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Article

Sunil Venaik, Yunxia Zhu and Paul Brewer

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine, theoretically and empirically, the two time orientation dimensions – long‐term orientation (LTO) and future orientation

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine, theoretically and empirically, the two time orientation dimensions – long‐term orientation (LTO) and future orientation (FO) – in the national culture models of Hofstede and GLOBE, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Following Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's past‐present‐future theoretical lens, the Hofstede LTO and GLOBE FO measures are analysed to understand the conceptual domain covered by these two dimensions. Next, the authors empirically examine the relationship of Hofstede LTO and GLOBE FO with secondary data from Hofstede, GLOBE, and the World Values Survey.

Findings

This paper shows that Hofstede LTO and GLOBE FO dimensions capture different aspects of time orientation of societies. In particular, Hofstede LTO focuses on past (tradition) versus future (thrift) aspect of societies, GLOBE FO practices capture the present versus future (planning) practices of societies, and GLOBE FO values reflect societal aspirations and preferences for planning.

Research limitations/implications

A specific implication of these findings is that the three dimensions of time orientation are not interchangeable since they represent different characteristics of societies. A wider implication for researchers is to ensure high level of precision in and congruence among construct labels, definitions and measures to avoid confusion and misapplication of cross‐cultural concepts.

Practical implications

In an increasingly globalized world, a clear understanding of societal time orientation will help managers deal more effectively with their counterparts in other countries.

Originality/value

The key contribution of this paper is in identifying and clarifying, both theoretically and empirically, the anomalies in the labels, definitions and measurement of Hofstede long‐term orientation and GLOBE future orientation national culture dimensions. It also shows a useful way forward for researchers on how to use these national culture dimensions to explain other phenomena of interest to cross‐cultural scholars.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article

JungHwa (Jenny) Hong and Kyung-Ah (Kay) Byun

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of culture and future orientation in lenders’ prosocial microlending behaviors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of culture and future orientation in lenders’ prosocial microlending behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments examine how different cultural backgrounds, either individualistic or collectivistic, influenced microlenders’ prosocial behaviors, including the amount of microlending, the willingness to help and the length of commitment. Further, the moderating role of future orientation among individualists is investigated.

Findings

Results indicate that cultural differences influence prosocial microlending differently such that individualists give less to people in need compared to collectivists. Further, the author found that future orientation helps lenders in individualistic culture to improve prosocial microlending behaviors.

Originality/value

This paper emphasizes the role of cultural background and future orientation in promoting lenders’ prosocial giving in the context of microlending. The results assist social marketers to understand how to motivate giving behaviors via microlending among lenders in different cultures depending on future orientation.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Thomas Foscht, Yuting Lin and Andreas B. Eisingerich

This paper aims to explore how and when a business’ transparency leads to greater willingness to engage in sustainable and responsible consumption by consumers.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how and when a business’ transparency leads to greater willingness to engage in sustainable and responsible consumption by consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in two studies. Study 1 collected data from 219 consumers in a large shopping mall. Study 2 followed an experimental approach and used data from 327 participants.

Findings

The current research contributes to theory by hypothesizing and demonstrating when transparency is associated with higher willingness for sustainable and responsible consumption. Critically, the positive benefits of transparency vary according to a business’ future orientation, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and levels of customer involvement.

Practical implications

An important societal and practical implication of the current research is that business should not be expected to only focus on transparency in isolation but rather also needs to consider levels of perceived future orientation, CSR and levels of customer involvement to strengthen sustainable and responsible behavior effectively.

Originality/value

This research builds on and extends current knowledge by exploring the key role of business’ transparency in influencing sustainable and responsible customer behavior and examines critical boundary conditions for the observed effects.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Jih-Hua Yang, Cheng-Chen Lin, Shih-Chieh Fang and Ching-Ying Huang

The vast majority of research on traditional leadership focuses on effective and positive leadership behavior. However, scholars have begun to pay attention to the impact…

Abstract

Purpose

The vast majority of research on traditional leadership focuses on effective and positive leadership behavior. However, scholars have begun to pay attention to the impact of negative leadership behavior on employees and the organization. Hence, the main purpose is to examine the effects of abusive supervision. While the literature does not examine the time future orientation of the effects of abusive supervision, the purpose of this paper is to fill up this gap and examine the moderating role of future orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 584 valid questionnaires were collected from respondents aged between 21 and 30 years old and analyzed using the hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling method.

Findings

The main results show that abusive supervision positively affects counterproductive work behavior and future orientation positively moderates both the relationship between abusive supervision and originality behavior and the relationship between abusive supervision and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the moderating roles of future orientation in the effects of abusive supervision, and thus deepens the understanding of the moderating effect. It departs from the prior works and presents a more detailed examination examines the distinct dimensions of personality traits. It makes three main theoretical contributions. First, it introduces uncertainty management theory as a means to interpret the effects of abusive supervision. Second, it contributes to the literature on abusive supervision. Third, it does not lead to discovery as an OCB and originality, conclusions which differ from the results suggested in past literature.

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Article

Ali Abu-Rahma and Bushra Jaleel

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between time orientation and strategic practices in the context of an Arab country. Toward this end, the paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between time orientation and strategic practices in the context of an Arab country. Toward this end, the paper studies a conditional process model that assesses the role of visioning ability and perceived uncertainty in explaining how future-oriented managers may be better at strategic management.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a quantitative research design with closed-ended questionnaires as the main mode of data collection, and applies bootstrapping technique to test the significance and validity of the conditional process model.

Findings

The results confirm that time orientation influences strategic practices in an organization through its impact on a manager’s visioning ability, when uncertainty in the environment is perceived as low-moderate. The study also notes that local managers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) tend to be relatively future oriented and demonstrate a greater preference toward strategic work in comparison to operational tasks.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of this study has been limited to UAE nationals, and generalization of these results should be done with caution. Future research is recommended on a wider geographical area, such that cross-national results can be used to better understand the concept of time orientation in Arab countries.

Originality/value

Findings of this paper contribute to the literature by studying the concept of time orientation in a unique cultural domain. Moreover, by providing a theoretically relevant model for understanding the relationship between time orientation and strategic practices, the study highlights the significance of environmental uncertainty, and the importance of developing the visioning abilities of those involved in strategic roles in an organization.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Terhi Chakhovich

The temporality of performance measurement systems has been claimed to affect actors’ time orientation, such as that of listed company managers. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The temporality of performance measurement systems has been claimed to affect actors’ time orientation, such as that of listed company managers. The purpose of this paper is to explore this view.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses constructivist data gathered from executives in one listed and one non-listed company.

Findings

The study shows that the research on performance measurement is based on a linear-quantitative view on time that assumes that humans orient towards the future from one point, the present; this view excludes other time-related constructs, particularly the past, and highlights a choice between the short term and the long term, idealising the long term. It is shown that the performance measurement of non-listed company executives is constructed through past-based, present-based and future-based rationalities: executives acknowledge the past as a basis for present and future performance, present actions as shaping future performance and future plans and performance targets as bases for present actions. Listed company executives’ performance measurement is constructed predominantly through the present-based time rationality.

Research limitations/implications

“The orientation from the present” and the “short” and “long terms” could be enhanced with time rationalities.

Practical implications

The evaluation periods within performance measurement systems do not determine the time orientations of the actors subjected to those systems; time rationalities could be considered when designing such systems.

Originality/value

The paper provides a novel view on performance measurement and time.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article

Roberta J. Schultz and David J. Good

The value of long‐term relationships has become a widely studied variable in marketing. This article investigates two important characteristics of salespeople…

Abstract

The value of long‐term relationships has become a widely studied variable in marketing. This article investigates two important characteristics of salespeople (consideration of future sales consequences and customer‐oriented selling) and their effects on the usage of long‐term relationships. In turn, associations between a long‐term relationship orientation, and a preference for long‐term compensation are explored. The findings suggest managerial and research implications for structuring of reward systems and potential tools for recruiting, selection and assignment of salespeople based on these characteristics.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Hohjin Im and Chuansheng Chen

This study sought to examine the relation of cultural practices and values with favoritism and nepotism/cronyism. Additionally, this study's purpose was also to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

This study sought to examine the relation of cultural practices and values with favoritism and nepotism/cronyism. Additionally, this study's purpose was also to examine how trust mediates the relation between culture and favoritism.

Design/methodology/approach

Correlations were used for exploratory investigation into the bivariate relations between culture and favoritism and nepotism/cronyism across 97 cultures. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were then conducted to examine the cultural correlates of favoritism and nepotism/cronyism holding all other variables constant. Lastly, partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of societal levels of trust.

Findings

Bivariate correlations showed that collectivism, familism, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance are positive correlates of both favoritism and nepotism/cronyism. Institutional collectivism, future orientation and trust, on the other hand, were negative correlates of favoritism and nepotism/cronyism. Uncertainty avoidance and trust were key correlates of favoritism while familism and future orientation were key correlates of nepotism/cronyism. Trust fully mediated the relation between culture and favoritism but did not mediate the relation between culture and nepotism/cronyism.

Originality/value

This study adds to the current body of literature on culture and favoritism. Notably, the findings regarding different key cultural correlates with respect to favoritism and nepotism/cronyism provide valuable implications for expanding our understanding of the psychological and social nuances of favoritism. Specifically, favoritism in transactions and interactions with those not bound by social commitment relationships may be explained by beliefs while interactions with those with social relationships (e.g., family and friends) may be explained by preferences.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Book part

Sungu Armagan, Manuel Portugal Ferreira, Bryan L. Bonner and Gerardo A. Okhuysen

This paper discusses national differences in the interpretation of time in mixed motive decision contexts, such as negotiation. Specifically, we consider how members of…

Abstract

This paper discusses national differences in the interpretation of time in mixed motive decision contexts, such as negotiation. Specifically, we consider how members of different national cultures (Portugal, Turkey, and the United States) experience temporality in these situations. We argue that cultural temporality such as polychronicity, future orientation, and uncertainty avoidance form part of a broader national environment. The national environment is also expressed in national stability factors such as legal systems, family ties, and homogeneity of populations. We propose that temporality and stability aspects of national environment determine negotiation paradigms, which subsequently influence temporality in negotiations. We conclude by suggesting that inclusion of complex and interdependent national environment factors in the study of negotiation has the potential to substantially advance our understanding of mixed motive decision situations.

Details

National Culture and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-362-4

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Article

Ahmed Seleim and Nick Bontis

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness) project national cultural dimensions of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness) project national cultural dimensions of values and practices and the Corruption Perception Index (CPI).

Design/methodology/approach

Most empirical research on culture dimensions and corruption is based on Hofstede's dataset of culture conducted more than 25 years ago. Evidence from a more recent dataset of culture dimensions is needed before current generalizations can be made. The GLOBE project is based on the perceptions of 18,000 individuals.

Findings

The results provide empirical support for the influence of uncertainty avoidance values, human orientation practices, and individual collectivism practices on the level of corruption after controlling for economic and human development, which, in turn, adds to the efforts to build a general theory of the culture perspective of corruption.

Research limitations/implications

The findings offer valuable insights on why cultural values and cultural practices should be distinguished as they relate to corruption.

Practical implications

International policy makers as well as managers at multinational corporations can benefit from the findings of this research study.

Originality/value

The research reported is among the first to investigate the issue of corruption from the perspective of national cultural values and practices.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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