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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Hsin-Hui Lin, Shinjeng Lin, Ching-Hsuan Yeh and Yi-Shun Wang

Based on the literature on technology readiness, online learning readiness, and mobile computer anxiety, the purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a mobile…

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Abstract

Purpose

Based on the literature on technology readiness, online learning readiness, and mobile computer anxiety, the purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a mobile learning readiness (MLR) scale which can be used to assess individuals’ readiness to embrace m-learning systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on previous literature, this study conceptualizes the construct of MLR and generates an initial 55-item MLR scale. A total of 319 responses are collected from a three-month internet-based survey. Based on the sample data, this study provides an empirical validation of the MLR construct and its underlying dimensionality, and develops a generic MLR scale with desirable psychometric properties, including reliability, content validity, criterion-related validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and nomological validity.

Findings

This study develops and validates a 19-item MLR scale with three dimensions (i.e. m-learning self-efficacy, optimism, and self-directed learning). A tentative norm of the MLR scale is presented, and the scale’s theoretical and practical applications are also discussed.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneering effort to develop and validate a MLR scale. The results of this study are helpful to researchers in building m-learning theories and to educators in assessing and promoting individuals’ acceptance of m-learning systems.

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Internet Research, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2006

Lai Ming Ling and Izlawanie Muhammad

The Inland Revenue Board Malaysia has just launched the electronic tax filing system. To date, there has been little scholarly study in examining people’s state of…

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Abstract

The Inland Revenue Board Malaysia has just launched the electronic tax filing system. To date, there has been little scholarly study in examining people’s state of technology readiness. Technology readiness (TR) is defined as people’s propensity to embrace and use new technologies for accomplishing goals in home life and at work (Parasuraman, 2000). Drawing on insights from the literature, this study attempts to adopt the Technology Readiness Index (TRI) of Parasuraman and Colby (2001) in examining the state of technology readiness of tax officers. A survey questionnaire was personally administered on 210 tax officers in Malaysia. A total of 187 usable questionnaires were collected. The survey found that although Malaysian tax officers are optimistic towards new technologies, they experienced a considerable level of discomfort with new technologies. Notably, male tax officers displayed more optimism than their female counterparts. There were no significant differences between gender and age on innovativeness, discomfort and insecurity dimensions. Based on the TRI, the respondents were segmented into explorers (6 per cent), pioneers (39 per cent), skeptics (35 per cent), paranoids (16 per cent) and technology laggards (4 per cent). This study provides timely and useful information for the tax authorities and has implications for tax administration and policy development.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Funmilola Olubunmi Omotayo and Olasubomi Adetutu Adekunle

This study aims to investigate the adoption and use of electronic voting (e-voting) system as an option to credible elections in Nigeria, as well as the factors that could…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the adoption and use of electronic voting (e-voting) system as an option to credible elections in Nigeria, as well as the factors that could influence the readiness of Oyo state citizens in Nigeria to use the system.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts the survey research design, while the Technology Readiness Acceptance Model provides the theoretical framework. A two-stage sampling procedure (random and convenience) was used to select 500 Nigerian citizens, who are of voting age, while data were collected with a structured questionnaire.

Findings

Findings reveal that the citizens are ready to use the e-voting system if adopted by the Nigerian Government. Optimism and innovativeness are positively correlated, and perceived discomfort and perceived insecurity are negatively correlated, with readiness to use e-voting system by Oyo state citizens. The Technology Acceptance Model constructs (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use), as well as computer self-efficacy also have positive correlations with readiness to use of e-voting.

Research limitations/implications

The population of the study was limited to only citizens in one state of the federation; hence, the results cannot be generalised to all citizens in Nigeria.

Practical implications

The study contributes to existing knowledge on adoption and use of technology and confirms that optimism and innovativeness are motivators and discomfort and insecurity are inhibitors of intention to use and actual usage of technology. Hence, these constructs should be taken into account and promoted when Nigeria is planning to adopt the e-voting system.

Social implications

This paper could assist the Nigerian Government on the factors to consider when implementing the e-voting system.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first pieces of empirical research that attempted to investigate the factors that could promote acceptance and use of the e-voting system in Nigeria.

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Eija Vaittinen, Miia Martinsuo and Roland Ortt

For successful servitization, manufacturing firms must understand how their customers adopt new services. The purpose of this paper is to explore customers’ readiness for…

Abstract

Purpose

For successful servitization, manufacturing firms must understand how their customers adopt new services. The purpose of this paper is to explore customers’ readiness for a manufacturer’s new services to complement its goods. The goal is to increase knowledge of the aspects that manufacturers should consider when bringing new kinds of services to market.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study design is used to analyze readiness for services and interest in service adoption in three customer firms of a manufacturer. The interview data were collected from 14 persons at customer sites and were content analyzed.

Findings

The results show that readiness – a concept that is often used in the field of technology – is relevant also for the service adoption process. In a business-to-business context, readiness for service adoption concerns the individual and organizational levels, and hence a new dimension of organizational culture and habits had to be added to the concept that originally focuses on individuals. People consider different factors when making consecutive decisions during the service adoption process and these factors can vary even within a company. The cornerstone for new service adoption is the customer firm’s actual need for the service.

Originality/value

The results offer new knowledge about service adoption in a business-to-business context by taking a customer firm’s perspective. They, thus, complement previous studies on the supplier perspective of servitization and service adoption in consumer business. The contributions help manufacturers focus their efforts when bringing new services to market.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

B. Ramaseshan, Russel Philip Kingshott and Alisha Stein

Technological advances and new business models have contributed to the usage of self-service technology (SST) by firms. As SST continues to create organizational…

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2608

Abstract

Purpose

Technological advances and new business models have contributed to the usage of self-service technology (SST) by firms. As SST continues to create organizational efficiencies, firms have jumped on the bandwagon without considering their own readiness to use SST. To date, there has been no systematic attempt to develop a valid scale of firm SST readiness and assess its influence on firm performance. The purpose of this paper is to present and validate a multidimensional firm SST readiness scale.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of studies was conducted for the development and validation of the firm SST readiness scale. Study 1 included generating items from semi-structured interviews with managers and an extensive literature review. Study 2 comprised item reduction and identifying the dimensionality of the scale through exploratory factor analysis (n=177 participants from service organizations). The reliability and validity of the scale were tested in Study 3 by performing confirmatory factor analysis using data obtained from managers of service organizations in the USA (n=257). Study 4 measured the predictive validity of the firm SST readiness instrument using several structural models.

Findings

This paper proposes a new multidimensional construct labelled “firm SST readiness”, consisting of four dimensions: managerial acquiescence, customer alignment, employee engagement, and channel integration. The predictive validity of the new scale on two key firm outcome variables: customer value and firm performance is also demonstrated.

Originality/value

This is the first study to provide a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and operationally valid measure of firm SST readiness.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Mohit Kant Kaushik and Devika Agrawal

The study has identified the factors among students that can enable or inhibit students from using online learning platforms. Students enrolled at different levels…

Abstract

Purpose

The study has identified the factors among students that can enable or inhibit students from using online learning platforms. Students enrolled at different levels, diversified streams and separate courses were surveyed for the investigation. The study also highlights the significant hitches faced in using or adopting e-learning.

Design/methodology/approach

Responses were collected from Indian students on a seven-point Likert-type scale using a structured questionnaire around the updated Technology Readiness Index's four dimensions. Adapted dimensions were evolved to identify the people's propensity to accept and reject the new technology.

Findings

The result of the survey highlights the students' positive attitude towards the e-learning approach. The diffusion of e-learning platforms occupies them with a feeling of optimism and innovativeness. However, discomfort in using the newly penetrated e-learning platforms was also found. Furthermore, no significant variances concerning the different demographics were detected.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional research approach was used for the investigation. However, it is evident that with the use and experience of technology, an increase in its acceptance follows. Thus, a longitudinal research approach should explore the differences between students' earlier and later involvement after experiencing the platform. A cross-country investigation is also needed to measure the technological biases among students.

Practical implications

With advancements in technology, the chances of diffusion of e-learning in traditional classrooms have risen. However, to encourage the student's engagement towards e-learning, the platform needs to be student and teacher-friendly. This study serves the purpose of exploring the determinants that will guide educational institutes and developers of online platforms in achieving excellence in enhancement and engagement among students.

Originality/value

The investigation adds to recognize the acceptance of e-learning among students by exploring its determinants using the Technology Readiness Index 2.0. The study has also explored the differences in readiness to use e-learning on differences in enrolment level, institute type and courses.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Atieh Poushneh and Arturo Z. Vasquez-Parraga

This study aims to answer the following question: How can customer readiness be instrumental in non-technology-based service delivery?

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to answer the following question: How can customer readiness be instrumental in non-technology-based service delivery?

Design/methodology/approach

Using a field study, this research examines the role of customer readiness in customer participation in non-technology-based service delivery and its indirect effects on such customer outcomes as perceived service quality, customer satisfaction and customer willingness to recommend.

Findings

The results show that customer readiness is a second-order construct. It has a significant impact on customer participation in service delivery, which in turn impacts three key service outcomes: customer perceived service quality, customer satisfaction and customer willingness to recommend. Four factors influencing customer readiness (consumer previous experience, consumer desire for control, consumer perceived risk and customer organizational socialization) are also empirically evaluated.

Research limitations/implications

Some limitations of the study are related to sample size and use of a type of services. The research tested 13 hypotheses with a limited sample size in one context. A better representation of the population and a more generalizable outcome require more representative samples and studies in various contexts such as banking, hotel services or health care services. This study demonstrated the importance of customer readiness for effective participation in non-technology-based service delivery; it does not address the impact of customer readiness on participation in the context of technology-based services. Future research may also shed light on when and why customers choose technology-based services versus non-technology-based services.

Practical implications

Effective customer participation in service delivery can, and should, benefit from boosting customer readiness.

Originality/value

This research shows the impact of customer readiness on non-technology-based service delivery, more specifically, the impact of customer readiness on customer participation in this type of service delivery. Customer readiness has been found to be beneficial in the provision of technology-based services; yet, its role in the provision of non-technology-based services has not been thoroughly evaluated.

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Gordon Monday Bubou and Gabriel Chibuzor Job

The purpose of this study is to explore the role individual innovativeness along with e-learning self-efficacy play in predicting the e-learning readiness of first- and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the role individual innovativeness along with e-learning self-efficacy play in predicting the e-learning readiness of first- and second-year students of an open and distance education institutions in an African context.

Design/methodology/approach

Therefore, building on previous related research in this area, a quantitative approach was adopted to address the research questions and to establish whether a statistically significant relationship existed between individual innovativeness, e-learning self-efficacy, the independent variables; and e-learning readiness, the dependent variable. In total, 476 first- and second-years students of the university participated in the four-Likert-type scale survey. The research instrument which comprises 74 survey items was completed by 217 of the students. Statistical tools used for analysing data included both Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients and t-tests.

Findings

It was discovered that a strong positive and significant relationship was observed between individual innovativeness and e-learning readiness of first- and second-year students of the Yenagoa Study Centre of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN); a statistically significant relationship was also found between e-learning self-efficacy scores and the e-learning readiness of the first- and second-year students of the Yenagoa Study Centre of NOUN; there was a statistically significant joint relationship between the three variables under investigation; findings equally revealed that male respondents had higher e-learning readiness than their female counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

Like every other study of this nature, this one also suffers some limitations. First, NOUN is a very large university with over half a million students spread across almost 78 study centres. This means that observation from just one study centre amounts to a very small sample size. This according to Schweighofer, Weitlaner, Ebner and Rothe (2019) jeopardises the generalisability and validity of study results. The authors also maintain that empirical data generated from surveys that usually rely participants' abilities to read and select responses without further interpretation by the researchers suffer from cognitive biases like social desirability. To address the above limitations, detailed studies involving all studies centres of NOUN be undertaken and other qualitative and or mixed research methodologies be adopted in the future.

Practical implications

The implications for this study are that people who are innately innovative will willingly accept technology and by extension, learning in technology-rich environments like those found in like NOUN whose mode of study is blended learning inherently found in open and distance learning (ODL) institution. Therefore, this study is significant as it will provide relevant information to the management and administrators of NOUN, policymakers and regulatory institutions for the development, deployment and implementation of e-learning strategies. Findings will also benefit e-learning initiatives undertaken by similar institutions that adopt the ODL mode of education in Nigeria and other developing countries.

Originality/value

Even though, studies on the antecedents of e-learning readiness have been widely conducted across diverse contexts, studies exploring the associations between individual innovativeness, e-learning self-efficacy and e-learning readiness are relatively hard to come by. The above two variables as predicting the e-learning readiness in the study context are comparatively new. This study thus focuses on the relationships between the individual innovativeness levels, e-learning self-efficacy beliefs of students and their e-learning readiness which ultimately determines their ability to sustain studies in an ODL institution.

Details

Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-7604

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Stephen Akunyumu, Frank D.K. Fugar and Emmanuel Adinyira

The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of construction companies in Ghana to partner with foreign companies in international construction joint ventures (ICJVs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of construction companies in Ghana to partner with foreign companies in international construction joint ventures (ICJVs).

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Verify End-User e-Readiness using a Diagnostic Tool (VERDICT) model, a survey with 31 construction companies was conducted to assess their readiness through four pre-defined elements of readiness.

Findings

The results indicated the readiness of construction companies to collaborate with potential foreign partners in ICJVs. Notwithstanding, certain areas such as management commitment to change, employee buy-in, process flexibility and technology infrastructure need improvement in some firms to achieve readiness. Government has a role in ensuring the readiness of domestic firms for the international market.

Originality/value

This study applies the VERDICT model, a tool originally designed to assess construction organizations’ readiness for e-commerce, to assess the readiness of Ghanaian construction companies for ICJVs.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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