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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Alireza Abbasi Moshaii and Farshid Najafi

This paper aims to review the mechanical characteristics of the robotic mechanisms developed for ultrasound examinations. This will help to extract those mechanical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the mechanical characteristics of the robotic mechanisms developed for ultrasound examinations. This will help to extract those mechanical features which together can produce a design with superior functionality.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an introduction regarding ultrasound examination, this paper discusses the concept of robotic ultrasound imaging and classifies the mechanisms in terms of their power trains used for robotic and haptic devices which assist physicians to perform ultrasound imaging on patients. A set of mechanical characteristics which together can generate a superior design is also presented.

Findings

The present paper shows that the robotic devices developed so far can perform ultrasound examinations. Each design with its own advantageous characteristics, and their simultaneous implementation in a new design, will create a robotic device with improved performance.

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed review of the developments of the robotic systems for ultrasound examinations and some guidelines for new designs with improved functionality.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2014

Lauren Nicholas

Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) is a well understood, yet under-recognized, placental disease affecting any given pregnancy at a rate of 1 in 1,000. There is no…

Abstract

Purpose

Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) is a well understood, yet under-recognized, placental disease affecting any given pregnancy at a rate of 1 in 1,000. There is no clustering of TTTS; instead the threat remains pathologically distinctive due to its pervasiveness. However, while incidence rates are random, survival rates are not. Despite compliant acceptance of “routine prenatal care,” sadly, there are many women who for currently unknown reasons are not receiving the advanced prenatal care needed to appropriately screen for, diagnosis and treat TTTS. And these women are paying the ultimate price for such obstetrical oversight.

Methodology

This study hypothesizes that differential care being given by primary obstetricians of TTTS patients is resulting in experienced inequalities. Utilizing social reproduction theory, and through ethnographic and quantitative analyses of primary data, this study seeks to divulge the complex social processes taking place (or failing to take place) within the world of American obstetrics, and begin to understand how they are affecting TTTS mortality and morbidity rates.

Findings

Findings illuminate a profound imbalance of power and influence amongst the following entities: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine; obstetrical training and practice; and levels of patient awareness and advocacy.

Value

This study argues that the current social relations being reproduced by these entities are perpetuating a climate that allows for disregard of proper TTTS management. Specifically, this study theoretically explores what social relations and subsequent (in)actions are being reproduced prior to TTTS diagnoses, and applies the effects of those observations.

Details

Family and Health: Evolving Needs, Responsibilities, and Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-126-8

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Mohammad Vaezi, Chee Kai Chua and Siaw Meng Chou

Today, medical models can be made by the use of medical imaging systems through modern image processing methods and rapid prototyping (RP) technology. In ultrasound

Abstract

Purpose

Today, medical models can be made by the use of medical imaging systems through modern image processing methods and rapid prototyping (RP) technology. In ultrasound imaging systems, as images are not layered and are of lower quality as compared to those of computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the process for making physical models requires a series of intermediate processes and it is a challenge to fabricate a model using ultrasound images due to the inherent limitations of the ultrasound imaging process. The purpose of this paper is to make high quality, physical models from medical ultrasound images by combining modern image processing methods and RP technology.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel and effective semi‐automatic method was developed to improve the quality of 2D image segmentation process. In this new method, a partial histogram of 2D images was used and ideal boundaries were obtained. A 3D model was achieved using the exact boundaries and then the 3D model was converted into the stereolithography (STL) format, suitable for RP fabrication. As a case study, the foetus was chosen for this application since ultrasonic imaging is commonly used for foetus imaging so as not to harm the baby. Finally, the 3D Printing (3DP) and PolyJet processes, two types of RP technique, were used to fabricate the 3D physical models.

Findings

The physical models made in this way proved to have sufficient quality and shortened the process time considerably.

Originality/value

It is still a challenge to fabricate an exact physical model using ultrasound images. Current commercial histogram‐based segmentation method is time‐consuming and results in a less than optimum 3D model quality. In this research work, a novel and effective semi‐automatic method was developed to select the threshold optimum value easily.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

J.L. Foote, N.H. North and D.J. Houston

Hospital waiting lists are a feature of publicly funded health services that result when demand appears to exceed supply. While much has been written about surgical…

Abstract

Hospital waiting lists are a feature of publicly funded health services that result when demand appears to exceed supply. While much has been written about surgical waiting lists, little is known about the dynamics of radiology waiting lists, which is surprising given that rational treatment, and indeed the medical profession's claim to expertise, rests on establishing a diagnosis. This paper reports the findings of a case study of a problematic ultrasound waiting list. In particular, this paper highlights how the management of the ultrasound waiting list served to subordinate the needs of waiting patients and their general practitioners to the interests and values of radiologists. Radiologist concern to protect specialist expertise from encroachment by outpatient clinicians and sonographers is implicated in the growth of the ultrasound waiting list. It is argued that an adequate understanding of ultrasound waiting lists depends on grasping how radiologists are successful in structuring problems of access in ways that enhance radiologist control over ultrasound imaging. The case study reported helps to shed light on why increasing funding to clear waiting lists proves ineffective.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

N.P. Badgujar, Y.E. Bhoge, T.D. Deshpande, B.A. Bhanvase, P.R. Gogate, S.H. Sonawane and R.D. Kulkarni

– The present work aims to deal with ultrasound-assisted organic pigment (phthalocyanine blue and green) dispersion and its comparison with the conventional approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The present work aims to deal with ultrasound-assisted organic pigment (phthalocyanine blue and green) dispersion and its comparison with the conventional approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Ultrasound is expected to give beneficial results based on the strong shear forces generated by cavitational effects. The dispersion quality for preparation using an ultrasound-based method has been compared with dispersion obtained using high-speed dispersion mill. Effects of different operating parameters such as probe diameter and use of surfactants on the physical properties of dispersion and the colour strength have been investigated. Calculations for the energy requirement for two approaches have also been presented.

Findings

The use of sodium dodecyl sulphate and Tween 80 surfactants shows better performance in terms of the colour properties of dispersion prepared in water and organic solvent, respectively. Ultrasound gives better dispersion quality as compared to the conventional approach.

Originality/value

The present work presents a new approach of ultrasound-assisted dispersion of phthalocyanine blue and green pigments. Understanding into the effect of surfactants and type of solvent also presents new important design-related information.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Andrew J. Cobley, Lindsay Edgar, Martin Goosey, Rod Kellner and Timothy J. Mason

Previous studies have proven that, under optimised ultrasonic conditions, a range of materials used in electronic manufacturing can be sonochemically surface modified…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies have proven that, under optimised ultrasonic conditions, a range of materials used in electronic manufacturing can be sonochemically surface modified using benign solutions at low temperature. The purpose of this paper is to focus on a specific process, namely, the desmearing of through holes in printed circuit boards (PCB). The objective was to determine whether the introduction of low frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) to the “etch” stage of a standard “swell and etch” desmear system could enable reduced temperature processing and the use of less chemistry in the permanganate solution.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was divided into three main stages. In the first “screening” phase, the effect of ultrasound in the etch solution was studied by measuring the weight loss after desmear on a PCB laminate material (Isola 370HR). Factors such as etch temperature and concentration of permanganate (including permanganate‐free) were varied. In stage 2, confirmatory runs were carried out on the most promising conditions from the screening work and through holes in a four‐layer multi‐layer board (MLB) were assessed for smear removal using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, a four‐layer MLB was desmeared through the most promising ultrasonic process and then metallized at a PCB manufacturer. Thermal shock testing was subsequently carried out and sections from the board assessed for inter‐connection defects (ICDs).

Findings

The initial screening study indicated that, whenever ultrasound was used in the etch stage of the desmear process, significantly higher weight loss was achieved compared to a standard “silent” process. This effect was most pronounced when permanganate was removed from the etch solution and, in this situation, weight loss could be an order of magnitude higher than the silent equivalent. Further testing on through holes suggested that smear‐free inner‐layers could only be guaranteed if permanganate was present in the etch solution but that ultrasound again improved smear removal. Final testing under semi‐production conditions confirmed that, if ultrasound was employed in the etch part of the desmear process, then a reduction in processing temperature from 85°C to 60°C could be achieved and the permanganate concentration halved (65 to 33 g/L) whilst still achieving ICD‐free boards.

Originality/value

The paper indicates the feasibility of using ultrasound to reduce temperatures and chemical concentrations used in the permanganate etch solution, whilst still producing through holes with no ICDs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Andreas Diermeier, Dirk Sindersberger, Peter Angele, Richard Kujat and Gareth John Monkman

Ultrasound is a well-established technology in medical science, though many of the conventional measurement systems (hydrophones and radiation force balances [RFBs]) often…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasound is a well-established technology in medical science, though many of the conventional measurement systems (hydrophones and radiation force balances [RFBs]) often lack accuracy and tend to be expensive. This is a significant problem where sensors must be considered to be “disposable” because they inevitably come into contact with biological fluids and expense increases dramatically in cases where a large number of sensors in array form are required. This is inevitably the case where ultrasound is to be used for the in vitro growth stimulation of a large plurality of biological samples in tissue engineering. Traditionally only a single excitation frequency is used (typically 1.5 MHz), but future research demands a larger choice of wavelengths for which a single broadband measurement transducer is desirable. Furthermore, because of implementation conditions there can also be large discrepancies between measurements. The purpose of this paper deals with a very cost-effective alternative to expensive RFBs and hydrophones.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilization of cost-effective piezoelectric elements as broadband sensors.

Findings

Very effective results with equivalent (if not better) accuracy than expensive alternatives.

Originality/value

This paper concentrates on how very cost-effective piezoelectric ultrasound transducers can be implemented as sensors for ultrasound power measurements with accuracy as good, if not better than those achievable using radiation force balances or hydrophones.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 November 2020

Chanel Fischetti, Thalia Nguyen, Rame Bashir, Matthew Whited, Proma Mazumder, Soheil Saadat, John Moeller, Shadi Lahham and John C. Fox

The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to a short-term ultrasound basic biology and anatomy course can promote interest in health careers and other…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to a short-term ultrasound basic biology and anatomy course can promote interest in health careers and other science-related endeavors among DHH students.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a single-site, prospective observational study of DHH high school students at a Southern California high school. All participants took a pre-test survey prior to the course. Participants then took part in three teaching sessions which taught basic anatomy using point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS). Following instruction, a post-test survey was performed to determine if students had an increased interest in medicine, science and biology (p = 0.151).

Findings

28 students were enrolled in the study, with an equal distribution of boys and girls. Initially, subjects reported their interest in medicine at an average of 2.8 ± 1.10. The reported interest in science was 3.0 ± 1.13 and for biology was 3.0 ± 1.19. The change in participants' interest was not statistically significant for medicine (p = 0.791), science (p = 0.225) and biology.

Practical implications

While our data did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in students' interest in STEM fields after the training course, there were several students who were interested in more hands-on shadow experience after the course. Regardless, this study demonstrates persistent barriers that exist for a person who is deaf or hard of hearing to engage in the STEM fields. Future studies are needed to determine the level of instructional activities that may impact the careers of these students.

Originality/value

Point of care ultrasound has been shown to be an effective teaching modality in medical education. However, to date, no studies have been done to assess the utility of ultrasound in teaching the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) population.

Details

Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-7604

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

B.J. Robinson, P.J. Kesteven and S.T. Elliott

Describes a prospective study to establish the clinical outcome of patients who had undergone Doppler ultrasound for symptomatic suspected deep vein thrombosis, focusing…

Abstract

Describes a prospective study to establish the clinical outcome of patients who had undergone Doppler ultrasound for symptomatic suspected deep vein thrombosis, focusing on 142 consecutive patients referred for ultrasound investigation of their leg symptoms. Outcome measures included presence or absence of thrombus on ultrasound; re‐admission or outpatient investigations post ultrasound; and mortality at one year. Concludes that no patient with a negative Doppler ultrasound examination subsequently developed a thrombus in the following year although 18.8 per cent had died. Suggests that patients with leg symptoms of venous thrombosis but negative ultrasound should be followed up closely because of the likelihood of underlying pathology.

Details

British Journal of Clinical Governance, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-4100

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Pierre Vieyres, Gérard Poisson, Fabien Courrèges, Olivier Mérigeaux and Philippe Arbeille

Ultrasound examinations represent one of the major diagnostic modalities of future healthcare. They are currently used to support medical space research but require a high…

Abstract

Ultrasound examinations represent one of the major diagnostic modalities of future healthcare. They are currently used to support medical space research but require a high skilled operator for both probe positioning on the patient's skin and image interpretation. TERESA is a tele‐echography project that proposes a solution to bring astronauts and remotely located patients on ground quality ultrasound examinations despite the lack of a specialist at the location of the wanted medical act.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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