulations.

Research limitations/implications

While demonstrating correlations in some areas, the authors offer some suggestions for future investigation of this important topic. By focusing on services marketing, the study does contribute to the extant discussion concerning advertising standardization/localization from the context of US-based services businesses marketing internationally.

Practical implications

The outcomes indicate that established business firms and firms with large sales volumes, compared to younger business firms and firms with small sales volumes, are more likely to use the standardized advertising approach than the localized approach.

Originality/value

The paper offers new insights into the standardized/localized debate where advertising researchers have tended to overlook the significance of service businesses in the international context.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Martin Fojt

This special “Anbar Abstracts” issue of the Marketing Intelligence & Planning is split into seven sections covering abstracts under the following headings: Marketing…

Abstract

This special “Anbar Abstracts” issue of the Marketing Intelligence & Planning is split into seven sections covering abstracts under the following headings: Marketing Strategy; Customer Service; Sales Management/Sundry; Promotion; Marketing Research/Customer Behaviour; Product Management; Logistics and Distribution.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 13 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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