Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Babur Ozcelik, Emel Kuram, Erhan Demirbas and Emrah Şik

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of four cutting oils, two different vegetable‐based cutting fluids developed from refined sunflower oil and two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of four cutting oils, two different vegetable‐based cutting fluids developed from refined sunflower oil and two commercial types (semi‐synthetic and mineral), for surface roughness during drilling of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with HSSE tool.

Design/methodology/approach

L9 (33) orthogonal array was used for the experiment plan. Spindle speed, feed rate and drilling depth were considered as machining parameters.

Findings

Results were evaluated statistically. Mathematical models based on cutting parameters were obtained from regression analyses to predict surface roughness. ANOVA was used to determine the effect of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness. The performance results were found to be better for vegetable‐based cutting oils than that of commercial ones.

Originality/value

The paper reports on the use of refined sunflower oil in drilling stainless steel.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

M.P. Jenarthanan, A. Ajay Subramanian and R. Jeyapaul

This paper aims to study the comparison between a response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) in the modelling and prediction of surface

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the comparison between a response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) in the modelling and prediction of surface roughness during endmilling of glass-fibre-reinforced polymer composites.

Design/methodology/approach

Aiming to achieve this goal, several milling experiments were performed with polycrystalline diamond inserts at different machining parameters, namely, feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut and fibre orientation angle. Mathematical model is created using central composite face-centred second-order in RSM and the adequacy of the model was verified using analysis of variance. ANN model is created using the back propagation algorithm.

Findings

With regard to the machining test, it was observed that feed rate is the dominant parameter that affects the surface roughness, followed by the fibre orientation. The comparison results show that models provide accurate prediction of surface roughness in which ANN performs better than RSM.

Originality/value

The data predicted from ANN are very nearer to experimental results compared to RSM; therefore, this ANN model can be used to determine the surface roughness for various fibre-reinforced polymer composites and also for various machining parameters.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 April 2014

Ismail Durgun and Rukiye Ertan

The mechanical properties and surface finish of functional parts are important consideration in rapid prototyping, and the selection of proper parameters is essential to…

Abstract

Purpose

The mechanical properties and surface finish of functional parts are important consideration in rapid prototyping, and the selection of proper parameters is essential to improve manufacturing solutions. The purpose of this paper is to describe how parts manufactured by fused deposition modelling (FDM), with different part orientations and raster angles, were examined experimentally and evaluated to achieve the desired properties of the parts while shortening the manufacturing times due to maintenance costs.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, five different raster angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°) for three part orientations (horizontal, vertical and perpendicular) have been manufactured by the FDM method and tested for surface roughness, tensile strength and flexural strength. Also, behaviour of the mechanical properties was clarified with scanning electron microscopy images of fracture surfaces.

Findings

The research results suggest that the orientation has a more significant influence than the raster angle on the surface roughness and mechanical behaviour of the resulting fused deposition part. The results indicate that there is close relationship between the surface roughness and the mechanical properties.

Originality/value

The results of this paper are useful in defining the most appropriate raster angle and part orientation in minimum production cost for FDM components on the basis of their expected in-service loading.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

B. M. Kumar and M. M. Ratnam

– This paper aims to propose a non-contact method using machine vision for measuring the surface roughness of a rotating workpiece at speeds of up to 4,000 rpm.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a non-contact method using machine vision for measuring the surface roughness of a rotating workpiece at speeds of up to 4,000 rpm.

Design/methodology/approach

A commercial digital single-lens-reflex camera with high shutter speed and backlight was used to capture a silhouette of the rotating workpiece profile. The roughness profile was extracted at sub-pixel accuracy from the captured images using the moment invariant method of edge detection. The average (Ra), root-mean square (Rq) and peak-to-valley (Rt) roughness parameters were measured for ten different specimens at spindle speeds of up to 4,000 rpm. The roughness values measured using the proposed machine vision system were verified using the stylus profilometer.

Findings

The roughness values measured using the proposed method show high correlation (up to 0.997 for Ra) with those determined using the profilometer. The mean differences in Ra, Rq and Rt between the two methods were only 4.66, 3.29 and 3.70 per cent, respectively.

Practical implications

The proposed method has significant potential for application in the in-process roughness measurement and tool condition monitoring from workpiece profile signature during turning, thus, obviating the need to stop the machine.

Originality/value

The machine vision method combined with sub-pixel edge detection has not been applied to measure the roughness of a rotating workpiece.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

Younss Ait Mou and Muammer Koc

This paper aims to report on the findings of an investigation to compare three different three-dimensional printing (3DP) or additive manufacturing technologies [i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on the findings of an investigation to compare three different three-dimensional printing (3DP) or additive manufacturing technologies [i.e. fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA) and material jetting (MJ)] and four different equipment (FDM, SLA, MJP 2600 and Object 260) in terms of their dimensional process capability (dimensional accuracy and surface roughness). It provides a comprehensive and comparative understanding about the level of attainable dimensional accuracy, repeatability and surface roughness of commonly used 3DP technologies. It is expected that these findings will help other researchers and industrialists in choosing the right technology and equipment for a given 3DP application.

Design/methodology/approach

A benchmark model of 5 × 5 cm with several common and challenging features, such as around protrusion and hole, flat surface, micro-scale ribs and micro-scale long channels was designed and printed repeatedly using four different equipment of three different 3DP technologies. The dimensional accuracy of the printed models was measured using non-contact digital measurement methods. The surface roughness was evaluated using a digital profilometer. Finally, the surface quality and edge sharpness were evaluated under a reflected light ZEISS microscope with a 50× magnification objective.

Findings

The results show that FDM technology with the used equipment results in a rough surface and loose dimensional accuracy. The SLA printer produced a smoother surface, but resulted in the distortion of thin features (<1 mm). MJ printers, on the other hand, produced comparable surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. However, ProJet MJP 3600 produced sharper edges when compared to the Objet 260 that produced round edges.

Originality/value

This paper, for the first time, provides a comprehensive comparison of three different commonly used 3DP technologies in terms of their dimensional capability and surface roughness without farther post-processing. Thus, it offers a reliable guideline for design consideration and printer selection based on the target application.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Fred F. Farshad and Thomas C. Pesacreta

The objectives of this study were to determine: the type of coating that minimized pipe surface roughness and how the choice of metrological instrument could influence…

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to determine: the type of coating that minimized pipe surface roughness and how the choice of metrological instrument could influence pipe surface roughness data. The internal surface of pipe was coated with either phenolic, modified novalac, epoxy, or nylon material. Roughness of coated pipe was assessed with two linear surface profilers, a Dektak3ST® and a Hommel T1000, and a Dimension 3000® atomic force microscope (AFM). Arithmetic roughness (Ra), root mean square roughness (Rq), and mean peak‐to‐valley height (RZD), were statistically analyzed. The ability of RZD to focus on the extremes of height and depth on the surface made it a significant parameter for detecting features that would affect fluid flow in pipes.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

M.P. Jenarthanan, Venkata Sai Sunil Gujjalapudi and Venkatraman V.

The purpose of this paper is to originate a statistical model for delamination factor, surface roughness, machining force and also to determine and compare the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to originate a statistical model for delamination factor, surface roughness, machining force and also to determine and compare the effects of machining parameters (spindle speed, fiber orientation angle, helix angle and feed rate) on the output responses during end-milling of glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) by using desirability functional analysis (DFA) and grey relational analysis (GRA).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array, milling experiments were carried on GFRP composite plates employing solid carbide end mills with different helix angles. The machining parameters were optimized by an approach based on DFA and GRA, which were useful tools for optimizing multi-response considerations, namely, machining force, surface roughness and delamination factor. A composite desirability index was obtained for multi-responses using individual desirability values from DFA. Based on this index and grey relational grade the optimum levels of parameters were identified and significant contribution of parameters was ascertained by analysis of variance.

Findings

Fiber orientation angle (66.75 percent) was the significant parameter preceded by feed rate (15.05 percent), helix angle (7.76 percent) and spindle speed (0.30 percent) for GFRP composite plates.

Originality/value

Multi-objective optimization in end-milling of GFRP composites using DFA and GRA has not been performed yet.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Ashu Garg, Anirban Bhattacharya and Ajay Batish

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of low-cost chemical vapour treatment process on geometric accuracy and surface roughness of different curved and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of low-cost chemical vapour treatment process on geometric accuracy and surface roughness of different curved and freeform surfaces of fused deposition modelling (FDM) specimens build at different part building orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

Parts with different primitive and curved surfaces are designed and modelled to build at three different part orientations along X orientation (vertical position resting on side face), Y orientation (horizontal position resting on base) and Z orientation (upright position). Later, the parts are post-processed by cold vapours of acetone. Geometric accuracy and surface roughness are measured both before and after the chemical treatment to investigate the change in geometric accuracy, surface roughness of FDM parts.

Findings

The results indicate that surface roughness is reduced immensely after cold vapour treatment with minimum variation in geometric accuracy of parts. Parts build vertically over its side face (X orientation) provides the overall better surface finish and geometric accuracy.

Originality/value

The present study provides an approach of post-built treatment for FDM parts and observes a significant improvement in surface finish of the components. The present approach of post-built treatment can be adopted to enhance the surface quality as well as to achieve desired geometric accuracy for different primitive, freeform/curved surfaces of FDM samples suitable for functional components as well as prototypes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Savvas G. Vassiliadis and Christopher G. Provatidis

The surface of the textile fabrics is not absolutely flat and smooth. Its geometrical roughness within certain extents is considerable. The surface roughness influences…

Abstract

The surface of the textile fabrics is not absolutely flat and smooth. Its geometrical roughness within certain extents is considerable. The surface roughness influences the fabric hand and it plays a significant role in the end use of the fabric. In parallel, the periodic variations of the fabric surface level due to the regular interlaced patterns of the yarns cause a respective variation of the geometrical roughness measurement. Thus, the fabric roughness data measured using the Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics and imposed to a certain process of numerical calculations result into the retrieval of the structural parameters of the fabric. The principle of the method has a non‐destructive character and can be applied to woven or knitted fabrics.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Sudipto Ray and S.K. Roy Chowdhury

The paper's aim is to predict numerically the contact temperatures between two rough sliding bodies and to compare with the experimental results.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to predict numerically the contact temperatures between two rough sliding bodies and to compare with the experimental results.

Design/methodology/approach

An elastic contact algorithm is used to analyze the normal contact between two nominally smooth surfaces. The algorithm evaluates real contact area using digitized roughness data and the corresponding contact pressure distribution. Using finite element method a steady state 3D temperature distribution at the interface between the sliding bodies is obtained. Using infrared (IR) imaging technique, experiments were carried out to measure the contact temperature distribution between rough rubbing bodies with a systematic variation of surface roughness and operating variables.

Findings

Contact temperature distributions over a wide range of normal load, sliding velocity and surface roughness have been obtained. It was seen that the maximum contact temperature expectedly increases with surface roughness (Sa values), normal load and sliding velocity. The results also indicate that the “hot spots” are located exactly at the positions where the contact pressures are extremely high. Temperatures can be seen to fall drastically at areas where no asperity contacts were established. The temperature contours at different depths were also plotted and it was observed that the temperatures fall away from the actual contact zone and relatively high temperatures persist at the “hot spot” zones much below the contact surface. Finally it is encouraging to find a good correlation between the numerical and experimental results and this indicates the strength of the present analysis.

Research limitations/implications

Experimental accuracy can be improved by using a thermal imaging camera that measures emissivity in situ and uses it to find the contact temperature. The spatial resolution and the response time of the camera also need to be improved. This can improve the correlation between numerical and experimental results.

Practical implications

One of the major factors attributed to the failure of sliding components is the frictional heating and the resulting flash temperatures at the sliding interface. However, it is not easy to measure such temperatures owing to the inherent difficulties in accessing the contact zone. Besides, thermal imaging techniques can be applied only with such tribo‐pairs where at least one of the contacting materials is transparent to IR radiation. In practice, such cases are a rarity. However, the good correlation observed between the numerical and experimental results in this work would give the practicing engineer a confidence to apply the numerical model directly and calculate contact temperatures for any tribo‐material pairs that are generally seen around.

Originality/value

A good correlation between the numerical and experimental results gives credence to the fact that the numerical model can be used to predict contact temperatures between any sliding tribo‐pairs.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000