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Abstract

Details

Population Change, Labor Markets and Sustainable Growth: Towards a New Economic Paradigm
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44453-051-6

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Bilal Mkhlef, Andy Cobley, Larysa Paniwnyk and Tim Mason

The purpose of this paper is to develop an optimised sonochemical surface modification process which could be operated at low temperature and which uses non‐hazardous chemistry…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an optimised sonochemical surface modification process which could be operated at low temperature and which uses non‐hazardous chemistry with short treatment times. A range of sonochemical parameters such as ultrasonic intensity/power and process temperature were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A 20 kHz ultrasonic probe was used as the ultrasonic source. Ultrasound was applied through deionised water (DI) to sonochemically surface modify a high Tg epoxy laminate material (Isola 370 HR). The efficiency of the sonochemical surface modification process was determined by weight loss, roughness, adhesion and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Findings

This study has confirmed that ultrasound has the ability to surface modify a high Tg epoxy substrate material (Isola 370 HR). Weight loss and roughness values were increased by using an optimised ultrasonic process compared to control samples which were processed under “silent” conditions. Adhesion testing showed an improvement in the adhesion level between the surface and the subsequently electroless plated copper.

Originality/value

Surface modification of high Tg materials generally utilizes wet chemical methods. These processes involve using hazardous chemicals, high temperatures, require high volumes of water for rinsing and need relatively long immersion times. This research has shown that by optimising ultrasonic parameters, surface modification can be brought about in deionised water (DI) at low temperature.

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

Andy Cobley and Tim Mason

This paper sets out to give an introduction to sonochemistry and the effects brought about by the application of ultrasound that might be useful in surface modification; and to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to give an introduction to sonochemistry and the effects brought about by the application of ultrasound that might be useful in surface modification; and to show the feasibility of sonochemical surface modification in water on a range of materials employed in electronic manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

Ultrasound was applied through DI water for the surface modification of four materials: a ceramic, a polyphenylene ester (polystyrene polymer (Noryl HM4025)), an acrylonitrile‐butadiene‐styrene/polycarbonate (ABS/PC‐Cycolac S705), and an FR4 laminate (Isola Duraver 104). The efficacy of the treatment was determined by weight loss, scanning electronic microscopy, contact angle and roughness.

Findings

Ceramic and Noryl materials can be surface modified sonochemically in DI water. Weight loss results suggested that, this was also the case for the Duraver laminate but the ABS/PC substrate was least affected by treatment in an ultrasonic field under these benign processing conditions.

Originality/value

Traditional “wet” surface modification techniques often use hazardous chemistry, high‐process temperatures, copious rinsing and long dwell times. This research programme addresses these issues by evaluating sonochemical surface modification techniques with the objective of producing a one‐step process using benign chemistry at lower temperature with less rinsing.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Andy Cobley and Tim Mason

To build on the results detailed in the previous paper where it was shown that sonochemical surface modification could be achieved in water. This paper aims to look at one of the…

Abstract

Purpose

To build on the results detailed in the previous paper where it was shown that sonochemical surface modification could be achieved in water. This paper aims to look at one of the factors affecting sonochemical surface modification, namely the ultrasonic source to sample distance.

Design/methodology/approach

Ultrasound was applied through deionized water for the surface modification of three materials: a high Tg PCB laminate (Isola 370HR), a polyphenylene ether – polystyrene polymer (Noryl HM4025) and an acrylonitrile‐butadiene‐styrene/polycarbonate (Cycolac S705). The efficacy of the treatment was determined by weight loss, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, roughness and tape testing after electroless copper plating.

Findings

The study confirmed, and extended the previous findings, that a range of substrates could be sonochemically surface modified in water, even though in this work the ultrasonic horn had a larger tip size and produced a different ultrasonic intensity. Although the results were material dependent, the ultrasonic source to sample distance was found to be critical. Employing a spacing of 5 mm produced samples which generally exhibited higher weight loss, roughness and significant changes in surface morphology than when a distance of 25 mm was utilized.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that sonochemical surface modification has the potential to be a much more sustainable surface modification process than those currently employed in the electronics industry. However, to achieve this outcome acoustic cavitation and factors affecting it (such as source to sample distance) must be understood so that suitable equipment can be built.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2023

Stuart Cartland

Abstract

Details

Constructing Realities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83797-546-4

Abstract

Details

Population Change, Labor Markets and Sustainable Growth: Towards a New Economic Paradigm
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44453-051-6

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

Roy William John Endacott

Cause‐related marketing is expanding worldwide, but few countries appear to have research data about consumer opinions regarding the subject. Consumer research can help companies…

9598

Abstract

Cause‐related marketing is expanding worldwide, but few countries appear to have research data about consumer opinions regarding the subject. Consumer research can help companies identify where and how they should position their product or service in a global market. Consumer research can also help society itself by identifying its citizens concerns and linking these, via a “good cause” or “community service”, to a company that will contribute to the consumers own welfare, community, or global enhancement. Data from various countries highlight two different aspects in relation to consumer opinions: globally consumers expect businesses to support “good causes”; and the causes consumers wish to see supported appear to be influenced by country specific factors. The drive for businesses to look more closely at their corporate social responsibility has been gaining momentum and existing consumer research suggest cause related marketing may provide a valuable strategy to meet these expectations.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Shaun Powell and Chris Dodd

The purpose of this paper is to help answer “To what degree can creative employees be encouraged or motivated to align with a leader's creative vision and what issues may be faced…

4123

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to help answer “To what degree can creative employees be encouraged or motivated to align with a leader's creative vision and what issues may be faced along the way?” The management and communication of vision in relation to the organisational brand within the creative industries can face many unique challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

As much of the existing creativity literature at an organisational level is not empirically based, a rigorous, inductive and exploratory case study approach was employed to explore emergent issues relating to the management and communication of the brand within creative small to medium‐sized organisations. Recent research attempts to uncover the link between organisational creativity and the brand are reviewed. The inductive case study approach undertaken is discussed. This incorporates interviews and thematic analysis with the aid of various qualitative data software packages.

Findings

The inductively generated themes uncover interrelating issues of relevance to owners and managers relating to: vision and alignment; creative growth; creative evaluation and rewards. The themes also help to draw attention to some of the potential barriers to achieving a desired or effective creative brand.

Originality/value

It can be argued that by taking an exploratory and inductive approach, a wide number of potential effects on creativity and the ensuing brand have been identified. Practitioners within the creative industries can potentially benefit from the observations because they are empirically based rather than being purely theoretical, and focus on both employees and clients. These also appear to go beyond the themes identified within previous studies within these same creative industry sectors. The investigation and reflections may act as a useful starting‐point for further research into the formation and management of a creative brand.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2004

Warren J. Samuels

The United States, it was once felt, could have a different foreign policy when isolated by two oceans in comparison to the later period when modern technology destroyed its…

Abstract

The United States, it was once felt, could have a different foreign policy when isolated by two oceans in comparison to the later period when modern technology destroyed its isolation. Foreign policy is thus a function of geography modified by technology. The United States, commencing some time after the first third of the 19th century, had a further choice. It could live up to its self-image as a liberal constitutional democracy and follow a foreign policy of live and let live, in both respects serving as a role model for the rest of the world. Or, like the monarchical dynasties of the past and other regimes of more recent times, it could pursue an aggressive foreign policy in pursuit of what it considered its interests, engendering enmity in various quarters. The United States has done both. In the first category it has preferred isolationism, reluctantly joining the two World Wars in defense of its autonomy. In the second category, it increasingly either engaged in the practices of conventional imperialism, often at the behest of entrepreneurial interests, or flexed and deployed its muscle in pursuit of national interests either on its own initiative or in response to threats from and capabilities of other countries. The former is American exceptionalism; the latter is conventional. Of course, the history is much more complex than the foregoing directly allows. Several other stories or models can be developed (the most recent is Mead, 2001).

Details

A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-089-0

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1985

Tesco's nutrition labelling scheme points the way to healthier eating At the beginning of 1985, Tesco announced the introduction of a new food labelling system for their own brand…

Abstract

Tesco's nutrition labelling scheme points the way to healthier eating At the beginning of 1985, Tesco announced the introduction of a new food labelling system for their own brand foods. Announcing the new venture, David Malpas, managing director (trading), said that the COMA Report had shown very clearly that food manufacturers were not giving their customers sufficient guidance to enable them to eat a more healthy diet. People need to be told more about the contents of prepared foods. A Gallup poll commissioned by Tesco showed that only 29% of shoppers thought that sufficient nutrition information was given on food labels at present, although 72% of people interviewed said that they were ‘concerned about eating healthily and wanted to improve their diets’.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 85 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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