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Pattern of similarities/differences in time orientation and advertising attitudes: A cross-cultural comparison of Georgian and Macau consumers

Erdener Kaynak (School of Business Administration, Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA)
Ali Kara (College of Business Administration, Pennsylvania State University, York, Pennsylvania, USA)
Clement S.F. Chow (Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Tapia, Macau)
Ali Riza Apil (Faculty of Business Management, International Black Sea University, Tbilisi, Georgia)

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics

ISSN: 1355-5855

Article publication date: 6 September 2013

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Abstract

Purpose

The empirical, cross-national study reported here examines how time orientations influence attitudes toward advertising in two emerging Asian economies with very different background and time orientation, namely Macau and Georgia. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaire was used as an instrument to conduct a survey for the study. The questionnaire design was adapted from Rojas-Méndez et al. study. The two samples were collected through either a drop-off-and-pick-up method or street-intercept interview.

Findings

Georgians are found to be more past oriented and had had more suspicious feelings about advertising whereas Macau data indicated more future-orientation was the most dominant dimensions and they had better dispositions towards advertising.

Practical implications

With the findings, managers of different time orientation markets can consider one more factor to strike for the optimal balance in placing their promotional budget between pull and push strategy, and between above-the-line and below-the-line activities when executing the pull strategy.

Social implications

Government of different time orientation can be more informed of the effectiveness of using advertising to communicate with its citizens in its culture.

Originality/value

Studies on how time orientation relates to attitudes toward advertising are few and such relationship appears to be never compared within two Asian countries with very different background and time orientation.

Keywords

Citation

Kaynak, E., Kara, A., S.F. Chow, C. and Riza Apil, A. (2013), "Pattern of similarities/differences in time orientation and advertising attitudes: A cross-cultural comparison of Georgian and Macau consumers", Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 631-654. https://doi.org/10.1108/APJML-09-2012-0087

Publisher

:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2013, Emerald Group Publishing Limited