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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Rick Wicks

This paper revisits old questions of the proper subject and bounds of economics: does economics study “provisioning”? or markets? or a method of reasoning, self‐interested…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper revisits old questions of the proper subject and bounds of economics: does economics study “provisioning”? or markets? or a method of reasoning, self‐interested rational optimization?

Design/methodology/approach

A variety of scholars and others in many fields make use of a taxonomy of society consisting of threespheres”: markets, governments, and communities. It is argued here that this tripartite taxonomy of society is fundamental and exhaustive. A variety of ways of understanding this taxonomy are explored, especially Fiske's (1991, 2004) “Relational models theory.” Then – after communities and their products, social goods, are defined more thoroughly – a visual model of interactions among the three spheres is presented.

Findings

The model is first used briefly to understand the historical development of markets. The model is then applied to understanding how economic thinking and market ideology, including the notion of social capital, can be destructive of communities and their production of social goods (and their production of social capital as well).

Research limitations/implications

It is not possible to measure these effects monetarily, so calculating precisely “how this affects results” in a standard economic model is impossible.

Practical implications

Nevertheless we could better prepare students for real‐world analysis, and better serve our clients, including the public, if – whenever relevant, such as in textbook introductions and in benefit/cost analyses – we made them aware of the limitations of economic analysis with respect to communities and social goods.

Originality/value

The threespheres model offered here, based on Fiske's “Relational models theory,” facilitates this awareness.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Michael M. Widdersheim and Masanori Koizumi

The purpose of this paper is to construct a conceptual model of the public sphere in public libraries. Various international authors over the past 20 years have associated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to construct a conceptual model of the public sphere in public libraries. Various international authors over the past 20 years have associated the public sphere with public libraries, but these associations have yet to be clarified and synthesized in a comprehensive way.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used qualitative content analysis to identify the dimensions of the public sphere in public libraries. The study’s scope included annual reports from an urban US public library system from 1900 to 2010.

Findings

Six dimensions of the public sphere in public libraries are described with examples. The dimensions are: core criteria; internal public sphere; external public sphere; collect and organize discourse; perform legitimation processes; and facilitate discourse. Three of these dimensions are newly identified. The six total dimensions are synthesized into a comprehensive conceptual model with three discourse arenas: governance and management; legitimation; and commons.

Originality/value

This study is distinctive because it used a data-based, empirical approach to public libraries to an abstract sociological concept. Three dimensions of the model are new to library studies literature and therefore represent new potential areas of inquiry. The resulting conceptual model is useful for both practitioners and researchers in the public library sector. Further, the model contributes to existing social and political theory.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2019

LanHao Zhao, Kailong Mu, Jia Mao, Khuc Hongvan and Dawei Peng

Moving interface problems exist commonly in nature and industry, and the main difficulty is to represent the interface. The purpose of this paper is to capture the…

Abstract

Purpose

Moving interface problems exist commonly in nature and industry, and the main difficulty is to represent the interface. The purpose of this paper is to capture the accurate interface, a novel three-dimensional one-layer particle level set (OPLS) method is presented by introducing Lagrangian particles to reconstruct the seriously distorted level set function.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the interface is captured by the level set method. Then, the interface is corrected with only one-layer particles advected with the flow to ensure that the level set function value of the particle is equal to 0. When interfaces are merged, all particles in merged regions are deleted, while the added particles near the generated interface are used to determine the interface as the interface is separated.

Findings

The OPLS method is validated with well-known benchmark examples, such as the long-term advection of a sphere, the rotation of a three-dimensional slotted disk and sphere, single vortex in a box, sphere merging and separation, deformation of a sphere. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method is found to be highly reliable and accurate.

Originality/value

This method exhibits excellent conservation of the area bounded by the interface. The extraordinary performance is also shown in dealing with complex interface topological changes.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Catherine O'Sullivan and Jonathan D. Bray

The distinct element method as proposed by Cundall and Strack uses the computationally efficient, explicit, central difference time integration scheme. A limitation of…

Abstract

The distinct element method as proposed by Cundall and Strack uses the computationally efficient, explicit, central difference time integration scheme. A limitation of this scheme is that it is only conditionally stable, so small time steps must be used. Some researchers have proposed using an implicit time integration scheme to avoid the stability issues arising from the explicit time integrator typically used in these simulations. However, these schemes are computationally expensive and can require a significant number of iterations to form the stiffness matrix that is compatible with the contact state at the end of each time step. In this paper, a new, simple approach for calculating the critical time increment in explicit discrete element simulations is proposed. Using this approach, it is shown that the critical time increment is a function of the current contact conditions. Considering both two‐ and three‐dimensional scenarios, the proposed refined estimates of the critical time step indicate that the earlier recommendations contained in the literature can be unconservative, in that they often overestimate the actual critical time step. A three‐dimensional simulation of a problem with a known analytical solution illustrates the potential for erroneous results to be obtained from discrete element simulations, if the time‐increment exceeds the critical time step for stable analysis.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 21 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Boning Zhang, Richard Regueiro, Andrew Druckrey and Khalid Alshibli

This paper aims to construct smooth poly-ellipsoid shapes from synchrotron microcomputed tomography (SMT) images on sand and to develop a new discrete element method (DEM…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to construct smooth poly-ellipsoid shapes from synchrotron microcomputed tomography (SMT) images on sand and to develop a new discrete element method (DEM) contact detection algorithm.

Design/methodology/approach

Voxelated images generated by SMT on Colorado Mason sand are processed to construct smooth poly-ellipsoidal particle approximations. For DEM contact detection, cuboidal shape approximations to the poly-ellipsoids are used to speed up contact detection.

Findings

The poly-ellipsoid particle shape approximation to Colorado Mason sand grains is better than a simpler ellipsoidal approximation. The new DEM contact algorithm leads to significant speedup and accuracy is maintained.

Research limitations/implications

The paper limits particle shape approximation to smooth poly-ellipsoids.

Practical implications

Poly-ellipsoids provide asymmetry of particle shapes as compared to ellipsoids, thus allowing closer representation of real sand grain shapes that may be angular and unsymmetric. When incorporated in a DEM for computation, the poly-ellipsoids allow better representation of particle rolling, sliding and interlocking phenomena.

Originality/value

Method to construct poly-ellipsoid particle shapes from SMT data on real sands and computationally efficient DEM contact detection algorithm for poly-ellipsoids.

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Masanori Koizumi and Michael M. Widdersheim

The purpose of this paper is to compare the characteristics of the public sphere with those of a shared value approach and better understand the value that public…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the characteristics of the public sphere with those of a shared value approach and better understand the value that public libraries can offer to management theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses two methods. First, this study uses a systematic literature review to identify sources relevant to shared value and the public sphere in public libraries. Next, this study uses comparative theoretical analysis using data gathered from the systematic review to analyse the two theories.

Findings

This study successfully describes the similarities and differences between “shared value” and the “public sphere in public libraries”.

Originality/value

This study elucidates public library innovation from the perspectives of library management and the public sphere concept.

Details

Library Review, vol. 65 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Maria Gebbels, Xiongbin Gao and Wenjie Cai

This paper aims to provide an action-orientated reflection for promoting gender equality in hospitality, based on Bradley’s (2013) approach that considers the operation of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an action-orientated reflection for promoting gender equality in hospitality, based on Bradley’s (2013) approach that considers the operation of gender in the “production” and “reproduction” spheres of social life. To that end, it reflects on women’s career development in hospitality based on the Western perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-stage thematic analysis of a public research seminar on gender issues in tourism and hospitality were used to explore issues of women’s career development within the intertwining spheres of “production” and “reproduction”.

Findings

Three themes, namely, culture of an open dialogue, bringing men into the equation and educating the future workforce, emerged from data to propose new insights on “what can be done” about gender equality in tourism and hospitality, including practical suggestions for transformations of gender relations in organisations.

Research limitations/implications

This paper contributes new knowledge on women’s career development in the hospitality industry by proposing recommendations to address gender gaps including fostering a culture of an open dialogue based on an inclusive listening environment, recommending changes to organisational policies and culture and integrating the subject of gender into tourism and hospitality curriculum.

Originality/value

By proposing a sociological perspective of gender in hospitality employment informed by Bradley (2013), this study challenges the traditional masculinity and the long-standing gender labour division through education, organisational and daily practices thus tackling fundamental gender issues.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Huseyn Aliyev

The purpose of this paper is to suggest that informal practices and institutions of post-Soviet countries differ from informality in other post-socialist regions and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to suggest that informal practices and institutions of post-Soviet countries differ from informality in other post-socialist regions and, therefore, proposes categorizing it as “post-Soviet informality” – a composite definition that extends beyond the concept of “informal economy” and encompasses, along with economic activities, social and political spheres.

Design/methodology/approach

The arguments of the paper are based on a comprehensive analysis of secondary sources.

Findings

This paper shows that, owing to the effects of antecedent regime’s legacies and the problems of post-communist transition, for the proper analysis of informality in post-Soviet countries it needs to be based on an own concept.

Originality/value

This study, in contrast to the existing literature on informality in post-communist spaces, specifically focuses on the informal sphere of post-Soviet countries, suggesting that the informal institutions and practices thriving across the vast post-Soviet space not only differ from the informal spheres elsewhere in the world, but also from informality in other post-communist regions.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 35 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Matthew P. Watters and Michelle L. Bernhardt

This paper aims to present a new curing protocol which improves part strength and provides better repeatability for full-part infiltration by varying binder saturation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a new curing protocol which improves part strength and provides better repeatability for full-part infiltration by varying binder saturation levels. The fully infiltrated parts were then investigated for their resistance to water.

Design/methodology/approach

Cylinders and spheres generated using various curing procedures and binder saturation levels were subjected to uniaxial compression to determine the effects on the resulting part strength. Additionally, fully cured parts were submerged in water for varying durations to determine the resistance to water. Parts were also weighed prior to and after submersion in water to determine any change in mass.

Findings

Increased part infiltration and improved strength were achieved using a modified curing protocol with a higher oven temperature during curing. Spheres cured following the modified curing protocol resulted in a 300 per cent increase in the average force required to crush spheres. Parts were shown to have repeatable infiltration depths from 8.8 mm to 10.1 mm. Additionally, fully cured parts submerged in water for durations longer than 12 hours developed a reduction in strength.

Originality/value

This study provides key methods to improve part strength and demonstrates a limitation on maximum dimensions of parts which should be considered to behave homogeneously. Parts generated following these guidelines can be effectively used in laboratory and engineering applications where high strength and homogeneous behavior is important.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Susan Bassnett, Ann-Christine Frandsen and Keith Hoskin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate accounting as first visible-sign statement form, and also as the first writing, and analyse its systematic differences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate accounting as first visible-sign statement form, and also as the first writing, and analyse its systematic differences, syntactic and semantic, from subsequent speech-following (glottographic) writing forms. The authors consider how accounting as non-glottographic (and so “unspeakable”) writing form renders “glottography” a “subsystem of writing” (Hyman, 2006), while initiating a mode of veridiction which always and only names and counts, silently and synoptically. The authors also consider the translation of this statement form into the graphs, charts, equations, etc., which are central to the making of modern scientific truth claims, and to remaking the boundaries of “languaging” and translatability.

Design/methodology/approach

As a historical–theoretical study, this draws on work reconceptualising writing vs speech (e.g. Harris, 1986; 2000), the statement vs the word (e.g. Foucault, 1972/2002) and the parameters of translation (e.g. Littau, 2016) to re-think the conceptual significance of accounting as constitutive of our “literate modes” of thinking, acting and “languaging in general”.

Findings

Specific reflections are offered on how the accounting statement, as mathematically regularised naming of what “ought” to be counted, is then evaluated against what is counted, thus generating a first discourse of the norm and a first accounting-based apparatus for governing the state. The authors analyse how the non-glottographic statement is constructed and read not as linear flow of signs but as simulacrum; and on how the accounting statement poses both the practical issue of how to translate non-linear flow statements, and the conceptual problem of how to think this statement form’s general translatability, given its irreducibility to the linear narrative statement form.

Originality/value

The paper pioneers in approaching accounting as statement form in a way that analyses the differences that flow from its non-glottographic status.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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